Figure 1 - The cycle of addiction is positively reinforced by drug euphoria and negatively reinforced by withdrawal, craving and hedonic dysregulation.


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Neurobiology of addiction: treatment and public policy ramifications

Charles Dackis & Charles O'Brien

Nature Neuroscience 8, 1431 - 1436 (2005)

doi:10.1038/nn1105-1431

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Drug-related cues and stress increase craving, and loss of control may stem in part from prefrontal cortical dysfunction. Neuronal mechanisms for these cardinal components of addiction have been increasingly delineated with animal models and human neuroimaging studies.

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