Letters

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  • Letter |

    A microbiome genome-wide association study using three large European cohorts identified several significant study-wide and genome-wide correlations between human genetic variants and microbial traits, and used Mendelian randomization to estimate causal relationships between microbial traits and disease.

    • David A. Hughes
    • , Rodrigo Bacigalupe
    • , Jun Wang
    • , Malte C. Rühlemann
    • , Raul Y. Tito
    • , Gwen Falony
    • , Marie Joossens
    • , Sara Vieira-Silva
    • , Liesbet Henckaerts
    • , Leen Rymenans
    • , Chloë Verspecht
    • , Susan Ring
    • , Andre Franke
    • , Kaitlin H. Wade
    • , Nicholas J. Timpson
    •  & Jeroen Raes
  • Letter |

    This study describes the development of prokaryotic expression profiling by tagging RNA in situ and sequencing (PETRI-seq)—a high-throughput prokaryotic scRNA-seq method capable of sequencing tens of thousands of cells in a single experiment.

    • Sydney B. Blattman
    • , Wenyan Jiang
    • , Panos Oikonomou
    •  & Saeed Tavazoie
  • Letter |

    A genome-wide CRISPR screen identifies gangliosides as receptors for hepatitis A virus that facilitate a post-entry step in infection.

    • Anshuman Das
    • , Rodell Barrientos
    • , Tomoyuki Shiota
    • , Victoria Madigan
    • , Ichiro Misumi
    • , Kevin L. McKnight
    • , Lu Sun
    • , Zhucui Li
    • , Rita M. Meganck
    • , You Li
    • , Ewelina Kaluzna
    • , Aravind Asokan
    • , Jason K. Whitmire
    • , Maryna Kapustina
    • , Qibin Zhang
    •  & Stanley M. Lemon
  • Letter |

    Here, the authors report the discovery of prophages in cultured SAR11 and show that lysogenic SAR11 produce virions by prophage induction of up to 2.3% of infected cells under carbon-replete growth conditions and up to 30.6% of infected cells under carbon-deplete conditions.

    • Robert M. Morris
    • , Kelsy R. Cain
    • , Kelli L. Hvorecny
    •  & Justin M. Kollman
  • Letter |

    In rhizosphere microbial communities, iron competition via secreted siderophores can be used as a predictor of commensal–pathogen interactions and plant protection against infection with the pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum.

    • Shaohua Gu
    • , Zhong Wei
    • , Zhengying Shao
    • , Ville-Petri Friman
    • , Kehao Cao
    • , Tianjie Yang
    • , Jos Kramer
    • , Xiaofang Wang
    • , Mei Li
    • , Xinlan Mei
    • , Yangchun Xu
    • , Qirong Shen
    • , Rolf Kümmerli
    •  & Alexandre Jousset
  • Letter |

    Here, using RNA sequencing and data from several cohorts, the authors find an association of the presence of inherited, chromosomally integrated human herpesvirus 6 in the placenta with a clinical diagnosis of pre-eclampsia in the mother.

    • Francesca Gaccioli
    • , Susanne Lager
    • , Marcus C. de Goffau
    • , Ulla Sovio
    • , Justyna Dopierala
    • , Sungsam Gong
    • , Emma Cook
    • , Andrew Sharkey
    • , Ashley Moffett
    • , Wai Kwong Lee
    • , Christian Delles
    • , Cristina Venturini
    • , Judith Breuer
    • , Julian Parkhill
    • , Sharon J. Peacock
    • , D. Stephen Charnock-Jones
    •  & Gordon C. S. Smith
  • Letter |

    This paper shows that the parasite Trypanosoma brucei is able to establish infection in flies by penetrating the protective peritrophic matrix in the fly midgut at the place of matrix secretion in the proventriculus. Such early proventricular colonization is potentiated by factors that are present in trypanosome-infected blood ingested by the flies.

    • Clair Rose
    • , Aitor Casas-Sánchez
    • , Naomi A. Dyer
    • , Carla Solórzano
    • , Alison J. Beckett
    • , Ben Middlehurst
    • , Marco Marcello
    • , Lee R. Haines
    • , Jaime Lisack
    • , Markus Engstler
    • , Michael J. Lehane
    • , Ian A. Prior
    •  & Álvaro Acosta-Serrano
  • Letter |

    Structures of the FimA pilin from Porphyromonas gingivalis in monomeric and polymerized states reveal the protease-mediated strand-exchange assembly mechanism of type V pili, which is a key virulence factor of this periodontal pathogen.

    • Satoshi Shibata
    • , Mikio Shoji
    • , Kodai Okada
    • , Hideyuki Matsunami
    • , Melissa M. Matthews
    • , Katsumi Imada
    • , Koji Nakayama
    •  & Matthias Wolf
  • Letter |

    Streptomyces bacteria make volatile compounds such as geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol that attract springtails to bacterial colonies. The soil arthropods feed on the bacteria and help to disseminate spores via faecal pellets and through adherence to their surface.

    • Paul G. Becher
    • , Vasiliki Verschut
    • , Maureen J. Bibb
    • , Matthew J. Bush
    • , Béla P. Molnár
    • , Elisabeth Barane
    • , Mahmoud M. Al-Bassam
    • , Govind Chandra
    • , Lijiang Song
    • , Gregory L. Challis
    • , Mark J. Buttner
    •  & Klas Flärdh
  • Letter |

    The identification of the KinB–AlgB two-component system, known to modulate alginate biosynthesis, together with downstream proteins that repress the Type I-F CRISPR–Cas system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, elucidates how bacteria control the expression of nucleolytic host defence systems to minimize the potential risks of self-targeting.

    • Adair L. Borges
    • , Bardo Castro
    • , Sutharsan Govindarajan
    • , Tina Solvik
    • , Veronica Escalante
    •  & Joseph Bondy-Denomy
  • Letter |

    The crystal structure of the RodA–PBP2 complex from Thermus thermophilus elucidates how binding between these two proteins regulates their abilities to polymerize and crosslink peptidoglycan during bacterial cell wall synthesis.

    • Megan Sjodt
    • , Patricia D. A. Rohs
    • , Morgan S. A. Gilman
    • , Sarah C. Erlandson
    • , Sanduo Zheng
    • , Anna G. Green
    • , Kelly P. Brock
    • , Atsushi Taguchi
    • , Daniel Kahne
    • , Suzanne Walker
    • , Debora S. Marks
    • , David Z. Rudner
    • , Thomas G. Bernhardt
    •  & Andrew C. Kruse
  • Letter |

    Here, Rickettsia parkeri is shown to be sensitive to type I interferons (IFN-I) and IFN-γ and to benefit from inflammasome-mediated antagonism of IFN-I, highlighting similarities between the immune responses against this obligate cytosolic bacterial pathogen and those that target viral pathogens.

    • Thomas P. Burke
    • , Patrik Engström
    • , Roberto A. Chavez
    • , Joshua A. Fonbuena
    • , Russell E. Vance
    •  & Matthew D. Welch
  • Letter |

    A combination of cellular, molecular and structural biology approaches explains how the translating ribosome and the nascent peptide SpeFL interact to form a binding pocket that serves as an ornithine sensor to regulate polyamine biosynthesis in pathogenic bacteria.

    • Alba Herrero del Valle
    • , Britta Seip
    • , Iñaki Cervera-Marzal
    • , Guénaël Sacheau
    • , A. Carolin Seefeldt
    •  & C. Axel Innis
  • Letter |

    The discovery of the Factor that terminates transcription in Archaea (FttA) as a conserved archaeal protein that is able to disrupt transcription elongation complexes elucidates the mechanisms of transcription termination in these organisms.

    • Travis J. Sanders
    • , Breanna R. Wenck
    • , Jocelyn N. Selan
    • , Mathew P. Barker
    • , Stavros A. Trimmer
    • , Julie E. Walker
    •  & Thomas J. Santangelo
  • Letter |

    Alternative σ factors regulate the activity of RNA polymerases under specific conditions and are regulated through various mechanisms, most of which depend on anti-σ factors to regulate their on/off status. This study reports a new mode of σ factor regulation that does not require an anti-σ factor, but instead σ factor phosphorylation in response to the presence of an antibiotic.

    • Shankar Chandrashekar Iyer
    • , Delia Casas-Pastor
    • , David Kraus
    • , Petra Mann
    • , Kathrin Schirner
    • , Timo Glatter
    • , Georg Fritz
    •  & Simon Ringgaard
  • Letter |

    The autophagy proteins Beclin 1 and FIP200, but not other essential autophagy components, such as ATG5, ATG16L1 or ATG7, regulate quiescence of tissue-resident macrophages, thereby modulating immune activation and resistance to Listeria monocytogenes infection.

    • Ya-Ting Wang
    • , Konstantin Zaitsev
    • , Qun Lu
    • , Shan Li
    • , W. Timothy Schaiff
    • , Ki-Wook Kim
    • , Lindsay Droit
    • , Craig B. Wilen
    • , Chandni Desai
    • , Dale R. Balce
    • , Robert C. Orchard
    • , Anthony Orvedahl
    • , Sunmin Park
    • , Darren Kreamalmeyer
    • , Scott A. Handley
    • , John D. Pfeifer
    • , Megan T. Baldridge
    • , Maxim N. Artyomov
    • , Christina L. Stallings
    •  & Herbert W. Virgin
  • Letter |

    In an interesting demonstration of how bacterial subcellular organization influences physiology, polar accumulation of PopZ protein in a membraneless microdomain is found to drive asymmetric phosphorylation of CtrA-P, which creates a gradient that is responsible for asymmetric cell division in Caulobacter.

    • Keren Lasker
    • , Lexy von Diezmann
    • , Xiaofeng Zhou
    • , Daniel G. Ahrens
    • , Thomas H. Mann
    • , W. E. Moerner
    •  & Lucy Shapiro
  • Letter |

    The use of an in vitro system in which key proteins involved in cell division are attached to supported lipid bilayers reveals that membrane-bound cytosolic peptides of FtsN and FtsQ co-migrate with treadmilling FtsZ–FtsA filaments via a diffusion-and-capture mechanism, elucidating how FtsZ dynamics regulate the distribution of peptidoglycan synthases.

    • Natalia Baranova
    • , Philipp Radler
    • , Víctor M. Hernández-Rocamora
    • , Carlos Alfonso
    • , Mar López-Pelegrín
    • , Germán Rivas
    • , Waldemar Vollmer
    •  & Martin Loose
  • Letter |

    This study tracks emergent ciprofloxacin-resistant Shigella sonnei in Vietnam, showing displacement of sensitive strains by others that acquired beta-lactam-antibiotic-resistance plasmids from commensal E. coli in infected individuals.

    • Pham Thanh Duy
    • , To Nguyen Thi Nguyen
    • , Duong Vu Thuy
    • , Hao Chung The
    • , Felicity Alcock
    • , Christine Boinett
    • , Ho Ngoc Dan Thanh
    • , Ha Thanh Tuyen
    • , Guy E. Thwaites
    • , Maia A. Rabaa
    •  & Stephen Baker
  • Letter |

    Bacterial cell wall amidases typically hydrolyse crosslinked peptidoglycan between daughter cells so they can separate. An amidase that cleaves uncrosslinked peptidoglycan and its regulator are identified here and shown to regulate cell growth, rather than separation. This enzyme regulates the density of peptidoglycan assembly sites, ensuring coordination between cell expansion and cell division.

    • Truc Do
    • , Kaitlin Schaefer
    • , Ace George Santiago
    • , Kathryn A. Coe
    • , Pedro B. Fernandes
    • , Daniel Kahne
    • , Mariana G. Pinho
    •  & Suzanne Walker
  • Letter |

    Quantitative stable isotope probing and gene expression analyses in anoxic Namibian shelf sediments reveal that representatives of the Asgard candidate phylum Candidatus Lokiarchaeota are capable of homoacetogenesis, a metabolic strategy of high energetic efficiency that may explain how these archaea thrive in the energy-limited seafloor subsurface environment.

    • William D. Orsi
    • , Aurèle Vuillemin
    • , Paula Rodriguez
    • , Ömer K. Coskun
    • , Gonzalo V. Gomez-Saez
    • , Gaute Lavik
    • , Volker Mohrholz
    •  & Timothy G. Ferdelman
  • Letter |

    Metagenomic sequencing of near-surface marine viral communities sampled monthly over 5 years revealed that overall communities were stable over time, although minor population variants were more variable, which is consistent with Red Queen-like dynamics.

    • J. Cesar Ignacio-Espinoza
    • , Nathan A. Ahlgren
    •  & Jed A. Fuhrman
  • Letter |

    This study reports that flavivirus transmission by mosquitoes to mice is increased if mosquitoes feed subsequently on non-infectious blood, possibly because feeding causes microperforations in the gut. Modelling shows this could explain how A. aegypti can sustain an explosive epidemic such as Zika virus despite its perceived poor vector competence.

    • Philip M. Armstrong
    • , Hanna Y. Ehrlich
    • , Tereza Magalhaes
    • , Megan R. Miller
    • , Patrick J. Conway
    • , Angela Bransfield
    • , Michael J. Misencik
    • , Andrea Gloria-Soria
    • , Joshua L. Warren
    • , Theodore G. Andreadis
    • , John J. Shepard
    • , Brian D. Foy
    • , Virginia E. Pitzer
    •  & Doug E. Brackney
  • Letter |

    This paper identifies a Serratia jumbo phage that, on infection, leads to the formation of a nucleus-like structure that protects phage DNA from CRISPR–Cas defence systems. However, the phage is still susceptible to CRISPR–Cas RNA targeting in the cytoplasm.

    • Lucia M. Malone
    • , Suzanne L. Warring
    • , Simon A. Jackson
    • , Carolin Warnecke
    • , Paul P. Gardner
    • , Laura F. Gumy
    •  & Peter C. Fineran
  • Letter |

    Reactive oxygen species produced by macrophages following infection with Staphylococcus aureus attack bacterial iron–sulfur cluster-containing proteins, thereby leading to alterations in bacterial metabolism that increase their tolerance to antibiotics.

    • Sarah E. Rowe
    • , Nikki J. Wagner
    • , Lupeng Li
    • , Jenna E. Beam
    • , Alec D. Wilkinson
    • , Lauren C. Radlinski
    • , Qing Zhang
    • , Edward A. Miao
    •  & Brian P. Conlon
  • Letter |

    The addition of a small net barrier above a standard bednet targets malaria vectors and—as these barriers are further distanced from sleepers—paves the way for the use of a wider range of insecticides to curtail malaria transmission.

    • Gregory P. D. Murray
    • , Natalie Lissenden
    • , Jeff Jones
    • , Vitaly Voloshin
    • , K. Hyacinthe Toé
    • , Ellie Sherrard-Smith
    • , Geraldine M. Foster
    • , Thomas S. Churcher
    • , Josephine E. A. Parker
    • , Catherine E. Towers
    • , Sagnon N’Falé
    • , Wamdaogo M. Guelbeogo
    • , Hilary Ranson
    • , David Towers
    •  & Philip J. McCall
  • Letter |

    This work reports an analysis of primary and secondary immune responses in ten women infected with ZIKV for 224 days following an acute symptomatic Zika virus infection. CD4+ T-cell responses broadly targeted the whole Zika genome, whereas CD8+ T cells were strongly biased towards non-structural proteins.

    • Pierre Tonnerre
    • , Juliana G. Melgaço
    • , Almudena Torres-Cornejo
    • , Marcelo A. Pinto
    • , Constanze Yue
    • , Johannes Blümel
    • , Paulo Sergio Fonseca de Sousa
    • , Vinicius da Motta de Mello
    • , Julio Moran
    • , Ana M. Bispo de Filippis
    • , David Wolski
    • , Alba Grifoni
    • , Alessandro Sette
    • , Dan H. Barouch
    • , Ruben C. Hoogeveen
    • , Sally A. Baylis
    • , Georg M. Lauer
    •  & Lia L. Lewis-Ximenez
  • Letter |

    The gut microbiota enhances murine norovirus infection in distal regions of the gut, but inhibits viral infection in the proximal small intestine via altered bile acid metabolism and consequent type III interferon production.

    • Katrina R. Grau
    • , Shu Zhu
    • , Stefan T. Peterson
    • , Emily W. Helm
    • , Drake Philip
    • , Matthew Phillips
    • , Abel Hernandez
    • , Holly Turula
    • , Philip Frasse
    • , Vincent R. Graziano
    • , Craig B. Wilen
    • , Christiane E. Wobus
    • , Megan T. Baldridge
    •  & Stephanie M. Karst
  • Letter |

    The in vivo structure of a T2SS from Legionella pneumophila elucidates the structure and function of the different components of this macromolecular complex that exports a wide range of virulence factors.

    • Debnath Ghosal
    • , Ki Woo Kim
    • , Huaixin Zheng
    • , Mohammed Kaplan
    • , Hilary K. Truchan
    • , Alberto E. Lopez
    • , Ian E. McIntire
    • , Joseph P. Vogel
    • , Nicholas P. Cianciotto
    •  & Grant J. Jensen
  • Letter |

    Hergenrother and colleagues develop a web portal to help predict key permeation aspects of query compounds using the eNTRy rules they recently developed. They use this approach to screen antibiotics that are effective against Gram-positive bacteria and engineer a modified version of a FabI inhibitor that is an effective Gram-negative antibiotic.

    • Erica N. Parker
    • , Bryon S. Drown
    • , Emily J. Geddes
    • , Hyang Yeon Lee
    • , Nahed Ismail
    • , Gee W. Lau
    •  & Paul J. Hergenrother
  • Letter |

    Here, the authors use metabolomics and sequencing to assess changes in chemicals and microbial communities, including fungi and microeukaryotes, across an urbanization gradient in South America.

    • Laura-Isobel McCall
    • , Chris Callewaert
    • , Qiyun Zhu
    • , Se Jin Song
    • , Amina Bouslimani
    • , Jeremiah J. Minich
    • , Madeleine Ernst
    • , Jean F. Ruiz-Calderon
    • , Humberto Cavallin
    • , Henrique S. Pereira
    • , Atila Novoselac
    • , Jean Hernandez
    • , Rafael Rios
    • , OraLee H. Branch
    • , Martin J. Blaser
    • , Luciana C. Paulino
    • , Pieter C. Dorrestein
    • , Rob Knight
    •  & Maria G. Dominguez-Bello
  • Letter |

    A consortium of four human gut microbiota species, including Eggerthella lenta, can convert plant-derived lignans into bioactive enterolignans via a five-step pathway, providing mechanistic insight into the production of these protective metabolites.

    • Elizabeth N. Bess
    • , Jordan E. Bisanz
    • , Fauna Yarza
    • , Annamarie Bustion
    • , Barry E. Rich
    • , Xingnan Li
    • , Seiya Kitamura
    • , Emily Waligurski
    • , Qi Yan Ang
    • , Diana L. Alba
    • , Peter Spanogiannopoulos
    • , Stephen Nayfach
    • , Suneil K. Koliwad
    • , Dennis W. Wolan
    • , Adrian A. Franke
    •  & Peter J. Turnbaugh
  • Letter |

    A modified mouse model that mimics human serum levels of biotin shows that inhibition of biotin synthesis can effectively treat infections caused by diverse antibiotic-resistant pathogens.

    • Lindsey A. Carfrae
    • , Craig R. MacNair
    • , Christopher M. Brown
    • , Caressa N. Tsai
    • , Brent S. Weber
    • , Soumaya Zlitni
    • , Vishwas N. Rao
    • , Joshua Chun
    • , Murray S. Junop
    • , Brian K. Coombes
    •  & Eric D. Brown
  • Letter |

    Single-cell imaging analysis shows that translation-inhibiting antibiotics disrupt Vibrio cholerae biofilm structure and enable entry of bacteriophages and intruder cells.

    • Francisco Díaz-Pascual
    • , Raimo Hartmann
    • , Martin Lempp
    • , Lucia Vidakovic
    • , Boya Song
    • , Hannah Jeckel
    • , Kai M. Thormann
    • , Fitnat H. Yildiz
    • , Jörn Dunkel
    • , Hannes Link
    • , Carey D. Nadell
    •  & Knut Drescher
  • Letter |

    This study answers the long-standing question of why the interaction between cyclophilin A (CypA) and HIV-1 capsid (CA) protein stimulates HIV-1 infectivity in human cells. Disruption of the CA−CypA interaction renders HIV-1 susceptible to potent restriction by human TRIM5α in primary blood cells, which occurs before reverse transcription.

    • Kyusik Kim
    • , Ann Dauphin
    • , Sevnur Komurlu
    • , Sean M. McCauley
    • , Leonid Yurkovetskiy
    • , Claudia Carbone
    • , William E. Diehl
    • , Caterina Strambio-De-Castillia
    • , Edward M. Campbell
    •  & Jeremy Luban
  • Letter |

    The structure of a transferrin receptor from the parasite Trypanosoma brucei in complex with human transferrin helps to understand how the parasite can use surface exposed receptors to acquire nutrients during infection while avoiding host immune detection.

    • Camilla E. Trevor
    • , Andrea L. Gonzalez-Munoz
    • , Olivia J. S. Macleod
    • , Peter G. Woodcock
    • , Steven Rust
    • , Tristan J. Vaughan
    • , Elspeth F. Garman
    • , Ralph Minter
    • , Mark Carrington
    •  & Matthew K. Higgins
  • Letter |

    The host protein Transportin-1 is a co-factor of HIV-1 infection, binding to the viral capsid to regulate the release of the viral genome and promoting its nuclear import.

    • Juliette Fernandez
    • , Anthony K. Machado
    • , Sébastien Lyonnais
    • , Célia Chamontin
    • , Kathleen Gärtner
    • , Thibaut Léger
    • , Corinne Henriquet
    • , Camille Garcia
    • , Débora M. Portilho
    • , Martine Pugnière
    • , Laurent Chaloin
    • , Delphine Muriaux
    • , Yohei Yamauchi
    • , Mickaël Blaise
    • , Sébastien Nisole
    •  & Nathalie J. Arhel
  • Letter |

    Host mucin glycans downregulate virulence processes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and can be used therapeutically to attenuate infection in vivo in a burn wound model.

    • Kelsey M. Wheeler
    • , Gerardo Cárcamo-Oyarce
    • , Bradley S. Turner
    • , Sheri Dellos-Nolan
    • , Julia Y. Co
    • , Sylvain Lehoux
    • , Richard D. Cummings
    • , Daniel J. Wozniak
    •  & Katharina Ribbeck
  • Letter |

    Short-term exposure to a high-fat diet reduces colonization resistance to Salmonella Typhimurium infection in mice and is associated with increase bile salts and plasmid transfer; however, E. coli can provide a protective effect under these conditions.

    • Sandra Y. Wotzka
    • , Markus Kreuzer
    • , Lisa Maier
    • , Markus Arnoldini
    • , Bidong D. Nguyen
    • , Alexander O. Brachmann
    • , Dorothée L. Berthold
    • , Mirjam Zünd
    • , Annika Hausmann
    • , Erik Bakkeren
    • , Daniel Hoces
    • , Ersin Gül
    • , Markus Beutler
    • , Tamas Dolowschiak
    • , Michael Zimmermann
    • , Tobias Fuhrer
    • , Kathrin Moor
    • , Uwe Sauer
    • , Athanasios Typas
    • , Jörn Piel
    • , Médéric Diard
    • , Andrew J. Macpherson
    • , Bärbel Stecher
    • , Shinichi Sunagawa
    • , Emma Slack
    •  & Wolf-Dietrich Hardt
  • Letter |

    Using a multi-omics and modelling approach, the authors characterize the metabolic interactions in a phototrophic community consisting of an alga and a fungus and identify the factors driving collaboration and competition.

    • Cristal Zuñiga
    • , Chien-Ting Li
    • , Geng Yu
    • , Mahmoud M. Al-Bassam
    • , Tingting Li
    • , Liqun Jiang
    • , Livia S. Zaramela
    • , Michael Guarnieri
    • , Michael J. Betenbaugh
    •  & Karsten Zengler
  • Letter |

    Cooked and raw plant diets cause different changes in gut microbiome composition and function, including mechanisms of starch digestibility and xenobiotic availability, and consequently impact host energy status.

    • Rachel N. Carmody
    • , Jordan E. Bisanz
    • , Benjamin P. Bowen
    • , Corinne F. Maurice
    • , Svetlana Lyalina
    • , Katherine B. Louie
    • , Daniel Treen
    • , Katia S. Chadaideh
    • , Vayu Maini Rekdal
    • , Elizabeth N. Bess
    • , Peter Spanogiannopoulos
    • , Qi Yan Ang
    • , Kylynda C. Bauer
    • , Thomas W. Balon
    • , Katherine S. Pollard
    • , Trent R. Northen
    •  & Peter J. Turnbaugh
  • Letter |

    The recovery of metagenome-assembled genomes from the coral Porites lutea, its dinoflagellate symbiont, and its bacterial and archaeal populations, enabled comparative genomic identification of functions important for host–microbe interactions and nutritional associations.

    • Steven J. Robbins
    • , Caitlin M. Singleton
    • , Cheong Xin Chan
    • , Lauren F. Messer
    • , Aileen U. Geers
    • , Hua Ying
    • , Alexander Baker
    • , Sara C. Bell
    • , Kathleen M. Morrow
    • , Mark A. Ragan
    • , David J. Miller
    • , Sylvain Forêt
    • , Eldon Ball
    • , Roger Beeden
    • , Michael Berumen
    • , Manuel Aranda
    • , Timothy Ravasi
    • , Pim Bongaerts
    • , Ove Hoegh-Guldberg
    • , Ira Cooke
    • , Bill Leggat
    • , Susan Sprungala
    • , Anna Fitzgerald
    • , Catherine Shang
    • , Petra Lundgren
    • , Theresa Fyffe
    • , Francesco Rubino
    • , Madeleine van Oppen
    • , Karen Weynberg
    • , Steven J. Robbins
    • , Caitlin M. Singleton
    • , Cheong Xin Chan
    • , Lauren F. Messer
    • , Aileen U. Geers
    • , Hua Ying
    • , Alexander Baker
    • , Sara C. Bell
    • , Kathleen M. Morrow
    • , Mark A. Ragan
    • , David J. Miller
    • , Sylvain Foret
    • , Christian R. Voolstra
    • , Gene W. Tyson
    • , David G. Bourne
    • , Christian R. Voolstra
    • , Gene W. Tyson
    •  & David G. Bourne
  • Letter |

    The sialic acid, Neu5Gc, is present in red meat and can be incorporated into host cell surface glycans triggering an inflammatory response. Here, a Neu5Gc-containing diet alters the murine gut microbiota, and bacterial sialidases specific for Neu5Gc were identified in human and mouse gut metagenomes, with purified sialidases able to cleave Neu5Gc from red meat.

    • Livia S. Zaramela
    • , Cameron Martino
    • , Frederico Alisson-Silva
    • , Steven D. Rees
    • , Sandra L. Diaz
    • , Léa Chuzel
    • , Mehul B. Ganatra
    • , Christopher H. Taron
    • , Patrick Secrest
    • , Cristal Zuñiga
    • , Jianbo Huang
    • , Dionicio Siegel
    • , Geoffrey Chang
    • , Ajit Varki
    •  & Karsten Zengler
  • Letter |

    The combination of single-molecule quantification of mRNA and gene loci in single Escherichia coli cells with mathematical models of mRNA dynamics reveals additional factors governing transcription, including contributions from the transcriptional state of another copy of the same gene present in the cell and from gene-replication events.

    • Mengyu Wang
    • , Jing Zhang
    • , Heng Xu
    •  & Ido Golding