Table of contents


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Editorial

Prospects for AIDS prevention p587

doi:10.1038/nm0608-587

With the future of HIV vaccines unclear, the pursuit of alternate strategies to curb the spread of AIDS is welcome.


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Correspondence

NACO and the World Bank are correct in their crackdowns p588

D Gene Pace & Omar Bagasra

doi:10.1038/nm0608-588


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News

Concerns over 'shifting sands' linger as genetic testing expands p589

Roxanne Khamsi

doi:10.1038/nm0608-589


Britain moves toward loosening embryo laws despite objections p590

Michael Hopkin

doi:10.1038/nm0608-590a


International effort seeks to identify mutations that drive cancer p590

Charlie Schmidt

doi:10.1038/nm0608-590b


News in brief: headlines from the past month pp591 - 592

doi:10.1038/nm0608-591


Payments in planned HIV trial raise ethical concerns p593

Meredith Wadman

doi:10.1038/nm0608-593a


New effort seeks to unravel the mystery of undiagnosed disease p593

Vicki Brower

doi:10.1038/nm0608-593b


Free to fight disease pp594 - 597

Apoorva Mandavilli

doi:10.1038/nm0608-594

Long ignored by pharmaceutical companies and global health agencies alike, 'neglected tropical diseases' devastate people in the poorest parts of the world. But they're finally getting the attention they deserve, reports Apoorva Mandavilli.


Donation after disaster strikes p596

doi:10.1038/nm0608-596


Straight talk with... Alan Gillespie pp598 - 599

doi:10.1038/nm0608-598

Finding the financial means to achieve global health targets poses a huge challenge. Government donations can take years or even decades after formal approval to actually arrive. To overcome this hurdle and quickly raise huge sums for child vaccination programs, the International Finance Facility for Immunisation (IFFIm, pronounced 'if im') raises funds from private investors by offering them bonds backed by government pledges. Alan Gillespie, chairman of the board at IFFIm, interfaces between the source of the funds, the capital markets and the distributor, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (The GAVI Alliance). Guided by Gillespie, IFFIm has thus far raised over $1 billion for vaccines, which is already flowing through GAVI into childhood immunization programs. Gillespie, who also serves as chairman of the Ulster Bank Group in Belfast, explains IFFIm's unique funding approach to Genevive Bjorn.


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Book Review

The stem cell parade p601

Margaret A Goodell reviews Cell of Cells by Cynthia Fox

doi:10.1038/nm0608-601


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News and Views

Multiple layers of metabolism pp603 - 604

Mukesh K Jain

doi:10.1038/nm0608-603

A new layer of gene regulation emerges for the metabolic regulator peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-delta (PPAR-delta). A team consisting of a Krüppel-like transcription factor and a SUMO protease regulate the expression of PPAR-delta target genes, thereby controlling energy metabolism (pages 656–666).

See also: Article by Oishi et al.


The long reach of leptin pp604 - 606

Eleftheria Maratos-Flier

doi:10.1038/nm0608-604

The energy-regulating hormone leptin affects signals emerging from certain brain regions. New results explore the nature of these signals, finding a central role for phosphoinositide-3 kinase in the brain and the endocannabinoid system in adipocytes (pages 667–675).

See also: Article by Buettner et al.


Keeping blood clots at bay in sepsis pp606 - 608

Cornelis van 't Veer & Tom van der Poll

doi:10.1038/nm0608-606

Clearance of platelets by the liver can help counteract the dangerous blood coagulation that can occur during sepsis. The mechanism involves clearance of platelets through the liver's Ashwell receptor, which binds to platelet glycoproteins altered by sepsis-causing bacteria (pages 648–655).

See also: News and Views by | Article by Grewal et al.


Gilbert Ashwell: sweet on science p608

doi:10.1038/nm0608-608

In 1974, Gilbert Ashwell and Anatol Morell discovered a receptor in the liver that recognizes particular glycoproteins, dubbed asialoglycoproteins. We asked Ashwell about his discoveries and what he thinks of the study by Grewal et al.1 in this issue, which suggests that the receptor is involved in regulating sepsis.

See also: News and Views by van 't Veer & van der Poll | Article by Grewal et al.


Lung NKT cell commotion takes your breath away pp609 - 610

Sebastian Joyce & Luc Van Kaer

doi:10.1038/nm0608-609

Infectious agents can induce inflammatory lung disease akin to asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Work in a new mouse model provides mechanistic insight into this process and uncovers a key role for invariant natural killer T cells (pages 633–640).

See also: Article by Kim et al.


Community corner p611

doi:10.1038/nm0608-611


Research Highlights pp612 - 613

doi:10.1038/nm0608-612


Bench to Bedside: Tempering antigen-presenting cells in multiple sclerosis pp614 - 615

Thomas Prod'homme & Scott S Zamvil

doi:10.1038/nm0608-614

A variety of immune cell types contribute to disease in individuals with multiple sclerosis, an autoimmune condition of the central nervous system. Thomas Prod'homme and Scott Zamvil comment on the 'Bench to Bedside' approach, examining how recent basic research implicates the antigen-presenting cell in this disease. In our 'Bedside to Bench' column, Hans Link explores how recent clinical trials may bolster a mechanistic role for the B cell.


Bedside to Bench: Betting on B cells in multiple sclerosis pp615 - 616

Hans Link

doi:10.1038/nm0608-615

A variety of immune cell types contribute to disease in individuals with multiple sclerosis, an autoimmune condition of the central nervous system. Thomas Prod'homme and Scott Zamvil comment on the 'Bench to Bedside' approach, examining how recent basic research implicates the antigen-presenting cell in this disease. In our 'Bedside to Bench' column, Hans Link explores how recent clinical trials may bolster a mechanistic role for the B cell.


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Perspective

Nonhuman primate models and the failure of the Merck HIV-1 vaccine in humans pp617 - 621

David I Watkins, Dennis R Burton, Esper G Kallas, John P Moore & Wayne C Koff

doi:10.1038/nm.f.1759


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Review

CD8+ T cell efficacy in vaccination and disease pp623 - 628

Victor Appay, Daniel C Douek & David A Price

doi:10.1038/nm.f.1774


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Brief Communication

Small interfering RNA–mediated xCT silencing in gliomas inhibits neurodegeneration and alleviates brain edema pp629 - 632

Nicolai E Savaskan, Alexandra Heckel, Eric Hahnen, Tobias Engelhorn, Arnd Doerfler, Oliver Ganslandt, Christopher Nimsky, Michael Buchfelder & Ilker Y Eyüpoglu

doi:10.1038/nm1772


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Articles

Persistent activation of an innate immune response translates respiratory viral infection into chronic lung disease pp633 - 640

Edy Y Kim, John T Battaile, Anand C Patel, Yingjian You, Eugene Agapov, Mitchell H Grayson, Loralyn A Benoit, Derek E Byers, Yael Alevy, Jennifer Tucker, Suzanne Swanson, Rose Tidwell, Jeffrey W Tyner, Jeffrey D Morton, Mario Castro, Deepika Polineni, G Alexander Patterson, Reto A Schwendener, John D Allard, Gary Peltz & Michael J Holtzman

doi:10.1038/nm1770

See also: News and Views by Joyce & Van Kaer


Identification of calcium-modulating cyclophilin ligand as a human host restriction to HIV-1 release overcome by Vpu pp641 - 647

Vasundhara Varthakavi, Ellen Heimann-Nichols, Rita M Smith, Yuehui Sun, Richard J Bram, Showkat Ali, Jeremy Rose, Lingmei Ding & Paul Spearman

doi:10.1038/nm1778


The Ashwell receptor mitigates the lethal coagulopathy of sepsis pp648 - 655

Prabhjit K Grewal, Satoshi Uchiyama, David Ditto, Nissi Varki, Dzung T Le, Victor Nizet & Jamey D Marth

doi:10.1038/nm1760

See also: News and Views by van 't Veer & van der Poll | News and Views by Joyce & Van Kaer


SUMOylation of Krüppel-like transcription factor 5 acts as a molecular switch in transcriptional programs of lipid metabolism involving PPAR-delta pp656 - 666

Yumiko Oishi, Ichiro Manabe, Kazuyuki Tobe, Mitsuru Ohsugi, Tetsuya Kubota, Katsuhito Fujiu, Koji Maemura, Naoto Kubota, Takashi Kadowaki & Ryozo Nagai

doi:10.1038/nm1756

See also: News and Views by Jain


Leptin controls adipose tissue lipogenesis via central, STAT3–independent mechanisms pp667 - 675

Christoph Buettner, Evan D Muse, Andrew Cheng, Linghong Chen, Thomas Scherer, Alessandro Pocai, Kai Su, Bob Cheng, Xiasong Li, Judith Harvey-White, Gary J Schwartz, George Kunos & Luciano Rossetti

doi:10.1038/nm1775

See also: News and Views by Maratos-Flier


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Letters

The anaplastic lymphoma kinase is an effective oncoantigen for lymphoma vaccination pp676 - 680

Roberto Chiarle, Cinzia Martinengo, Cristina Mastini, Chiara Ambrogio, Valentina D'Escamard, Guido Forni & Giorgio Inghirami

doi:10.1038/nm1769


Blocking TGF-beta–Smad2/3 innate immune signaling mitigates Alzheimer-like pathology pp681 - 687

Terrence Town, Yasmina Laouar, Christopher Pittenger, Takashi Mori, Christine A Szekely, Jun Tan, Ronald S Duman & Richard A Flavell

doi:10.1038/nm1781


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Technical Report

Matching of oligoclonal immunoglobulin transcriptomes and proteomes of cerebrospinal fluid in multiple sclerosis pp688 - 693

Birgit Obermeier, Reinhard Mentele, Joachim Malotka, Josef Kellermann, Tania Kümpfel, Hartmut Wekerle, Friedrich Lottspeich, Reinhard Hohlfeld & Klaus Dornmair

doi:10.1038/nm1714


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