Brief Communication abstract

Nature Methods 5, 935 - 938 (2008)
Published online: 5 October 2008 | doi:10.1038/nmeth.1256

High-speed, miniaturized fluorescence microscopy in freely moving mice

Benjamin A Flusberg1,3, Axel Nimmerjahn1,3, Eric D Cocker1,3, Eran A Mukamel1, Robert P J Barretto1, Tony H Ko1, Laurie D Burns1, Juergen C Jung1 & Mark J Schnitzer1,2


A central goal in biomedicine is to explain organismic behavior in terms of causal cellular processes. However, concurrent observation of mammalian behavior and underlying cellular dynamics has been a longstanding challenge. We describe a miniaturized (1.1 g mass) epifluorescence microscope for cellular-level brain imaging in freely moving mice, and its application to imaging microcirculation and neuronal Ca2+ dynamics.

  1. James H. Clark Center for Biomedical Engineering and Sciences, Stanford University, 318 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305, USA.
  2. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University, 318 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305, USA.
  3. These authors contributed equally to this work.

Correspondence to: Mark J Schnitzer1,2 e-mail:


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