The contribution of glacial erosion to shaping the hidden landscape of East Antarctica

Journal name:
Nature Geoscience
Volume:
6,
Pages:
203–207
Year published:
DOI:
doi:10.1038/ngeo1722
Received
Accepted
Published online

The subglacial topography in East Antarctica has been revealed by airborne radar surveys1, 2, 3. However, how this ice-hidden landscape has evolved over time is less well known4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. Low pre-glacial erosion rates since the Permian period have been reported12, challenging arguments for enhanced erosion during the Cretaceous period4, 6. Here we present a record of long-term East Antarctic erosion by applying multiple dating techniques to over 1,400 detrital mineral grains from onshore moraines and offshore sediments of Cretaceous to Quaternary age in the region of Lambert Glacier and Prydz Bay. Ages from pre-glacial sediments support overall low erosion rates before the expansion of the ice sheet, apart from a discrete interval of magmatic heating about 115Myr ago that is inconsistent with widespread Cretaceous erosion. We find a shift towards younger and broader age distributions since ~ 34Myr ago that necessitates spatially localized erosion of over 2km in the Lambert Glacier catchment over this time. We infer that the trough containing Lambert Glacier was incised almost entirely by selective glacial erosion following initial expansion of the East Antarctic ice sheet. This implies that the early ice sheet was dynamic with ice flow concentrated along fixed ice streams.

At a glance

Figures

  1. Subglacial topographic and location map.
    Figure 1: Subglacial topographic and location map.

    Subglacial topography from the Bedmap2 data set30. Offshore core locations are highlighted in white text. Coloured circles represent different ages and locations of published AFT data4, 6, 17, 18. White numbers are apatite U–Pb ages (Supplementary Table S1 and Fig. S1, 1σ uncertainty) and black numbers are AFT ages (1σ uncertainty), both from moraines of the Pagodroma Group (Supplementary Table S2).

  2. Offshore detrital geochronologic and thermochronologic data summary.
    Figure 2: Offshore detrital geochronologic and thermochronologic data summary.

    Lithostratigraphy from ODP Site 1166 (ref. 23). Age data shown in the form of age histograms and probability density functions (red lines) where n represents the number of analyses. Fission-track plots represent combination of data from separate core interval depths grouped by stratigraphic age (Supplementary Tables S3–S6).

  3. Thermal modelling results.
    Figure 3: Thermal modelling results.

    AFT and AHe ages shown as blue and green circles respectively, with 1σ error bars. a, Time–temperature histories for samples resident at different depths (and hence temperatures) 34Myrago are used to predict age–depth curves. b, AFT/AHe double-dated grain age pairs from Quaternary sample JPC34 70 matched to AFT and AHe age–depth profiles 34Myrago predicted from time–temperature histories shown in a. Open circles represent youngest grains not double-dated. Position of age pairs approximates the depth of each grain 34Myrago (see Supplementary Note S1). c, The same as in b, but with 50°C Early Cretaceous (~ 115Myrago) reheating.

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Affiliations

  1. Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85271, USA

    • Stuart N. Thomson,
    • Peter W. Reiners &
    • George E. Gehrels
  2. Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences and Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, New York 10964, USA

    • Sidney R. Hemming

Contributions

Writing and data analysis were carried out by S.N.T. Project planning and data interpretation were carried out by S.N.T., P.W.R., S.R.H and G.E.G.

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The authors declare no competing financial interests.

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