Article abstract

Nature Materials 7, 62 - 67 (2008)
Published online: 11 November 2007 | doi:10.1038/nmat2058

Subject Categories: Electronic materials | Superconductors

Controlled nanoscale doping of semiconductors via molecular monolayers

Johnny C. Ho1,2,3, Roie Yerushalmi1,2,3, Zachery A. Jacobson1,2, Zhiyong Fan1,2, Robert L. Alley1 & Ali Javey1,2

One of the major challenges towards scaling electronic devices to the nanometre-size regime is attaining controlled doping of semiconductor materials with atomic accuracy, as at such small scales, the various existing technologies suffer from a number of setbacks. Here, we present a novel strategy for controlled, nanoscale doping of semiconductor materials by taking advantage of the crystalline nature of silicon and its rich, self-limiting surface reaction properties. Our method relies on the formation of a highly uniform and covalently bonded monolayer of dopant-containing molecules, which enables deterministic positioning of dopant atoms on the Si surfaces. In a subsequent annealing step, the dopant atoms are diffused into the Si lattice to attain the desired doping profile. We show the versatility of our approach through controlled p- and n-doping of a wide range of semiconductor materials, including ultrathin silicon-on-insulator substrates and nanowires, which are then configured into novel transistor structures.

  1. Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
  2. Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA
  3. These authors contributed equally to this work

Correspondence to: Ali Javey1,2 e-mail:


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