Volume 509 Issue 7498, 1 May 2014

This Week

News In Focus

Comment

Careers

    Naturejobs

  • Column |

    Saying no to a move is not easy, but there could be some very good reasons to stay put, says Yoshimi Rii.

    • Yoshimi Rii
  • Futures

Specials

    Outlook

  • Outlook |

    In the face of more drug-resistant bugs and fewer new drugs, partnerships promise a resurgence of antibiotics.

    • Mike May
  • Outlook |

    Science goes back to nature to decipher and disrupt the mechanisms by which germs evade antibiotics.

    • Bill Cannon
  • Outlook |

    It's time to use viruses that kill bacteria again, say Shigenobu Matsuzaki, Jumpei Uchiyama, Iyo Takemura-Uchiyama and Masanori Daibata.

    • Shigenobu Matsuzaki
    • , Jumpei Uchiyama
    • , Iyo Takemura-Uchiyama
    •  & Masanori Daibata
  • Outlook |

    New antibiotic treatments could be found by combining novel and existing drugs, in drug-free nanoparticles, or at the bottom of the sea.

    • Katharine Gammon

Research

    News & Views

  • News & Views |

    A remote-sensing analysis of tropical forests in the Congo Basin that are experiencing chronic drought reveals consistent patterns of reduced vegetation greenness, increased temperatures and decreased water storage. See Letter p.86

    • Jeffrey Q. Chambers
    •  & Dar A. Roberts
  • News & Views |

    A new holographic method has been used to convert ordinary electron beams into helical beams. These beams show promise in applications such as the spectroscopic analysis of materials with intrinsic handedness and nanoparticle manipulation.

    • Jun Yuan
  • News & Views |

    A group of regulatory neurons in the spinal cord has been found to reduce sensory feedback to muscles in mice. Removal of these neurons leads to repetitive limb oscillations during reaching. See Article p.43

    • Stephen H. Scott
    •  & Frédéric Crevecoeur
  • News & Views |

    Controversy exists over the roles of water and melt in the ductile layer of the mantle beneath Earth's surface plates. New data support models in which small amounts of melting occur in the uppermost part of this region. See Letter p.81

    • Rob L. Evans
  • News & Views |

    Spectroscopic observations of a young exoplanet have allowed its spin velocity to be directly measured. Its fast spin is in accord with the extrapolation of the known trend in spin velocity as a function of planet mass. See Letter p.63

    • Travis Barman
  • Articles

  • Article |

    A population of spinal interneurons that form axo–axonic connections with the terminals of proprioceptive afferents are shown to mediate presynaptic inhibition; their ablation elicits harmonic oscillations during goal-directed forelimb movements, which can be modelled as the consequence of an increase in sensory feedback gain.

    • Andrew J. P. Fink
    • , Katherine R. Croce
    • , Z. Josh Huang
    • , L. F. Abbott
    • , Thomas M. Jessell
    •  & Eiman Azim
  • Article |

    Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have a lower rate of protein synthesis in vivo than most other haematopoietic cells, and both increases and decreases in the rate of protein synthesis impair HSC function, demonstrating that HSC maintenance—and hence, cellular homeostasis—requires the rate of protein synthesis to be highly regulated.

    • Robert A. J. Signer
    • , Jeffrey A. Magee
    • , Adrian Salic
    •  & Sean J. Morrison
  • Article |

    A longitudinal study of an individual patient developing neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 (targeting the V1V2 region of gp120) reveals how such neutralizing antibodies develop and evolve over time, providing important insights relevant to vaccine development.

    • Nicole A. Doria-Rose
    • , Chaim A. Schramm
    • , Jason Gorman
    • , Penny L. Moore
    • , Jinal N. Bhiman
    • , Brandon J. DeKosky
    • , Michael J. Ernandes
    • , Ivelin S. Georgiev
    • , Helen J. Kim
    • , Marie Pancera
    • , Ryan P. Staupe
    • , Han R. Altae-Tran
    • , Robert T. Bailer
    • , Ema T. Crooks
    • , Albert Cupo
    • , Aliaksandr Druz
    • , Nigel J. Garrett
    • , Kam H. Hoi
    • , Rui Kong
    • , Mark K. Louder
    • , Nancy S. Longo
    • , Krisha McKee
    • , Molati Nonyane
    • , Sijy O’Dell
    • , Ryan S. Roark
    • , Rebecca S. Rudicell
    • , Stephen D. Schmidt
    • , Daniel J. Sheward
    • , Cinque Soto
    • , Constantinos Kurt Wibmer
    • , Yongping Yang
    • , Zhenhai Zhang
    • , NISC Comparative Sequencing
    • , James C. Mullikin
    • , James M. Binley
    • , Rogier W. Sanders
    • , Ian A. Wilson
    • , John P. Moore
    • , Andrew B. Ward
    • , George Georgiou
    • , Carolyn Williamson
    • , Salim S. Abdool Karim
    • , Lynn Morris
    • , Peter D. Kwong
    • , Lawrence Shapiro
    •  & John R. Mascola
  • Letters

  • Letter |

    Near-infrared spectroscopic observations of the young extrasolar planet β Pictoris b indicate that it spins significantly faster than any planet in the Solar System, in line with the extrapolation of the known trend in spin velocity with planet mass.

    • Ignas A. G. Snellen
    • , Bernhard R. Brandl
    • , Remco J. de Kok
    • , Matteo Brogi
    • , Jayne Birkby
    •  & Henriette Schwarz
  • Letter |

    Single organic dye molecules have high-flux, narrow-bandwidth single-photon emission and can be spectrally matched to the transitions of atoms acting as a quantum memory, making them promising for use in quantum information and communication schemes.

    • Petr Siyushev
    • , Guilherme Stein
    • , Jörg Wrachtrup
    •  & Ilja Gerhardt
  • Letter |

    An enantioselective reaction involving a molecule with two axes of stereochemical consequence produces four stereoisomers, and rather than racemizing as the system approaches equilibrium, one of the diastereomeric pairs drifts spontaneously to a higher enantiomeric ratio.

    • Kimberly T. Barrett
    • , Anthony J. Metrano
    • , Paul R. Rablen
    •  & Scott J. Miller
  • Letter |

    New sea surface temperature and oxygen isotope records, combined with climate modelling experiments, show that slowdowns of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation during Heinrich stadials and the Younger Dryas stadial affected the tropical Indian Ocean hydroclimate through changes to the Hadley circulation.

    • Mahyar Mohtadi
    • , Matthias Prange
    • , Delia W. Oppo
    • , Ricardo De Pol-Holz
    • , Ute Merkel
    • , Xiao Zhang
    • , Stephan Steinke
    •  & Andreas Lückge
  • Letter |

    Determination of the electrical conductivity of carbon-dioxide- and water-rich melts, which are typically produced at the onset of mantle melting, shows that incipient melts can trigger the high electrical conductivities found in oceanic regions of the asthenosphere.

    • David Sifré
    • , Emmanuel Gardés
    • , Malcolm Massuyeau
    • , Leila Hashim
    • , Saswata Hier-Majumder
    •  & Fabrice Gaillard
  • Letter |

    The long-term drying trend in central African rainforests might help to explain satellite-detected large-scale vegetation browning in the Congolese forests.

    • Liming Zhou
    • , Yuhong Tian
    • , Ranga B. Myneni
    • , Philippe Ciais
    • , Sassan Saatchi
    • , Yi Y. Liu
    • , Shilong Piao
    • , Haishan Chen
    • , Eric F. Vermote
    • , Conghe Song
    •  & Taehee Hwang
  • Letter |

    Using whole-genome and whole-exome sequencing, this study identifies eight significantly mutated genes in oesophageal squamous cell cancer, including two genes, ADAM29 and FAM135B, not previously associated with this cancer type.

    • Yongmei Song
    • , Lin Li
    • , Yunwei Ou
    • , Zhibo Gao
    • , Enmin Li
    • , Xiangchun Li
    • , Weimin Zhang
    • , Jiaqian Wang
    • , Liyan Xu
    • , Yong Zhou
    • , Xiaojuan Ma
    • , Lingyan Liu
    • , Zitong Zhao
    • , Xuanlin Huang
    • , Jing Fan
    • , Lijia Dong
    • , Gang Chen
    • , Liying Ma
    • , Jie Yang
    • , Longyun Chen
    • , Minghui He
    • , Miao Li
    • , Xuehan Zhuang
    • , Kai Huang
    • , Kunlong Qiu
    • , Guangliang Yin
    • , Guangwu Guo
    • , Qiang Feng
    • , Peishan Chen
    • , Zhiyong Wu
    • , Jianyi Wu
    • , Ling Ma
    • , Jinyang Zhao
    • , Longhai Luo
    • , Ming Fu
    • , Bainan Xu
    • , Bo Chen
    • , Yingrui Li
    • , Tong Tong
    • , Mingrong Wang
    • , Zhihua Liu
    • , Dongxin Lin
    • , Xiuqing Zhang
    • , Huanming Yang
    • , Jun Wang
    •  & Qimin Zhan
  • Letter |

    Cystathionine γ-lyase, which is responsible for the production of cysteine, is decreased in the striatum and cortex of mouse models of Huntington’s disease and in patients with Huntington’s disease, and cysteine supplementation in diet and drinking water partly rescues the phenotype and the diminished longevity of the mouse model.

    • Bindu D. Paul
    • , Juan I. Sbodio
    • , Risheng Xu
    • , M. Scott Vandiver
    • , Jiyoung Y. Cha
    • , Adele M. Snowman
    •  & Solomon H. Snyder
  • Letter |

    Reprogramming after somatic cell nuclear transfer had been thought to be dependent on the recipient cytoplasm being arrested at the metaphase stage, but here interphase two-cell mouse embryos are shown to support successful reprogramming and generation of embryonic stem cells or cloned mice.

    • Eunju Kang
    • , Guangming Wu
    • , Hong Ma
    • , Ying Li
    • , Rebecca Tippner-Hedges
    • , Masahito Tachibana
    • , Michelle Sparman
    • , Don P. Wolf
    • , Hans R. Schöler
    •  & Shoukhrat Mitalipov
  • Letter |

    Through a quantitative proteomics analysis, a cohort of proteins is identified that associate with autophagosomes, among them a new cargo receptor called NCOA4 that, in response to iron deprivation, targets ferritin to autophagosomes and thereby releases iron.

    • Joseph D. Mancias
    • , Xiaoxu Wang
    • , Steven P. Gygi
    • , J. Wade Harper
    •  & Alec C. Kimmelman
  • Letter |

    RIG-I protein recognizes viral duplex RNA with a 5′-triphosphate group, activating innate immune responses; a crystal structure of its tetrameric CARD signalling domain reveals that non-covalently linked ubiquitin chains stabilize the tetramer in a ‘lock-washer’ structure that serves as a signalling platform for the recruitment and activation of MAVS.

    • Alys Peisley
    • , Bin Wu
    • , Hui Xu
    • , Zhijian J. Chen
    •  & Sun Hur
  • Letter |

    The X-ray crystal structure of the human P2Y12 receptor, which regulates platelet activation and thrombus formation, is solved in complex with an antithrombotic drug, providing insights for the development of new drugs.

    • Kaihua Zhang
    • , Jin Zhang
    • , Zhan-Guo Gao
    • , Dandan Zhang
    • , Lan Zhu
    • , Gye Won Han
    • , Steven M. Moss
    • , Silvia Paoletta
    • , Evgeny Kiselev
    • , Weizhen Lu
    • , Gustavo Fenalti
    • , Wenru Zhang
    • , Christa E. Müller
    • , Huaiyu Yang
    • , Hualiang Jiang
    • , Vadim Cherezov
    • , Vsevolod Katritch
    • , Kenneth A. Jacobson
    • , Raymond C. Stevens
    • , Beili Wu
    •  & Qiang Zhao
  • Letter |

    An X-ray structure of human P2Y12 receptor, a clinical drug target for platelet aggregation inhibitors, is presented in complex with an agonist, providing insight into the δ-group of class A G-protein-coupled receptors.

    • Jin Zhang
    • , Kaihua Zhang
    • , Zhan-Guo Gao
    • , Silvia Paoletta
    • , Dandan Zhang
    • , Gye Won Han
    • , Tingting Li
    • , Limin Ma
    • , Wenru Zhang
    • , Christa E. Müller
    • , Huaiyu Yang
    • , Hualiang Jiang
    • , Vadim Cherezov
    • , Vsevolod Katritch
    • , Kenneth A. Jacobson
    • , Raymond C. Stevens
    • , Beili Wu
    •  & Qiang Zhao

Corrections

Nature Outlook

  • Nature Outlook |

    Antibiotics

    Antibiotic-resistant infections are increasing worldwide. For instance, nearly half a million people get infected with drug-resistant tuberculosis every year, one-third of whom die. Part of the problem arises from casual overuse of life-saving medicines, rendering them worthless. As this Outlook reveals, it will take agricultural and healthcare reforms to defeat the encroaching bacterial epidemic.

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