Research abstract

Article abstract

Nature Biotechnology 21, 526 - 531 (2003)
Published online: 14 April 2003 | doi:10.1038/nbt820

Complete genome sequence and comparative analysis of the industrial microorganism Streptomyces avermitilis

Haruo Ikeda1, Jun Ishikawa2, Akiharu Hanamoto3, Mayumi Shinose3, Hisashi Kikuchi4, Tadayoshi Shiba5, Yoshiyuki Sakaki6,7, Masahira Hattori1,7 & Satoshi Ōmura3,8

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Species of the genus Streptomyces are of major pharmaceutical interest because they synthesize a variety of bioactive secondary metabolites. We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the linear chromosome of Streptomyces avermitilis. S. avermitilis produces avermectins, a group of antiparasitic agents used in human and veterinary medicine. The genome contains 9,025,608 bases (average GC content, 70.7%) and encodes at least 7,574 potential open reading frames (ORFs). Thirty-five percent of the ORFs (2,664) constitute 721 paralogous families. Thirty gene clusters related to secondary metabolite biosynthesis were identified, corresponding to 6.6% of the genome. Comparison with Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) revealed that an internal 6.5-Mb region in the S. avermitilis genome was highly conserved with respect to gene order and content, and contained all known essential genes but showed perfectly asymmetric structure at the oriC center. In contrast, the terminal regions were not conserved and preferentially contained nonessential genes.

  1. Kitasato Institute for Life Sciences, Kitasato University, Kanagawa 228-8555, Japan.
  2. National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo 162-8640, Japan.
  3. The Kitasato Institute, Tokyo 108-8642, Japan.
  4. National Institute of Technology and Evaluation, Tokyo 151-0066, Japan.
  5. School of Science, Kitasato University, Kanagawa 228-8555, Japan.
  6. Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639, Japan.
  7. RIKEN Yokohama Institute, Genomic Sciences Center, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan.
  8. Kitasato Institute for Life Sciences, Kitasato University, Tokyo 108-8641, Japan.

Correspondence to: Haruo Ikeda1 e-mail:

Correspondence to: Masahira Hattori1,7 e-mail:

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