Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue Livermore, California 94550, USA
Peter J. Gleckler &
Paul J. Durack
Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton University Forrestal Campus, 201 Forrestal Road Princeton, New Jersey 08540-6649, USA
Ronald J. Stouffer
NOAA/Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle, Washington 98115-6349, USA
Gregory C. Johnson
Departments of Meteorology and Geosciences & Earth and Environmental Systems Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, State College, Pennsylvania 16802, USA
Chris E. Forest
P.J.G., R.J.S. and C.E.F. conceived the experimental design, P.J.G. and P.J.D. performed the analysis, G.C.J. provided data and expertise on deep ocean measurements, and P.J.G. wrote the paper with substantial input from all authors.
Competing financial interests
The authors declare no competing financial interests.