Volume 517 Issue 7534, 15 January 2015

Editorial

  • Editorial |

    The terrorist attacks in Paris were an assault on the fundamental values of free and democratic societies. Researchers, and humorists, must combat obscurantism everywhere.

  • Editorial |

    Arguments among ocean scientists show how much remains to be discovered.

  • Editorial |

    The preference for either cats or dogs affects science more than you might think.

World View

Research Highlights

Social Selection

Seven Days

  • Seven Days |

    The week in science: Trove of extinct animal bones found in underwater cave; influential leader of German science policy dies; and Japan approves massive stimulus package.

News

Correction

News Feature

Comment

  • Comment |

    Governments need research and guidelines to help them to move towns and villages threatened by global warming, argue David López-Carr and Jessica Marter-Kenyon.

    • David López-Carr
    •  & Jessica Marter-Kenyon

Books & Arts

Correspondence

Obituary

News & Views

  • News & Views |

    Flow-tank experiments and fluid-dynamics simulations refute the idea that water movements over the body of boxfishes are a stabilizing influence, instead showing that the fish's shape amplifies destabilizing forces to improve manoeuvrability.

    • Stacy C. Farina
    •  & Adam P. Summers
  • News & Views |

    Analysis reveals that the uranium isotopic composition of oceanic crust that is being subducted into Earth's interior is distinctive, allowing the development of chemical heterogeneity in the mantle to be tracked. See Letter p.356

    • Jon Woodhead
  • News & Views |

    The finding that immobilized ions can alter the strength of hydrophobic interactions between molecules suggests a strategy for tuning hydrophobicity to optimize molecular recognition and self-assembly processes. See Letter p.347

    • Shekhar Garde
  • News & Views |

    A catalyst has been tuned to make different compounds from the same molecules in carbon–nitrogen bond-forming reactions, depending on the conditions used. The products are potential building blocks for biologically active molecules.

    • Emmanuelle Schulz
  • News & Views |

    The African Genome Variation Project presents genotyping and whole-genome data from individuals across sub-Saharan Africa, giving insight into population history and guiding future genomic studies on the continent. See Article p.327

    • Raj Ramesar
  • News & Views |

    An analysis reveals that the dragonfly's impressive ability to catch its prey arises from internal calculations about its own movements and those of its target — the first example of such predictions in invertebrates. See Article p.333

    • Stacey A. Combes
  • News & Views |

    HIV variants that have mutated to escape T-cell immune responses dominate the latent viral reservoir in most patients on antiretroviral therapy. This finding will need to guide therapeutic approaches targeting reactivated virus. See Letter p.381

    • Louis J. Picker
    •  & Jeffrey D. Lifson

Introduction

  • Introduction |

    • Alex Eccleston
    • , Noah Gray
    • , Sadaf Shadan
    •  & Ursula Weiss

Futures

Letter

  • Letter |

    A global meta-analysis of conservation agriculture principles indicates that the potential contribution of no-till to the sustainable intensification of agriculture is more limited than often assumed.

    • Cameron M. Pittelkow
    • , Xinqiang Liang
    • , Bruce A. Linquist
    • , Kees Jan van Groenigen
    • , Juhwan Lee
    • , Mark E. Lundy
    • , Natasja van Gestel
    • , Johan Six
    • , Rodney T. Venterea
    •  & Chris van Kessel

    Special:

  • Letter |

    A comparative analysis of bacterial growth and genetic phenotypes using hundreds of genome-scale metabolic models reveals a two-stage evolutionary process that consists of a rapid initial phenotypic diversification followed by a slow long-term divergence.

    • Germán Plata
    • , Christopher S. Henry
    •  & Dennis Vitkup
  • Letter |

    CEACAM1 functions as a novel heterophilic ligand for TIM-3 and is necessary for TIM-3-mediated tolerance, which has marked consequences for inflammation, infection and cancer.

    • Yu-Hwa Huang
    • , Chen Zhu
    • , Yasuyuki Kondo
    • , Ana C. Anderson
    • , Amit Gandhi
    • , Andrew Russell
    • , Stephanie K. Dougan
    • , Britt-Sabina Petersen
    • , Espen Melum
    • , Thomas Pertel
    • , Kiera L. Clayton
    • , Monika Raab
    • , Qiang Chen
    • , Nicole Beauchemin
    • , Paul J. Yazaki
    • , Michal Pyzik
    • , Mario A. Ostrowski
    • , Jonathan N. Glickman
    • , Christopher E. Rudd
    • , Hidde L. Ploegh
    • , Andre Franke
    • , Gregory A. Petsko
    • , Vijay K. Kuchroo
    •  & Richard S. Blumberg
  • Letter |

    Here, plant HAM proteins are shown to physically interact with the transcription factor WUSCHEL and the related WOX proteins, with this interaction driving downstream transcriptional programs and determining the activities of stem cells.

    • Yun Zhou
    • , Xing Liu
    • , Eric M. Engstrom
    • , Zachary L. Nimchuk
    • , Jose L. Pruneda-Paz
    • , Paul T. Tarr
    • , An Yan
    • , Steve A. Kay
    •  & Elliot M. Meyerowitz
  • Letter |

    Promoterless recombinant adeno-associated virus is used without nucleases to target the human coagulation factor IX gene to the liver-expressed albumin locus in haemophilia B mice, with an on-target integration into 0.5% of the albumin alleles in hepatocytes; stable F9 plasma levels at 7–20% of normal were obtained, leading to normal coagulation times in treated factor-IX-deficient mice.

    • A. Barzel
    • , N. K. Paulk
    • , Y. Shi
    • , Y. Huang
    • , K. Chu
    • , F. Zhang
    • , P. N. Valdmanis
    • , L. P. Spector
    • , M. H. Porteus
    • , K. M. Gaensler
    •  & M. A. Kay
  • Letter |

    The subnanometre-resolution electron cryomicroscopy structure of TmrAB, a heterodimeric ABC transport protein, in a nucleotide-free, inward-facing conformation, is determined.

    • JungMin Kim
    • , Shenping Wu
    • , Thomas M. Tomasiak
    • , Claudia Mergel
    • , Michael B. Winter
    • , Sebastian B. Stiller
    • , Yaneth Robles-Colmanares
    • , Robert M. Stroud
    • , Robert Tampé
    • , Charles S. Craik
    •  & Yifan Cheng
  • Letter |

    Using two-photon microendoscopy and genetically encoded calcium indicators the tuning properties of the first neural station of the gustatory system are explored; results reveal that ganglion neurons are matched to specific taste receptor cells, supporting a labelled line model of information transfer in the taste system.

    • Robert P. J. Barretto
    • , Sarah Gillis-Smith
    • , Jayaram Chandrashekar
    • , David A. Yarmolinsky
    • , Mark J. Schnitzer
    • , Nicholas J. P. Ryba
    •  & Charles S. Zuker
  • Letter |

    Blocking ERK/MAP kinases improves insulin sensitivity thorough a mechanism similar to the actions of the anti-diabetic thiazolidinediones drugs on PPARγ.

    • Alexander S. Banks
    • , Fiona E. McAllister
    • , João Paulo G. Camporez
    • , Peter-James H. Zushin
    • , Michael J. Jurczak
    • , Dina Laznik-Bogoslavski
    • , Gerald I. Shulman
    • , Steven P. Gygi
    •  & Bruce M. Spiegelman
  • Letter |

    Chemical force microscopy measurements show that the immobilization of specific cationic groups near non-polar domains produces pronounced changes in the domains’ hydrophobic interaction strengths: charged ammonium groups double interaction strengths, whereas guanidinium groups eliminate measurable interactions.

    • C. Derek Ma
    • , Chenxuan Wang
    • , Claribel Acevedo-Vélez
    • , Samuel H. Gellman
    •  & Nicholas L. Abbott
  • Letter |

    Despite receiving antiretroviral therapy, most patients with HIV still have latent reservoirs of the virus; here, these reservoirs are shown to be dominated by viruses with cytotoxic T lymphocyte escape mutations, with potential implications for the development of therapeutic vaccines.

    • Kai Deng
    • , Mihaela Pertea
    • , Anthony Rongvaux
    • , Leyao Wang
    • , Christine M. Durand
    • , Gabriel Ghiaur
    • , Jun Lai
    • , Holly L. McHugh
    • , Haiping Hao
    • , Hao Zhang
    • , Joseph B. Margolick
    • , Cagan Gurer
    • , Andrew J. Murphy
    • , David M. Valenzuela
    • , George D. Yancopoulos
    • , Steven G. Deeks
    • , Till Strowig
    • , Priti Kumar
    • , Janet D. Siliciano
    • , Steven L. Salzberg
    • , Richard A. Flavell
    • , Liang Shan
    •  & Robert F. Siliciano

    Collection:

  • Letter |

    Examination of the global uranium cycle — whereby uranium from the Earth’s crust is first transported to the oceans and then returned, by subduction, to the mantle — shows that the subducted uranium is isotopically distinct from the Earth as a whole and that this signature has been stirred throughout upper mantle, arguably within the past 600 million years.

    • Morten B. Andersen
    • , Tim Elliott
    • , Heye Freymuth
    • , Kenneth W. W. Sims
    • , Yaoling Niu
    •  & Katherine A. Kelley
  • Letter |

    A copper-catalysed dynamic kinetic asymmetric transformation using racemic substrates and alkyl nucleophiles is reported; organometallic reagents are generated in situ from alkenes by hydrometallation, and give highly enantioenriched products under mild reaction conditions.

    • Hengzhi You
    • , Emeline Rideau
    • , Mireia Sidera
    •  & Stephen P. Fletcher
  • Letter |

    Attosecond light pulses are now available experimentally, enabling ultrafast processes on the atomic scale to be probed; here the free-electron-like propagation of electrons through ultrathin layers of magnesium is observed in real time.

    • S. Neppl
    • , R. Ernstorfer
    • , A. L. Cavalieri
    • , C. Lemell
    • , G. Wachter
    • , E. Magerl
    • , E. M. Bothschafter
    • , M. Jobst
    • , M. Hofstetter
    • , U. Kleineberg
    • , J. V. Barth
    • , D. Menzel
    • , J. Burgdörfer
    • , P. Feulner
    • , F. Krausz
    •  & R. Kienberger
  • Letter |

    The origin of most chondrules (small, previously molten spherules inside meteorites) is shown to be impact jetting; chondrules form from the shock-melted material ejected from a protoplanet on impact, making meteorites a byproduct of planet formation.

    • Brandon C. Johnson
    • , David A. Minton
    • , H. J. Melosh
    •  & Maria T. Zuber

Article

  • Article | | Open Access

    The African Genome Variation Project contains the whole-genome sequences of 320 individuals and dense genotypes on 1,481 individuals from sub-Saharan Africa; it enables the design and interpretation of genomic studies, with implications for finding disease loci and clues to human origins.

    • Deepti Gurdasani
    • , Tommy Carstensen
    • , Fasil Tekola-Ayele
    • , Luca Pagani
    • , Ioanna Tachmazidou
    • , Konstantinos Hatzikotoulas
    • , Savita Karthikeyan
    • , Louise Iles
    • , Martin O. Pollard
    • , Ananyo Choudhury
    • , Graham R. S. Ritchie
    • , Yali Xue
    • , Jennifer Asimit
    • , Rebecca N. Nsubuga
    • , Elizabeth H. Young
    • , Cristina Pomilla
    • , Katja Kivinen
    • , Kirk Rockett
    • , Anatoli Kamali
    • , Ayo P. Doumatey
    • , Gershim Asiki
    • , Janet Seeley
    • , Fatoumatta Sisay-Joof
    • , Muminatou Jallow
    • , Stephen Tollman
    • , Ephrem Mekonnen
    • , Rosemary Ekong
    • , Tamiru Oljira
    • , Neil Bradman
    • , Kalifa Bojang
    • , Michele Ramsay
    • , Adebowale Adeyemo
    • , Endashaw Bekele
    • , Ayesha Motala
    • , Shane A. Norris
    • , Fraser Pirie
    • , Pontiano Kaleebu
    • , Dominic Kwiatkowski
    • , Chris Tyler-Smith
    • , Charles Rotimi
    • , Eleftheria Zeggini
    •  & Manjinder S. Sandhu
  • Article |

    This study tracks dragonfly head and body movements during high-velocity and high-precision prey-capture flights, and shows that the dragonfly uses predictive internal models and reactive control to build an interception trajectory that complies with biomechanical constraints.

    • Matteo Mischiati
    • , Huai-Ti Lin
    • , Paul Herold
    • , Elliot Imler
    • , Robert Olberg
    •  & Anthony Leonardo

Review Article

Feature

Career Brief

Insight

  • Insight |

    Frontiers in biology

    The Reviews in this year’s Frontiers in Biology Insight cover the amygdala and how technology is helping us to understand its complex connectivity, innate lymphoid cells, nutrient-sensing mechanisms in mammals, a form of cell death called necroptosis, and the regulation and function of DNA methylation and its use as a cellular marker.

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