Nature Biotechnology 25, 627 - 629 (2007)

DNA synthesis and biological security

Hans Bügl1, John P Danner1, Robert J Molinari1, John T Mulligan1, Han-Oh Park1, Bas Reichert1, David A Roth1, Ralf Wagner1, Bruce Budowle1, Robert M Scripp1, Jenifer A L Smith1, Scott J Steele1, George Church1 & Drew Endy1

  1. Hans Bügl, John P. Danner, Robert J. Molinari, John T. Mulligan, David A. Roth & Ralf Wagner are members of the International Consortium for Polynucleotide Synthesis; Hans Bügl and Ralf Wagner are at GENEART; John P. Danner, George Church & Drew Endy are at Codon Devices; Robert J. Molinari & David A. Roth are at CODA Genomics; John T. Mulligan is at Blue Heron Biotechnology; Han-Oh Park is at Bioneer; Bas Reichert is at BaseClear B.V.; Ralf Wagner is at the University of Regensburg Molecular Virology & Gene Therapy Unit, Institute of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene; Bruce Budowle, Robert M. Scripp, Jenifer A. L.Smith & Scott J. Steele are at the US FBI; George Church is in the Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School; Drew Endy is in the Department of Biological Engineering, MIT; George Church & Drew Endy are at the multi-institution US National Science Foundation Synthetic Biology Engineering Research Center. e-mail:

A group of academics, industry executives and security experts propose an oversight framework to address concerns over the security of research involving commercial DNA synthesis.