Electrical detection of spins is an essential tool for understanding the dynamics of spins, with applications ranging from optoelectronics1, 2 and spintronics3, to quantum information processing4, 5, 6, 7, 8. For electron spins bound to donors in silicon, bulk electrically detected magnetic resonance has relied on coupling to spin readout partners such as paramagnetic defects4, 5 or conduction electrons6, 7, 8, which fundamentally limits spin coherence times. Here we demonstrate electrical detection of donor electron spin resonance in an ensemble by transport through a silicon device, using optically driven donor-bound exciton transitions9, 10. We measure electron spin Rabi oscillations, and obtain long electron spin coherence times, limited only by the donor concentration11. We also experimentally address critical issues such as non-resonant excitation, strain, and electric fields, laying the foundations for realizing a single-spin readout method with relaxed magnetic field and temperature requirements compared with spin-dependent tunnelling12, 13, enabling donor-based technologies such as quantum sensing.
At a glance
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- Supplementary Information (2.01 MB)