Published online 20 April 2011 | Nature 472, 276-279 (2011) | doi:10.1038/472276a

News Feature

Education: The PhD factory

The world is producing more PhDs than ever before. Is it time to stop?

Scientists who attain a PhD are rightly proud — they have gained entry to an academic elite. But it is not as elite as it once was. The number of science doctorates earned each year grew by nearly 40% between 1998 and 2008, to some 34,000, in countries that are members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The growth shows no sign of slowing: most countries are building up their higher-education systems because they see educated workers as a key to economic growth (see 'The rise of doctorates'). But in much of the world, science PhD graduates may never get a chance to take full advantage of their qualifications.

Click for larger version.

In some countries, including the United States and Japan, people who have trained at great length and expense to be researchers confront a dwindling number of academic jobs, and an industrial sector unable to take up the slack. Supply has outstripped demand and, although few PhD holders end up unemployed, it is not clear that spending years securing this high-level qualification is worth it for a job as, for example, a high-school teacher. In other countries, such as China and India, the economies are developing fast enough to use all the PhDs they can crank out, and more — but the quality of the graduates is not consistent. Only a few nations, including Germany, are successfully tackling the problem by redefining the PhD as training for high-level positions in careers outside academia. Here, Nature examines graduate-education systems in various states of health.

Japan: A system in crisis

Of all the countries in which to graduate with a science PhD, Japan is arguably one of the worst. In the 1990s, the government set a policy to triple the number of postdocs to 10,000, and stepped up PhD recruitment to meet that goal. The policy was meant to bring Japan's science capacity up to match that of the West — but is now much criticized because, although it quickly succeeded, it gave little thought to where all those postdocs were going to end up.

Academia doesn't want them: the number of 18-year-olds entering higher education has been dropping, so universities don't need the staff. Neither does Japanese industry, which has traditionally preferred young, fresh bachelor's graduates who can be trained on the job. The science and education ministry couldn't even sell them off when, in 2009, it started offering companies around ¥4 million (US$47,000) each to take on some of the country's 18,000 unemployed postdoctoral students (one of several initiatives that have been introduced to improve the situation). "It's just hard to find a match" between postdoc and company, says Koichi Kitazawa, the head of the Japan Science and Technology Agency.

This means there are few jobs for the current crop of PhDs. Of the 1,350 people awarded doctorates in natural sciences in 2010, just over half (746) had full-time posts lined up by the time they graduated. But only 162 were in the academic sciences or technological services,; of the rest, 250 took industry positions, 256 went into education and 38 got government jobs.

Click for larger version.

With such dismal prospects, the number entering PhD programmes has dropped off (see 'Patterns of PhD production'). "Everyone tends to look at the future of the PhD labour market very pessimistically," says Kobayashi Shinichi, a specialist in science and technology workforce issues at the Research Center for University Studies at Tsukuba University.

China: Quantity outweighs quality?

The number of PhD holders in China is going through the roof, with some 50,000 people graduating with doctorates across all disciplines in 2009 — and by some counts it now surpasses all other countries. The main problem is the low quality of many graduates.

Yongdi Zhou, a cognitive neuroscientist at the East China Normal University in Shanghai, identifies four contributing factors. The length of PhD training, at three years, is too short, many PhD supervisors are not well qualified, the system lacks quality control and there is no clear mechanism for weeding out poor students.

Even so, most Chinese PhD holders can find a job at home: China's booming economy and capacity building has absorbed them into the workforce. "Relatively speaking, it is a lot easier to find a position in academia in China compared with the United States," says Yigong Shi, a structural biologist at Tsinghua University in Beijing, and the same is true in industry. But PhD graduates can run into problems if they want to enter internationally competitive academia. To get a coveted post at a top university or research institution requires training, such as a postdoctoral position, in another country. Many researchers do not return to China, draining away the cream of the country's crop.

The quality issue should be helped by China's efforts to recruit more scholars from abroad. Shi says that more institutions are now starting to introduce thesis committees and rotations, which will make students less dependent on a single supervisor in a hierarchical system. "Major initiatives are being implemented in various graduate programmes throughout China," he says. "China is constantly going through transformations."

Singapore: Growth in all directions

The picture is much rosier in Singapore. Here, the past few years have seen major investment and expansion in the university system and in science and technology infrastructure, including the foundation of two new publicly funded universities. This has attracted students from at home and abroad. Enrolment of Singaporean nationals in PhD programmes has grown by 60% over the past five years, to 789 in all disciplines — and the country has actively recruited foreign graduate students from China, India, Iran, Turkey, eastern Europe and farther afield.

“Everyone tends to look at the future of the PhD labour market very pessimistically.”


Because the university system in Singapore has been underdeveloped until now, most PhD holders go to work outside academia, but continued expansion of the universities could create more opportunities. "Not all end up earning a living from what they have been trained in," says Peter Ng, who studies biodiversity at the National University of Singapore. "Some have very different jobs — from teachers to bankers. But they all get a good job." A PhD can be lucrative, says Ng, with a graduate earning at least S$4,000 (US$3,174) a month, compared with the S$3,000 a month earned by a student with a good undergraduate degree.

"I see a PhD not just as the mastery of a discipline, but also training of the mind," says Ng. "If they later practise what they have mastered — excellent — otherwise, they can take their skill sets into a new domain and add value to it."

United States: Supply versus demand

To Paula Stephan, an economist at Georgia State University in Atlanta who studies PhD trends, it is "scandalous" that US politicians continue to speak of a PhD shortage. The United States is second only to China in awarding science doctorates — it produced an estimated 19,733 in the life sciences and physical sciences in 2009 — and production is going up. But Stephan says that no one should applaud this trend, "unless Congress wants to put money into creating jobs for these people rather than just creating supply".

Click for larger version.

The proportion of people with science PhDs who get tenured academic positions in the sciences has been dropping steadily and industry has not fully absorbed the slack. The problem is most acute in the life sciences, in which the pace of PhD growth is biggest, yet pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries have been drastically downsizing in recent years. In 1973, 55% of US doctorates in the biological sciences secured tenure-track positions within six years of completing their PhDs, and only 2% were in a postdoc or other untenured academic position. By 2006, only 15% were in tenured positions six years after graduating, with 18% untenured (see 'What shall we do about all the PhDs?'). Figures suggest that more doctorates are taking jobs that do not require a PhD. "It's a waste of resources," says Stephan. "We're spending a lot of money training these students and then they go out and get jobs that they're not well matched for."

The poor job market has discouraged some potential students from embarking on science PhDs, says Hal Salzman, a professor of public policy at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey. Nevertheless, production of US doctorates continues apace, fuelled by an influx of foreign students. Academic research was still the top career choice in a 2010 survey of 30,000 science and engineering PhD students and postdocs, says Henry Sauermann, who studies strategic management at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta. Many PhD courses train students specifically for that goal. Half of all science and engineering PhD recipients graduating in 2007 had spent over seven years working on their degrees, and more than one-third of candidates never finish at all.

Some universities are now experimenting with PhD programmes that better prepare graduate students for careers outside academia (see page 280). Anne Carpenter, a cellular biologist at the Broad Institute of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, is trying to create jobs for existing PhD holders, while discouraging new ones. When she set up her lab four years ago, Carpenter hired experienced staff scientists on permanent contracts instead of the usual mix of temporary postdocs and graduate students. "The whole pyramid scheme of science made little sense to me," says Carpenter. "I couldn't in good conscience churn out a hundred graduate students and postdocs in my career."

But Carpenter has struggled to justify the cost of her staff to grant-review panels. "How do I compete with laboratories that hire postdocs for $40,000 instead of a scientist for $80,000?" she asks. Although she remains committed to her ideals, she says that she will be more open to hiring postdocs in the future.

Germany: The progressive PhD

Germany is Europe's biggest producer of doctoral graduates, turning out some 7,000 science PhDs in 2005. After a major redesign of its doctoral education programmes over the past 20 years, the country is also well on its way to solving the oversupply problem.

Traditionally, supervisors recruited PhD students informally and trained them to follow in their academic footsteps, with little oversight from the university or research institution. But as in the rest of Europe, the number of academic positions available to graduates in Germany has remained stable or fallen. So these days, a PhD in Germany is often marketed as advanced training not only for academia — a career path pursued by the best of the best — but also for the wider workforce.

“The relatively low income of german academic staff makes leaving the university after the PhD a good option.”


Universities now play a more formal role in student recruitment and development, and many students follow structured courses outside the lab, including classes in presenting, report writing and other transferable skills. Just under 6% of PhD graduates in science eventually go into full-time academic positions, and most will find research jobs in industry, says Thorsten Wilhelmy, who studies doctoral education for the German Council of Science and Humanities in Cologne. "The long way to professorship in Germany and the relatively low income of German academic staff makes leaving the university after the PhD a good option," he says.

Thomas Jørgensen, who heads a programme to support and develop doctoral education for the European University Association, based in Brussels, is concerned that German institutions could push reforms too far, leaving students spending so long in classes that they lack time to do research for their thesis and develop critical-thinking skills. The number of German doctorates has stagnated over the past two decades, and Jørgensen worries about this at a time when PhD production is growing in China, India and other increasingly powerful economies.

Poland: Expansion at a cost

Growth in PhD numbers among Europe's old guard might be waning, but some of the former Eastern bloc countries, such as Poland, have seen dramatic increases. In 1990–91, Polish institutions enrolled 2,695 PhD students. This figure rose to more than 32,000 in 2008–09 as the Polish government, trying to expand the higher-education system after the fall of Communism, introduced policies to reward institutions for enrolling doctoral candidates.

Despite the growth, there are problems. A dearth of funding for doctoral studies causes high drop-out rates, says Andrzej Kraśniewski, a researcher at Warsaw University of Technology and secretary-general of the Polish Rectors Conference, an association representing Polish universities. In engineering, more than half of students will not complete their PhDs, he says. The country's economic growth has not kept pace with that of its PhD numbers, so people with doctorates can end up taking jobs below their level of expertise. And Poland needs to collect data showing that PhDs from its institutions across the country are of consistent quality, and are comparable with the rest of Europe, says Kraśniewski.

Click for larger version.

Still, in Poland as in most countries, unemployment for PhD holders is below 3%. "Employment prospects for holders of doctorates remain better than for other higher-education graduates," says Laudeline Auriol, author of an OECD report on doctorate holders between 1990 and 2006, who is now analysing doctoral-student data up to 2010. Still, a survey of scientists by Nature last year showed that PhD holders were not always more satisfied with their jobs than those without the degree, nor were they earning substantially more (see 'What's a PhD worth?').

Egypt: Struggle to survive

Egypt is the Middle East's powerhouse for doctoral studies. In 2009, the country had about 35,000 students enrolled in doctoral programmes, up from 17,663 in 1998. But funding has not kept up with demand. The majority comes through university budgets, which are already strained by the large enrolment of students in undergraduate programmes and postgraduate studies other than PhDs. Universities have started turning to international funding and collaborations with the private sector, but this source of funding remains very limited.

The deficit translates into shortages in equipment and materials, a lack of qualified teaching staff and poor compensation for researchers. It also means that more of the funding burden is falling on the students. The squeeze takes a toll on the quality of research, and creates tension between students and supervisors. "The PhD student here in Egypt faces numerous problems," says Mounir Hana, a food scientist and PhD supervisor at Minia University, who says that he tries to help solve them. "Unfortunately, many supervisors do not bother, and end up adding one more hurdle in the student's way."

Graduates face a tough slog. As elsewhere, there are many more PhD holders in Egypt than the universities can employ as researchers and academics. The doctorate is frequently a means of climbing the civil-service hierarchy, but those in the private sector often complain that graduates are untrained in the practical skills they need, such as proposal writing and project management. Egyptian PhD holders also struggle to secure international research positions. Hana calls the overall quality of their research papers "mediocre" and says that pursuing a PhD is "worthless" except for those already working in a university. But the political upheaval in the region this year could bring about change: many academics who had left Egypt are returning, hoping to help rebuild and overhaul education and research.

Few PhDs are trained elsewhere in the Middle East — less than 50 a year in Lebanon, for example. But several world-class universities established in the oil-rich Gulf States in recent years have increased demand for PhD holders. So far, most of the researchers have been 'imported' after receiving their degrees from Western universities, but Saudi Arabia and Qatar in particular have been building up their infrastructure to start offering more PhD programmes themselves. The effect will be felt throughout the region, says Fatma Hammad, an endocrinologist and PhD supervisor at Al-Azhar University in Cairo. "Many graduates are now turning to doctoral studies because there is a large demand in the Gulf States. For them, it is a way to land jobs there and increase their income," she says.

India: PhDs wanted

In 2004, India produced around 5,900 science, technology and engineering PhDs, a figure that has now grown to some 8,900 a year. This is still a fraction of the number from China and the United States, and the country wants many more, to match the explosive growth of its economy and population. The government is making major investments in research and higher education — including a one-third increase in the higher-education budget in 2011–12 — and is trying to attract investment from foreign universities. The hope is that up to 20,000 PhDs will graduate each year by 2020, says Thirumalachari Ramasami, the Indian government's head of science and technology.

ADVERTISEMENT

Those targets ought to be easy to reach: India's population is young, and undergraduate education is booming (see Nature 472, 24–26; 2011). But there is little incentive to continue into a lengthy PhD programme, and only around 1% of undergraduates currently do so. Most are intent on securing jobs in industry, which require only an undergraduate degree and are much more lucrative than the public-sector academic and research jobs that need postgraduate education. Students "don't think of PhDs now, not even master's — a bachelor's is good enough to get a job", says Amit Patra, an engineer at the Indian Institute of Technology in Kharagpur.

Even after a PhD, there are few academic opportunities in India, and better-paid industry jobs are the major draw. "There is a shortage of PhDs and we have to compete with industry for that resource — the universities have very little chance of winning that game," says Patra. For many young people intent on postgraduate education, the goal is frequently to go to the United States or Europe. That was the course chosen by Manu Prakash, who went to MIT for his PhD and now runs his own experimental biophysics lab at Stanford University in California. "When I went through the system in India, the platform for doing long-term research I didn't feel was well-supported," he says. 

Join the discussion on the future of the PhD

Comments

If you find something abusive or inappropriate or which does not otherwise comply with our Terms or Community Guidelines, please select the relevant 'Report this comment' link.

Comments on this thread are vetted after posting.

  • #60104

    I guess you need to have a strong financial backup to opt for any phd. Since you will have to deal with all the expenses of your study as well as your personal life. I have seen people who opt for it but get financially disturbed because they do not start earning soon and by the time they start they are too old.

    <a href="google.com">Googlf</a>

  • #60109

    Growth in PHds is not a problem. It's the lack of other areas of expertise and such. In my humble opinion, PHds and the growing numbers of them is not bad, its for good.
    Housing Rentals in Michigan

  • #60111

    I totally agree with Michi Gan's comments
    “reclaim rubber”:http://rubixinter.com

  • #60112

    why should the world stop producing PhDs? I mean these people are expert in their field, and the world needs experienced people in order for it to grow and prosper. This reminds me of some teenager quotes saying that "In order to be successful from life you should act like an expert" :D

  • #60121

    I was interested to read about Singapore because I'd like to me there. Unbelievable that only in Poland (!) the number is growing. What about the rest of Europe , Germany apart?
    Sardinia Holidays

  • #60125

    Today a Ph. D. is just something to look nice on one's bio. How many of these people really are interested in doing scientific work?

    home workouts

  • #60126

    Ph. D. is a requirement nowadays if you want to rank up in a corporate world.

    Zest Air

  • #60127

    If you ever have a chance to have Ph. D. abroad, grab it.

    Cebu Pacific

  • #60128

    You need to invest time to have Ph. D. in the Philippines but it will be worth it.

  • #60129

    The CEO of Philippine Airlines has a Ph. D.

  • #60130

    The worth of a Ph. D. is becoming less just like what happened to the worth of a professor.

    Air Asia

  • #60171

    I love you. I am who I am because of you. You are every reason, every hope, and every dream I've ever had, and no matter <a href="http://www.tubidyac.com">tubidy</a> what happens to us in the future, everyday we are together is the greatest day of my life. I will always be yours.

  • #60181

    I am very impressed with your blog you did a very hard job. and I appreciate that sharing a helpful post, great job!slim 24 pro

  • #60214

    The first question here is: do you have the academic qualifications to be accepted as a student for a research degree?
    tunisie annonce

  • #60216

    Interesting take on this and disheartening for sure. http://assistedlivingcharlottenc.org

  • #60217

    Interesting take on this and disheartening for sure. Assisted Living Charlotte NC

  • #60222

    If you ever have a chance to have Ph. D. You really should do it.

    Im doing my PHD right now

    Magento

  • #60226

    This is really true. With the poor economy in the U.S. there are really so many people being pushed into high degrees to attain better salaries. I have a business solar company and I am very lucky. There are many people that compete so much with others and all they have is a degree and a list of experience. I also believe that academic standards have fallen due to the amount of people being pushed through these colleges. I really have enjoyed your article. Thanks

  • #60243

    Great Article.
    You should take a look at my website and read my articles too.
    Subway Surfers for pc

  • #60260

    This article is kind of a wake up call that should really be heard...
    Logopädie Haar

  • #60287

    Nice article. I would like to share an interesting information here. Did you know that the whole members of an online shopping website in Dubai is PhD holders - <a href="http://www.letstango.com">LetsTango</a>

  • #60288

    Nice article. I would like to share an interesting information here. Did you know that the whole members of an online shopping website in Dubai is PhD holders.
    LetsTango

  • #60309

    The amount of PhD's is a result of our economy. When we are growing up we are always told "become a doctor, lawyer, or engineer". That's simply the way most people think and now we are seeing an influx of PhDs because of it. DesignsBYGuru

  • #60333

    It’s truly a great and helpful piece of information. I’m satisfied that you shared this useful information with us. Please stay us informed like this. Thanks for sharing.
    <a href="https://www.myandroidtricks".com> My Android Tricks</a>

  • #60335

    Being a student myself, I too am pondering whether the importance of a PhD has faded these last few years. Looking back a few years, we can really see a huge difference between PhD students today compared to those of the past. Like others have stated above, PhDs are experts in their field, or so should they have you think.

    The truth is that many PhD students today are only pursuing that educational path as they do not know what else to do. Most of them are not even that good in their field and have gotten that position because of the huge demand of PhD nowadays, a thing which will lower the reputation of many doctorate students.

    As for myself, being just a 3rd year student, have yet to find out whether I will even get my masters degree, as I clearly do not know if it is worth it anymore. In the meantime, I've set up a <a href="http://www.pastabakerecipes.com">website </a> which I manage in my free time, which helps me keep up with my English language(I am not a native speaker) and maybe even make a few bucks on the side.

    To be all that honest, if I could make more than enough money through internet marketing, the decision of whether or not I should pursue a PhD diploma would really be made easier.

  • #60336

    Being a student myself, I too am pondering whether the importance of a PhD has faded these last few years. Looking back a few years, we can really see a huge difference between PhD students today compared to those of the past. Like others have stated above, PhDs are experts in their field, or so should they have you think.

    The truth is that many PhD students today are only pursuing that educational path as they do not know what else to do. Most of them are not even that good in their field and have gotten that position because of the huge demand of PhD nowadays, a thing which will lower the reputation of many doctorate students.

    As for myself, being just a 3rd year student, have yet to find out whether I will even get my masters degree, as I clearly do not know if it is worth it anymore. In the meantime, I've set up a website which I manage in my free time, which helps me keep up with my English language(I am not a native speaker) and maybe even make a few bucks on the side.

    To be all that honest, if I could make more than enough money through internet marketing, the decision of whether or not I should pursue a PhD diploma would really be made easier.

  • #60342

    The truth is that many PhD students today are only pursuing that educational path as they do not know what else to do. Most of them are not even that good in their field and have gotten that position because of the huge demand of PhD nowadays, a thing which will lower the reputation of many doctorate http://bbrata24.com/url/to/link/to/students.

  • #60343

    As for myself, being just a 3rd year student, have yet to find out whether I will even get my masters degree, as I clearly do not know if it is worth it anymore. In the meantime, I've set up a <a href="http://bbrata24.com">web portal</a> which I manage in my free time, which helps me keep up with my English language(I am not a native speaker) and maybe even make a few bucks on the side.

  • #60348

    My question is which is the best indian (Bangalore) PH.D institute with not so high fee.

    <a href="http://www.addgab.com/">free article site</a>

  • #60349

    Which is the best USA (NY) PH.D institute in low fee.

    http://www.addgab.com/url/to/free article site/to

  • #60350

    text to link
    http://www.adwillz.com/url/to/adwillz/to
    http://www.adwillz.com/url/to/adwillz/
    http://www.adwillz.com/to/adwillz/
    http://www.adwillz.com/adwillz/

  • #60351

    Which is the best USA (NY) PH.D institute in low fee.

    Free Article Site:http://www.addgab.com

  • #60352
  • #60378

    GTA V just got leaked, download it on PC now for free!
    Cracked by razor1911 GTA V cracks, PC download !
    Download Free GTA V on PC

  • #60381

    Thank excellent information

    [url=http://www.kock1.net/]kock1[/url]

  • #60432

    Tatil zamanlarınızda online oyun oynayabileceginiz en güzel bedava oyun sunan bir site var benim bildigim arkadaşlar. Sizlerde eger canınız çok sıkılıyor ve henüz aklınıza birşey yapmak gelmediyse kral oyun oyna sitesinde çok güzel çocuk oyunları oynayabilirsiniz veya zeka oyunları gibi değişik oyun seçeneklerinden faydalanarak en iyi oyunları bu sitede oynayabilir, eglenceli zamanlar geçirebilirsiniz. İyi eglenceler şimdiden...

    <a href="http://kraloyunoyna.toretto.org">kral oyun oyna</a> - <a href="http://kraloyunoyna.toretto.org/oyunoyna/zekaoyunlari">zeka oyunları</a>

  • #60477

    Thanks For sharing really Nice information...

  • #60478

    Nice article. I want to join Ph.d In Computer Science.

  • #60479

    I want to join Ph.d. Please Tell me which university is best. Check information about

  • #60480

    i want to also join P.hd in United States..from IBlogs And You

  • #60503

    In other countries, such as China and India, the economies are developing fast enough to use all the PhDs they can crank out, and more — but the quality of the graduates is not consistent. Only a few nations, including Germany, are successfully tackling the problem by redefining the PhD as training for high-level positions in careers outside academia.
    Thanks
    Celebridades de angola

  • #60553

    Thanks for the great article. I have enjoyed this and I think this is very true about our educational system. Simply Pleasure's sex toys

  • #60555

    Yes, but we make sure that Quality Education reach everyone across the globe. We need to make use of the recent tech developments like live video streaming for education where one professor from one university can teach to thousands at the same time. This is what Coursera and Udacity are trying to achieve. Let's support them.

  • #60556

    On average, a Ph.D. in the United States 57% of people over 10 years of completed education program started, leaving approximately 30%, or discarded. In some places the work of Ph.D. students should not always hot, exempted from tuition fees, keeping the amount of the annual scholarshipin some universities, Ph.D. students capable of running as a research assistant or teaching assistant. Ph.D candidate, person, usually in some countries, the candidate prepares a thesis before the thesis defense in front of the committe, while in some countries prepared thesis, submitted to the examination committee is created. In the development of distance education and e-learning technologies, some of the countries at the moment, 'is able to accept students with part-time distance education model.mantolama fiyatları

  • #60699

    It's a shame that fewer people a pursuing Ph.D.s in this country. Scottsdale Divorce Attorney

  • #60991

    I think as the world develops to more educated society, it needs more educated people, but I think there might be created some new degrees or getting the old ones should be much higher, because if not than it would have no value after 20-30 years from now. <a href="http://aimbotbattlefield4.com">here more</a>

  • #60992

    I think as the world develops to more educated society, it needs more educated people, but I think there might be created some new degrees or getting the old ones should be much higher, because if not than it would have no value after 20-30 years from now. here more

  • #61001

    Education in its general sense is a form of learning in which the knowledge, skills, and habits of a group of people are transferred from one generation to the next Trapezbleche

  • #61023

    “I have never let my schooling interfere with my education.”
    ― Mark Twain

    dachplatten24

  • #61030

    I think this will eventually lead to a situation where nobody will want to do "low qualification" jobs. This itself wouldn't be a problem as long, as the given country can solve this with imigrants from 3rd world countries. However, this is not everywhere possible.
    olasz étterem

  • #61031

    Academia doesn't want them: the number of 18-year-olds entering higher education has been dropping, so universities don't need the staff. great <a href="http://valtrexhome.com/">Valtrex genital herpes</a>

  • #61032

    n average, a Ph.D. in the United States 57% of people over 10 years of completed education program started, leaving approximately 30%, or discarded. In some places the work of Ph.D. students should not always hot, exempted from tuition fees, keeping the amount of the annual scholarshipin some universities, Ph.D. students capable of running as a research assistant or teaching assistant. <a href="http://www.valtrexhome.com/">Valtrex</a></p>

  • #61034

    Scientists who attain a PhD are rightly proud — they have gained entry to an academic elite. But it is not as elite as it once was. The number of science doctorates earned each year grew by nearly 40% between 1998 and 2008, to some 34,000, in countries that are members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).Valtrex

  • #61036

    Of all the countries in which to graduate with a science PhD, Japan is arguably one of the worst. In the 1990s, the government set a policy to triple the number of postdocs to 10,000, and stepped up PhD recruitment to meet that goal. The policy was meant to bring Japans science capacity up to match that of the West

    Nexium

  • #61039

    "The long way to professorship in Germany and the relatively low income of German academic staff makes leaving the university after the PhD a good option," he says.

    Valtrex

  • #61048

    In Slovenia we have everything payed from country upto PHD. That is all good, but we do not have jobs for these people.
    create your own anime character

  • #61053

    Thanks For sharing really Nice information!
    This is my page: Fone

  • #61057

    virtually all academics have a phd. whereas not all CEOs have MBAs. a phd does not prevent you from being an executive. think of all the startups founded by phds or phd drop outs who flat roof repair":http://commercialroofrepairs.ca

  • #61060

    As for getting the PhD is not easy compared to Master! ... ICT at times higher than before the ICT ages! ..... proceedings and presentations that do not produce publication. <a href="http://couplerings.org">Couple Rings</a> and "Black Over the Knee <a href="http://blackoverthekneeboots.com">Black Over the Knee Boots</a>

  • #61061

    To Paula Stephan, an economist at Georgia State University in Atlanta who studies PhD trends, it is "scandalous" that US politicians continue to speak of a PhD shortage. The United States is second only to China in awarding science doctorates — it produced an estimated 19,733 in the life sciences and physical sciences in 2009 — and production is going up. wow Valtrex genital herpes

  • #61065

    the government set a policy to triple the number of postdocs to 10,000, and stepped up PhD recruitment to meet that goal. The policy was meant to bring Japans science capacity up to match that of the West. ajandek

  • #61081

    Scientists who attain a PhD are rightly proud — they have gained entry to an academic elite. But it is not as elite as it once was. Furuncle doctorates earned each year grew by nearly 40% between 1998 and 2008, to some 34,000, in countries that are members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). lichen planus

  • #61082

    Of all the countries in which to graduate with a science PhD, Japan is arguably one of the worst. In the 1990s, the government set a policy to triple the number of postdocs to 10,000, and stepped up PhD recruitment to meet that goal. Thanks Krill oil

  • #61083

    The deficit translates into shortages in equipment and materials, a lack of qualified teaching staff and poor compensation for researchers. Bolest hrdla v tehotenstve

  • #61084

    The deficit translates into shortages in equipment and materials, a lack of qualified teaching staff and poor compensation for researchers.

    Bolest hrdla v tehotenstve

  • #61349

    The most well-researched and informative article of the entire lot, this article offers a country by country analysis Gossip Lanka

  • #61577

    capacity up to match- but is now much criticised because of the nature of countries and cultures. I do respect all people doing stuffs like this in the world, specially in the places like Australia. Dr. James Harward

  • #61647
  • #61653

    The truth is that many PhD students today are only pursuing that educational path as they do not know what else to do.
    jasa seo idegila

  • #61655

    Prediksi Bola :http://www.score.co.id Akurat dari Liga Inggris, Liga Italia, Liga Spanyol, dan Liga-Liga Dunia Lainnya

  • #61657

    prediksi bola Akurat dari Liga Inggris, Liga Italia, Liga Spanyol, dan Liga-Liga Dunia Lainnya

  • #62001

    Stablehost Coupon is the place you can get the Stablehost Coupon Code to have discount when purchasing the Stablehost hosting service. Beacause the PhD students sometime need to create their own blog to make money online.

  • #62003

    "When I went through the system in India, the platform for doing long-term research I didn't feel was well-supported" Totally agree with him.

    Best regards,
    Deal Forums

  • #62015

    Very helpful insights. Can't download the pdf tho on
    <a href="http://buyline.tk/product/buy-kindle-fire-7-hd/">kindle fire</a>

  • #62017

    Very good artile a bit long but is ok i read it because it was intersting i like whow you talk about PhD factory , very good explained .

    Thanks for this beautiful artcile

    Pokemon X and Y Rom

  • #62019

    I think that education nowadays is overestimated and overpriced.
    People who specialize in a physical work are much more appreciated these days than they were used to 20 years ago. Fore example, one of my friends installs windows and he earns much more than the other friend with PhD in English Literature.

  • #62031

    The Phd Factory : Training and Employment of Science and Engineering Doctorates in the United States roshe

  • #62093

    The research on H5N1 virus transmission will resume soon. Scientists working in nations should now be free to resume experiments that involve reengineering the virus.
    jet privati

  • #62145

    The number of 18-year-olds entering higher education has been dropping, so universities don't need the staff. Neither does Japanese industry, which has traditionally preferred young, fresh bachelor's graduates who can be trained on the job. The science and education ministry couldn't even sell them off when, in 2009, it started offering companies around ¥4 million (US$47,000) each to take on some of the country's 18,000 unemployed postdoctoral students (one of several initiatives that have been introduced to improve the situation). Thanks for such an interesting article here. I was searching for something like that for quite a long time and at last I have found it here.
    Thanks.
    offshore domain

  • #62327

    Very well and informative article as an Egyptian civilian living In Egypt, i have to agree with the author of this article, our main problem is money. there just isn’t enough funding to support the system. There isn’t enough lab equipment, materials, or workspace. Low teaching salaries don’t attract qualified educators. Advisors are underpaid and overworked, and they often end up discouraging their students. The hope is that the current upheavals in the Middle East will lead to an overhaul of the education system, and correct some of these shortcomings.

    My Name is Hossam Salem internet marketing expert and this were my thoughts feel free to visit my website
    Visit us

    Sincerely,

  • #62379

    WhateverFree is the website where you can grab anything for free, from free stuff, freebies, free samples and hot deals.

  • #62391

    Thanks for the article and information is very helpful for me.

    -----------
    Free Samples

Commenting is now closed.