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STING is considered central to antiviral immunity via induction of type 1 interferons, but can also activate autophagy. Here the authors made two mice with different STING mutations that differentially affect these antiviral responses, and surprisingly show that inhibiting STING-dependent type 1 interferon production does not affect susceptibility to HSV-1 infection.
Designing energy efficient and scalable artificial networks for neuromorphic computing remains a challenge. Here, the authors demonstrate online learning in a monolithically integrated 4 × 4 fully memristive neural network consisting of volatile NbOx memristor neurons and nonvolatile TaOx memristor synapses.
Roads are widespread and can impact ecological communities. Cooke et al. use data for 75 bird species across Great Britain to show that common species are disproportionately abundant near roads, whereas rarer, smaller-bodied and migrant species are more likely to be negatively associated with roads.
Defects in DNA single-strand break repair are associated with neurodegenerative disease. Here the authors reveal that mutations in ARH3 interfere with the catabolism of mono-(ADP-ribose) and lead to its accumulation on core histones following repair of endogenous or exogenous DNA single-strand breaks.
Meiotic cell division in oocytes is asymmetric and requires microtubule spindle migration after anaphase-onset. Here, the authors show that Nampt, an enzyme of the Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) biosynthetic pathway, contributes to post-anaphase spindle migration and oocyte division asymmetry by controlling spindle length.
Immunoglobulin (Ig) rearrangement and translocation information are usually obtained by targeted sequencing of the respective loci. Here, the authors present the IgCaller algorithm, which extracts Ig heavy and light chain genetic properties from short-read whole-genome sequencing results to provide a feasible alternative to direct sequencing.
Strong mitigation of anthropogenic emissions is necessary, but it is not clear how fast these efforts would lead to temperature changes. Here, the authors find that there is a substantial delay between reductions of emissions and a detectable change in surface temperature for a number of climate forcers.
Efficient radiation monitoring ensures safety in nuclear power, but beta-ray scintillators should be developed for use near a highly radioactive and hot reactor. Here, the authors report a two-dimensional halide perovskite-based beta-ray scintillator with high irradiation hardness and thermotolerance.
Previous attempts to combine expansion microscopy (ExM) and single molecule localisation microscopy (SMLM) have proved challenging. Here the authors show that post-labelling Ex-SMLM improves labelling efficiency, reduces linkage error, and preserves ultrastructural details.
While H2 can serve as a renewable fuel, its large scale production, storage, and transport are challenging. Here, authors show H2O2 to serve as a potential energy carrier via the photocatalytic production of H2 from stabilized H2O2 solutions and metal-free catalysts.
The lack of scalable, high-quality insulators is a major problem hindering the progress on electronic devices built from 2D materials. Here, the authors review the current state-of-the-art and the future prospects of suitable insulators for 2D technologies.
Omecamtiv mecarbil is a small molecule effector under clinical trial for the treatment of systolic heart failure. Here the authors define the molecular mechanisms of its inotropic action and find it can increase the efficiency of contraction in muscle fibres when the orthophosphate concentration rises with the beat frequency.
G-quadruplex (G4) forming sequences are highly enriched in the human genome and function as important regulators of diverse range of biological processes. Here the authors show that while G4 structures on template strand block transcription, folding on the non-template strand enhances transcription by means of successive R-loop formation.
Structural genomic variation can fuel evolution. Here, authors present genome data from seven Corvus species and unearth structural variants that vary between incipient crow species in Europe, with implications for premating isolation involving plumage patterning.
Circadian activity modulation in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is a network-level emergent property that requires neuropeptide VIP signaling, yet the precise cellular mechanisms are unknown. Patton et al. show that cells expressing VIP or its receptor VPAC2 together determine these emergent properties of the SCN.
The cryo-EM structure of Mycobacterium smegmatis arabinosyltransferase B EmbB involved in mycobacterial cell wall biosynthesis provides insights into the substrate binding and reaction mechanism. Mapping of the ethambutol resistance associated mutations onto the structure suggests the location of the drug binding site.
Biosynthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) is essential for the integrity of the fungal cell wall. Here, the authors show that the natural product jawsamycin inhibits GPI biosynthesis by targeting a subunit of the fungal UDP-glycosyltransferase, and displays pronounced activity against pathogenic fungi of the order Mucorales.
The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province is the most aerially extensive magmatic event in Earth’s history, yet few constraints exist on the volumes of intrusions at depth. Here, the authors find limited intrusive volumes beneath the South Georgia Rift, consistent with modest potential mantle temperatures (<1500 °C) related to syn-rift decompression melting.
The Pan-Cancer Analysis of Whole Genomes project generated a vast array of data. In this article, the authors describe five different online resources to enable readers to explore and visualize the data.
Acute kidney injury is a major health problem amongst hospitalized patients. Here the authors provide a comprehensive characterization of enhancer and super-enhancer elements, and the transcription factor motifs associated with these elements in response to kidney injury in vivo; providing insight into the regulation of kidney repair.
Monomethylmercury is a toxin that humans can be exposed to after consumption of seafood in which it has bioaccumulated. Here the authors show that amphipods in the deepest point of the global ocean contain monomethylmercury with surface origins, suggesting rapid sinking of this toxin on particles.
SWI/SNF remodelers alter histone-DNA interactions and are important for regulating chromatin architecture and gene expression. Here, the authors present the cryo-EM structure of a nucleosome-free Swi/Snf complex from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and discuss the assembly and function of SWI/SNF remodelers.
The polyhedral skeletal electron pair theory (PESPT), also known as Wade-Mingos’ rules, defines a relationship between skeletal bonding electron pairs and structure of clusters. Here the authors report the synthesis, structure and computational studies of planar C2B4R4 carboranes that do not adhere to PESPT.
SARS-CoV-2 is causing a global pandemic in which the implementation of serology can support decision making in different scenarios. Here, the authors compare the outcome of eight commercially available assays to virus neutralization and discuss their use in diagnostics and exposure assessment of SARS-CoV-2.
Chinese chestnut is widely cultivated for nut production and harbors value as a genetic resource for restoration of American and European chestnut trees destroyed by chestnut blight. Here, the authors reveal the genomic basis of homoploid hybrid speciation within Castanea spp. and find the nonrandom distribution of reproductive barrier loci based on a high-quality reference genome.
The authors here report tensile properties of polycrystalline methane hydrate at the micron scale by applying a contactless, thermos-induced stress to a tenuous shell of hydrate grown in a thin glass capillary. The results suggest that the cohesive strength of methane hydrate in marine settings may be an order of magnitude less than currently thought.
Despite evidence that astrocytes mediate sleep-dependent function, the involved signaling mechanisms are unknown. The authors show that astrocytic Ca2+ signalling exhibits distinct features across the sleep-wake cycle and ablation of this Ca2+ signalling pathway impairs slow wave sleep.
In vitro models of the human mammary gland have struggled to mimic the 3D morphogenic processes that occur in vivo. Here the authors develop a 3D microfluidic platform of a vascularized human mammary duct that simulates diverse morphogenic transitions and paracrine crosstalk.
The authors demonstrate a two-dimensional optomechanical crystal cavity which traps a phonon mode within a phononic bandgap while yielding large thermal conductivity to the environment. High quantum cooperativity at millikelvin temperatures is realized, suitable for quantum coherent control.
Designing flexible and transparent electrodes for high-performance optoelectronic devices remains a challenge. Here, the authors presented conductive and flexible dielectric-metal-dielectric multi-layers electrodes based on Cu-doped Ag film (thickness of 6.5 nm) with 100.3% relative transmittance.
The authors here use numerical simulations combined with a time-dependent model of Earth’s magnetic field spanning the last 100 kyrs. They identify field directional changes to be 10 times faster than previously thought.
Ion migration can induce overshoot of luminance in normal 3D perovskite light-emitting diode devices and results in reduced lifetime. Here Kim et al. show that the ion migration and overshoot can be suppressed in 3D/2D hybrid perovskites, leading to 21 times longer operational lifetime.
CD4+ T cells contain a T-bethigh memory-phenotype (MP) population with innate-like functions. Here the authors characterize the requirements for their differentiation at homeostasis and identify a function for IL-12 that is tonically produced by type 1 dendritic cells in an MyD88- and CD40-dependent, but foreign PAMP-independent manner.
Water oxidation catalysis may provide the electrons needed for sustainable fuel production, but catalysts often degrade under working conditions. Here, authors introduce soluble species into perovskites to exert positive ion leaching effects for enhancing perovskite stability and activity.
The association between blood pressure (BP) and migraine is poorly understood. Here, the authors explore this relationship using summary-level GWAS data for BP and migraine. Cross-trait meta-analysis reveals shared loci between BP and migraine, while Mendelian randomization suggests that diastolic BP specifically plays a key role in migraine susceptibility.
With the rise in polymer consumption, energy efficient techniques for polymer processing become more important. Using poly(ethylene oxide) aqueous solutions, the authors show that flow can causes a change of polymer solubility resulting in polymer crystallisation at ambient conditions.
COVID-19 is a serious pandemic threat to public health, but insights on the pathophysiological and immunological conditions are only emerging. Here the authors use multi-color flow cytometry to characterize CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood from 39 COVID-19 patients in Italy to report altered T cell activation, function and polarization.
Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) derived dopaminergic neurons are a promising source for cell-based Parkinson’s disease (PD) therapy. Here the authors report a comprehensive pre-clinical evaluation of the safety and efficacy of dopaminergic progenitors derived from a clinical-grade human iPSC line.