Volume 545 Issue 7652, 4 May 2017

The cover shows the microstructure of an exceptionally strong thin-film magnesium alloy captured using transmission electron microscopy. Produced by dual-phase nanostructuring, this alloy has a strength that approaches the ideal theoretical limit. Nanostructuring of crystalline metal alloys can yield high-strength materials, but these tend to soften as the strain is increased. In this latest work, Jian Lu and his team combine the benefits of nanocrystallinity with those of single-phase amorphous metallic glasses to yield a dual-phase material — MgCu2 nanocrystalline grains (6 nm) enclosed in an amorphous glassy shell (2 nm) — that resulted in the strongest thin-film magnesium alloy to be made so far. Cover image: Susanna Siu & Ge Wu/City University of Hong Kong

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    Toolbox

  • Toolbox |

    Getting data off an ancient floppy disk or computer tape isn't easy, but it can be done with the help of clever software and hardware.

    • Monya Baker

    Collection:

  • Technology Feature

  • Technology Feature |

    Mobile phones are helping to take conventional laboratory-based science into the field, the classroom and the clinic.

    • Jeffrey M. Perkel

    Collection:

Research

    News & Views

  • News & Views |

    A revised timeline for the arrival of settlers on Mangaia island in Polynesia reveals the resilience of this population, which overcame an environmental crisis through bold measures to support a sustainable society.

    • Jared Diamond
  • News & Views |

    Mutant proteins that contain stretches called polyQ repeats can misfold or form aggregates linked to neurodegeneration. It emerges that some polyQ-containing proteins regulate a process that degrades misfolded proteins. See Letter p.108

    • Dale D. O. Martin
    •  & Michael R. Hayden
  • News & Views |

    Hydrocarbons called alkenes are isolated from petroleum as mixtures of isomers, often making it hard to use them as reagents for synthesis. A reaction involving a migrating nickel atom offers a possible solution. See Letter p.84

    • Matthew Gaunt
    •  & Patrick Williamson
  • News & Views |

    Two studies of the molecular chaperone protein HSP90 reveal how complex traits can be shaped by genetic and environmental context. This work highlights the challenges of personalized medicine.

    • Mark L. Siegal
  • News & Views |

    Short-term climate trends are sensitive to definitions, data and testing. This sensitivity underlies an alleged pause in global warming, and highlights the need for meaningful definitions to sustain claims that it was real. See Analysis p.41

    • James S. Risbey
    •  & Stephan Lewandowsky
  • News & Views |

    Two studies integrate cutting-edge techniques to grow and analyse 3D cultured tissues that resemble human brain structures, enabling examination of how brain regions interact and neurons mature. See Articles p.48 & p.54

    • J. Gray Camp
    •  & Barbara Treutlein
  • Analysis

  • Analysis |

    Apparently contradictory conclusions regarding the ‘global warming hiatus’ are reconciled, strengthening the current scientific understanding that long-term global warming is extremely likely to be of anthropogenic origin.

    • Iselin Medhaug
    • , Martin B. Stolpe
    • , Erich M. Fischer
    •  & Reto Knutti
  • Articles

  • Article |

    Long-term cultures of human brain organoids display a high degree of cellular diversity, mature spontaneous neuronal networks and are sensitive to light.

    • Giorgia Quadrato
    • , Tuan Nguyen
    • , Evan Z. Macosko
    • , John L. Sherwood
    • , Sung Min Yang
    • , Daniel R. Berger
    • , Natalie Maria
    • , Jorg Scholvin
    • , Melissa Goldman
    • , Justin P. Kinney
    • , Edward S. Boyden
    • , Jeff W. Lichtman
    • , Ziv M. Williams
    • , Steven A. McCarroll
    •  & Paola Arlotta
  • Article |

    Human pluripotent stem cells were used to develop dorsal and ventral forebrain 3D spheroids, which can be assembled to study interneuron migration and to derive a functionally integrated forebrain system with cortical interneurons and glutamatergic neurons.

    • Fikri Birey
    • , Jimena Andersen
    • , Christopher D. Makinson
    • , Saiful Islam
    • , Wu Wei
    • , Nina Huber
    • , H. Christina Fan
    • , Kimberly R. Cordes Metzler
    • , Georgia Panagiotakos
    • , Nicholas Thom
    • , Nancy A. O’Rourke
    • , Lars M. Steinmetz
    • , Jonathan A. Bernstein
    • , Joachim Hallmayer
    • , John R. Huguenard
    •  & Sergiu P. Paşca
  • Article |

    The clinical benefit of anti-PD-1 antibody treatment is dependent on the extent to which exhausted CD8 T cells are reinvigorated in relation to the tumour burden of the patient.

    • Alexander C. Huang
    • , Michael A. Postow
    • , Robert J. Orlowski
    • , Rosemarie Mick
    • , Bertram Bengsch
    • , Sasikanth Manne
    • , Wei Xu
    • , Shannon Harmon
    • , Josephine R. Giles
    • , Brandon Wenz
    • , Matthew Adamow
    • , Deborah Kuk
    • , Katherine S. Panageas
    • , Cristina Carrera
    • , Phillip Wong
    • , Felix Quagliarello
    • , Bradley Wubbenhorst
    • , Kurt D’Andrea
    • , Kristen E. Pauken
    • , Ramin S. Herati
    • , Ryan P. Staupe
    • , Jason M. Schenkel
    • , Suzanne McGettigan
    • , Shawn Kothari
    • , Sangeeth M. George
    • , Robert H. Vonderheide
    • , Ravi K. Amaravadi
    • , Giorgos C. Karakousis
    • , Lynn M. Schuchter
    • , Xiaowei Xu
    • , Katherine L. Nathanson
    • , Jedd D. Wolchok
    • , Tara C. Gangadhar
    •  & E. John Wherry

    Nature Outlook:

  • Letters

  • Letter |

    In a quantum dot in the Kondo regime, electrical charges are effectively frozen, but the quantum dot remains electrically conducting owing to strong electron–electron correlations.

    • M. M. Desjardins
    • , J. J. Viennot
    • , M. C. Dartiailh
    • , L. E. Bruhat
    • , M. R. Delbecq
    • , M. Lee
    • , M.-S. Choi
    • , A. Cottet
    •  & T. Kontos
  • Letter |

    Quasiparticles in strongly interacting fractional quantum Hall systems carry heat according to the same quantization of thermal conductance as for particles in non-interacting systems.

    • Mitali Banerjee
    • , Moty Heiblum
    • , Amir Rosenblatt
    • , Yuval Oreg
    • , Dima E. Feldman
    • , Ady Stern
    •  & Vladimir Umansky
  • Letter |

    Combining the benefits of nanocrystals with those of amorphous metallic glasses leads to a dual-phase material—comprising sub-10-nanometre-sized nanocrystalline grains embedded in amorphous glassy shells—that exhibits a strength approaching the ideal theoretical limit.

    • Ge Wu
    • , Ka-Cheung Chan
    • , Linli Zhu
    • , Ligang Sun
    •  & Jian Lu
  • Letter |

    Tokummia katalepsis from the Burgess Shale had a pair of mandibles and maxilliped claws, showing that large bivalved arthropods from the Cambrian period are forerunners of myriapods and pancrustaceans, thereby providing a basis for the origin of the hyperdiverse mandibulate body plan.

    • Cédric Aria
    •  & Jean-Bernard Caron
  • Letter |

    Conditional deletion of the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger NCLX in adult mouse hearts causes sudden death due to mitochondrial calcium overload, whereas its overexpression limits cell death elicited by ischaemia reperfusion injury and heart failure.

    • Timothy S. Luongo
    • , Jonathan P. Lambert
    • , Polina Gross
    • , Mary Nwokedi
    • , Alyssa A. Lombardi
    • , Santhanam Shanmughapriya
    • , April C. Carpenter
    • , Devin Kolmetzky
    • , Erhe Gao
    • , Jop H. van Berlo
    • , Emily J. Tsai
    • , Jeffery D. Molkentin
    • , Xiongwen Chen
    • , Muniswamy Madesh
    • , Steven R. Houser
    •  & John W. Elrod
  • Letter |

    Interferon-γ acts on tumour endothelial cells to drive vascular regression, inducing ischaemia that leads to tumour collapse.

    • Thomas Kammertoens
    • , Christian Friese
    • , Ainhoa Arina
    • , Christian Idel
    • , Dana Briesemeister
    • , Michael Rothe
    • , Andranik Ivanov
    • , Anna Szymborska
    • , Giannino Patone
    • , Severine Kunz
    • , Daniel Sommermeyer
    • , Boris Engels
    • , Matthias Leisegang
    • , Ana Textor
    • , Hans Joerg Fehling
    • , Marcus Fruttiger
    • , Michael Lohoff
    • , Andreas Herrmann
    • , Hua Yu
    • , Ralph Weichselbaum
    • , Wolfgang Uckert
    • , Norbert Hübner
    • , Holger Gerhardt
    • , Dieter Beule
    • , Hans Schreiber
    •  & Thomas Blankenstein
  • Letter |

    Under physiological forces, resulting from cytokinesis, the mechanosensitivity of adherens junction arises from a local decrease in E-cadherin concentration and results in actomyosin flows.

    • Diana Pinheiro
    • , Edouard Hannezo
    • , Sophie Herszterg
    • , Floris Bosveld
    • , Isabelle Gaugue
    • , Maria Balakireva
    • , Zhimin Wang
    • , Inês Cristo
    • , Stéphane U. Rigaud
    • , Olga Markova
    •  & Yohanns Bellaïche
  • Letter |

    The polyglutamine domain in ataxin 3, which is expanded in spinocerebellar ataxia type 3, allows normal ataxin 3 to interact with and deubiquitinate beclin 1 and thereby to promote autophagy.

    • Avraham Ashkenazi
    • , Carla F. Bento
    • , Thomas Ricketts
    • , Mariella Vicinanza
    • , Farah Siddiqi
    • , Mariana Pavel
    • , Ferdinando Squitieri
    • , Maarten C. Hardenberg
    • , Sara Imarisio
    • , Fiona M. Menzies
    •  & David C. Rubinsztein
  • Letter |

    Crystal structures of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) in complex with two different antagonist ligands and with a blocking antibody reveal binding sites that are distinct from those found on PAR1, offering new leads for structure-based drug design.

    • Robert K. Y. Cheng
    • , Cédric Fiez-Vandal
    • , Oliver Schlenker
    • , Karl Edman
    • , Birte Aggeler
    • , Dean G. Brown
    • , Giles A. Brown
    • , Robert M. Cooke
    • , Christoph E. Dumelin
    • , Andrew S. Doré
    • , Stefan Geschwindner
    • , Christoph Grebner
    • , Nils-Olov Hermansson
    • , Ali Jazayeri
    • , Patrik Johansson
    • , Louis Leong
    • , Rudi Prihandoko
    • , Mathieu Rappas
    • , Holly Soutter
    • , Arjan Snijder
    • , Linda Sundström
    • , Benjamin Tehan
    • , Peter Thornton
    • , Dawn Troast
    • , Giselle Wiggin
    • , Andrei Zhukov
    • , Fiona H. Marshall
    •  & Niek Dekker

Corrections

Advertisement Feature

  • Advertisement Feature |

    PhIRDA: From imitator to innovator

    Determined to become a leader in science and technology innovation, China, the world’s second-largest pharmaceutical market, has put drug innovation high on its development agenda. Its launch of a national-level multi-billion dollar project has seen significant improvement in capabilities of basic drug research and clinical research, along with rising new drug discoveries. With a healthy environment for biomedical innovation, the Chinese pharmaceutical industry is transforming from an imitator to an innovator.

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