We strongly recommend that, before submission, you familiarize yourself
with Nature's style and content by reading the journal, either in
print or online at www.nature.com/nature,
particularly if you have not submitted to the journal recently.
If you wish to search the text below, press 'control f' and enter the
search term, for example 'figure format'.
Publishing in other Nature
and Nature Research journals
1. Formats for description of research
Nature's main formats for original research are Articles
and Letters to Nature. The journal also publishes a very few
1.1 Articles are original reports
whose conclusions represent a substantial advance in understanding of
an important problem and have immediate, far-reaching implications.
They do not normally exceed 5 pages of Nature and have
no more than 50 references. (One page of undiluted text is about
Articles have a summary, separate from the main text, of up to 150 words,
which does not have references, and does not contain numbers, abbreviations,
acronyms or measurements unless essential. It is aimed at readers outside
the discipline. This summary contains a brief account of the background
and rationale of the work, followed by a statement of the main conclusions
introduced by the phrase 'Here we show' or its equivalent.
Articles are typically 3,000 words of text, beginning with up to 500
words of referenced text expanding on the background to the work (some
overlap with the summary is acceptable), before proceeding to a concise,
focused account of the findings, ending with one or two short paragraphs
The text may contain a few short subheadings (not more than six in total)
of no more than 40 characters each (less than one line of text in length).
Articles typically have 5 or 6 small figures.
1.2 Letters to Nature are
short reports of original research focused on an outstanding finding
whose importance means that it will be of interest to scientists in
They do not normally exceed 3 pages of Nature, and have
no more than 30 references. They begin with a fully referenced
paragraph of not more than 180 words, aimed at readers in other
disciplines. This paragraph contains a summary of the background and
rationale for the work, followed by a one-sentence statement of the
main conclusions starting 'Here we show' or equivalent phrase.
The rest of the text is typically about 1,500 words long, starting with
a further brief paragraph of introductory material if the author requires
it, not repeating information in the summary paragraph. Any discussion
at the end of the text should be as succinct as possible.
Letters typically have 3 or 4 small figures.
Word counts refer to the text of the paper. References, title, author
list and acknowledgements do not have to be included in total
2. How to prepare your paper
See getting published in Nature for an explanation
of Nature's editorial criteria for publication, refereeing policy
and how editors handle papers after submission.
3. Presubmission enquiries.
If you wish to enquire whether your Article or Letter might be suitable
for consideration by Nature, please use our online presubmission enquiry service. All presubmission enquiries
must include a a cover paragraph to the editor stating the interest
to a broad scientific readership, a fully referenced summary paragraph
in the style for Letters to Nature, and a reference list. Note
that presubmission enquiries are NOT considered for Brief Communications.
Nature is an international journal covering all the sciences.
Contributions should therefore be written clearly and simply so that
they are accessible to readers in other disciplines and to readers for
whom English is not their first language.
Essential but specialized terms should be explained concisely but not
For gene, protein and other specialized names authors can use
their preferred terminology so long as it is in current use by the community,
but they must give all known names for the entity at first use
in the paper. Authors in doubt about terminology are advised to use
internationally agreed nomenclature at http://www.gene.ucl.ac.uk/nomenclature/
for genes and http://www.informatics.jax.org/mgihome/nomen/
for mouse strains.
Taxonomy. Authors of papers that contain taxonomy (that is, the
formal nomenclature and description of new species) must send a copy
of the published paper by mail (not email) as soon as possible after
publication, or send otherwise notification of the new name with a full
reference and date, to the Executive Secretary, the Linnean Society
of London, Burlington House, Piccadilly, London W1J 0BF, UK. See
Nature 417, 573; 2002.
It is often useful to ask colleagues specializing in other disciplines
to comment on the clarity of a final draft before submission to Nature.
Nature's editors provide detailed advice about format before
contributions are formally accepted for publication. Nature's
editors often suggest revised titles and rewrite the summaries of Articles
and first paragraphs of Letters so the conclusions are clear to a broad
After acceptance, Nature's subeditors (copyeditors) ensure that
the text and figures are readable and clear to those outside the field,
and edit papers into Nature's house style. They pay particular
attention to summary paragraphs, overall clarity, figures, figure legends
Proofs are sent before publication; authors are welcome to discuss proposed
changes with Nature's subeditors, but Nature reserves
the right to make the final decision about matters of style and the
size of figures.
See Nature 382, 3; 1996 and 384, 497; 1996 for more details about
A useful set of articles providing general advice about writing and
submitting scientific papers can be found in SciDev.Net's "How do I?"
section. There are many articles and books written on this topic.
5. Format of Articles and Letters.
A one-page checklist of formats for Articles and
Letters is available, and authors are requested to use it immediately
before submission and resubmission and to submit it with their paper.
Contributions should be double-spaced and written in English (spellings
as in the Oxford English
Contributions should be organized in the sequence: title, text, methods,
references, Supplementary Information line (if any), acknowledgements,
interest declaration, corresponding author line, tables, figure legends.
When providing word counts for the editors, authors need only state
the number of words in the text (and, separately, methods and total
figure legends). Title, acknowledgements and other matter does not need
to be included in the word count.
5.1 Titles do not exceed 90 characters
(including spaces), and do not normally include numbers, acronyms, abbreviations
or punctuation. They should include sufficient detail for indexing purposes
but be general enough for readers outside the field to appreciate what
the paper is about.
5.2 Text. Articles should fill
no more than 5 pages, and Letters no more than 3 pages, of Nature.
An uninterrupted page of text contains about 1,300 words. A typical
Article contains about 3,000 words of text and, additionally, five small
display items (figures and/or tables) with brief legends, reference
list and methods section if applicable. A typical Letter to Nature
contains about 1,500 words of text (excluding the first paragraph of
Letters, figure legends, reference list and the methods section if applicable)
and four small display items (figures and/or tables) with brief legends
(see 5.9 for instructions on sizing figures).
When submitting new or revised manuscripts, authors should state in
a cover letter to the editor their rough estimate of the length of their
paper in terms of number of pages of Nature and fill out the
Longer papers are sometimes allowed but only if explicitly suggested
by the editor.
Authors of contributions that significantly exceed the limits stated
here or specified by the editor will have to shorten their papers before
acceptance, inevitably delaying publication.
Nature prefers authors to be listed without details of relative
status, but instead to specify the contribution made by their co-authors
in the Acknowledgements (see Nature,
399, 393; 1999). Nature strongly encourages coauthors
to specify their contributions in this way.
If authors regard it as essential to indicate that two or more co-authors
are equal in status, they may be identified by a symbol with the caption
'these authors contributed equally to the work' immediately under the
Present addresses appear immediately below the author list; all other
essential author-related explanation is in the acknowledgements.
Authors should format Articles or Letters using Nature's Word template, and before finalizing their
manuscript should use the author's checklist for format
(applies to revised manuscripts as well as original submissions.) The
style tags in the template should be deleted before submission.
5.3 Methods. If brief (less than
200 words in total), they can be included in the text at an appropriate
Otherwise, they should be described at the end of the text in a 'Methods'
section, subdivided by short, bold headings referring to methods used.
Descriptions of methods already published should be avoided; a reference
number can be provided to save space, with the new addition or variation
This whole section should not exceed 800 words and should ideally be
shorter. If more space is required for Methods, the editor may suggest
use of online-only Supplementary Information for this purpose after
submission and after receiving referees' reports. Supplementary material
5.4 References are each numbered, ordered sequentially
as they appear in the text, methods, tables, figure legends.
When cited in the text, reference numbers are superscript, not in brackets
unless they are likely to be confused with a superscript number.
The maximum number of references, strictly enforced, is 50 for Articles
and 30 for Letters. Only one publication can be listed for each number.
Only articles that have been published or submitted to a named publication
should be in the reference list; papers in preparation should be mentioned
in the text with a list of authors (or initials if any of the authors
are co-authors of the present contribution).
Published conference abstracts, numbered patents and preprints on recognized
servers may be included in reference lists, but text, grant details
and acknowledgements may not.
All authors should be included in reference lists unless there are more
than five, in which case only the first author should be given, followed
by 'et al.'.
Please follow the style below in the published edition of Nature
in preparing reference lists.
- Authors should be listed surname first, followed by a comma and
initials of given names.
- Titles of all cited articles are required. Titles of articles cited
in reference lists should be in upright, not italic text; the first
word of the title is capitalized, the title written exactly as it
appears in the work cited, ending with a full stop. Book titles are
italic with all main words capitalized. Journal titles are italic
and abbreviated according to common usage; authors can refer to Nature,
the Index Medicus
or the American Institute
of Physics style manual for details.
- Volume numbers are bold. The publisher and city of publication are
required for books cited. (Refer to published papers in Nature
- References to web-only journals should give authors, article title
and journal name as above, followed by url in full - or doi if known
- and the year of publication in parentheses.
- References to websites should give authors if known, title of cited
page, url in full, and year of posting in parentheses.
5.5 Acknowledgements are brief
and follow the reference list. Authors are encouraged to include
a statement to specify the contributions of each co-author. Acknowledgements
do not contain grant or contribution numbers, or thanks to anonymous
referees and editors, or effusive comments.
5.6 Competing interests and materials
request statements follow the Acknowledgements.
for instructions about the competing interests statement.
After the competing interests statement, authors should write a further
statement reading "Correspondence and requests for materials should
be addressed to xxxxx", with one e-mail address, followed by numbers
for public database accession. Nature expects this identified
author to respond to readers' enquiries and requests for materials,
and to coordinate the handling of any other matters arising from the
published contribution, including complaints. The author named as corresponding
author is not necessarily the senior author, and publication of this
author's name does not imply seniority.
Tables should each be presented on a separate page, portrait (not
landscape) orientiation, and upright on the page, not sideways.
Tables have a short, one-line title in bold text.
Upright roman (not bold or italic) type of the same size as the rest
of the text is used. The body of the table should not contain horizontal
or vertical rules; these will be added by Nature when necessary
after the paper has been accepted for publication.
Tables should be as small as possible. Bear in mind the size of a Nature
page as a limiting factor when compiling a table and ensure it will
Symbols and abbreviations are defined immediately below the table, followed
by essential descriptive material as briefly as possible, all in double-spaced
5.8 Figure legends.
Figure legends should be listed one after the other, as part
of the text document, separate from the figure files. Please do
not write a legend below each figure.
Each figure legend should begin with a brief title for the whole figure
and continue with a short description of each panel and the symbols
used. For contributions with methods sections, legends should not contain
any details of methods, or exceed 100 words (fewer than 500 words in
total for the whole paper). In contributions without methods sections,
legends should be fewer than 300 words (800 words or fewer in total
for the whole paper).
All error bars must be defined in the figure legend (see Nature
428, 799; 2004 for further details.)
Nature requires figures in electronic format.
Articles and Letters should ideally have no more than 5 and 4 display
items (figures and tables), respectively, all as small as is compatible
with clarity. The goal is for figures to be comprehensible to readers
in other or related disciplines, and to assist their understanding of
Unnecessary figures and parts (panels) of figures should be avoided:
data presented in small tables or histograms, for instance, can generally
be stated briefly in the text instead.
Keep figures as simple as possible for clarity: avoid unnecessary complexity,
colouring and excessive detail.
Figures should not contain more than one panel unless the parts are
logically connected; each panel of a multipart figure should be sized
so that the whole figure can be reduced by the same amount and reproduced
on the printed page at the smallest size at which essential details
are visible and the panels, when assembled, are square or rectangular
shaped. A Nature page is 178 mm wide and 245 mm deep, so no figure
can be larger than this (the vast majority of figures are much smaller).
Amino-acid sequences should be printed in Courier (or other monospaced)
font using the one-letter code in lines of 50 or 100 characters.
Some brief guidance for figure preparation:
Lettering in figures (labelling of axes and so on) should be in lower-case
type, with the first letter capitalized and no full stop.
Units should have a single space between the number and the unit, and
follow SI nomenclature or the nomenclature common to a particular field.
Thousands should be separated by commas (1,000). Unusual units or abbreviations
are defined in the legend.
Scale bars should be used rather than magnification factors, with the
length of the bar defined in the legend rather than on the bar itself.
Layering type directly over shaded or textured areas and using reversed
type (white lettering on a coloured background) should be avoided where
Where possible, text, including keys to symbols, should be provided
in the legend rather than on the figure itself. (See published issues
of Nature for guidance.)
A contribution towards the total cost of reproduction of colour figures
is requested. Inability to pay this charge will not prevent publication
of colour figures judged essential by the editors.
At submission, figures should be at good enough resolution to be assessed
by referees, ideally as JPEGs. Very high-resolution figures are often
too large to send to referees or between Nature's editorial offices,
although they are required if the paper is eventually accepted for publication.
At submission, figures should be clearly labelled with the corresponding
author's name, Nature reference number when known, and the figure
number/part. Instructions for online submissions are at (www.nature.com/nature/submit/subs/index.html).
In preparing figures for submission, each should be a separate, clearly
labelled file, with a clear indication of how parts of each figure (if
any) should be assembled on the printed page.
Authors who cannot submit online and are instead submitting by mail
should provide figures on disk, clearly labelled with corresponding
author's name, a list of the figure numbers/parts on the disk and formats
used, and file types. Authors submitting by mail must also provide one
set of hard-copy figures in a separate, clearly marked envelope with
a set of photocopies, one for each figure, with the panels (if any)
arranged into a rectangular shape as they will appear in the published
paper. These hard-copy original figures should be of the highest possible
quality, as Nature will scan them into electronic form to send
to reviewers if unable to use digital files from authors' disks.
5.10 Production-quality figures.
When a manuscript is accepted in principle for publication, the
editor will ask for high-resolution figures. Do not submit publication-quality
figures until asked to do so by an editor. They must be prepared according
to the guidelines at www.nature.com/nature/submit/final/.
We suggest you download these instructions before preparing the final
version of figures.
5.11 Supplementary Information
This is online-only, peer-reviewed material that is essential background
to the Article or Letter (for example, large data sets), but which is
too large or impractical to be included in the printed version of the
paper. SI is not necessary for Brief Communications. See the Supplementary Information page
for further details.
6. How to submit
When possible, Articles, Letters and Brief Communications should be
submitted online. If online submission
is not possible, contributions should be posted.
E-mailed submissions will not be considered.
Authors submitting Articles, Letters and Brief Communications online
should not also send a hard copy of their papers.
Authors who are unable to submit online may submit by post, but Nature
strongly prefers online submission. Authors experiencing operational
difficulty in online submission should send a help request to firstname.lastname@example.org.
In hard copy submissions, one copy is required, with a disk (cover
letter, manuscript, supporting manuscripts, figures, all in separate
files, clearly labelled and named and format identified). We keep
all submissions on file for future reference. Supplementary Information
(if any) can be supplied on the same disk, with the files and formats
clearly labelled and specified. Do not submit Supplementary Information
without first reading the guidelines. Submissions can
be mailed to London or Washington DC. Office postal addresses are listed
on Nature's masthead in each printed issue (between the contents
pages and the Opinion page) and online at Editorial contacts.
Nature urges authors to submit online if possible to reduce
Online submission formats: Word (preferred), Wordperfect, PostScript
(PS), EPS, RTF, TXT and PDF formats are acceptable. Figures can be submitted
as JPEG (preferred), PDF (high resolution), TIFF/Gif, Adobe photoshop
or illustrator, Excel, Word, Wordperfect, PS, EPS. We cannot (yet) handle
Tex, LaTex or Corel draw.
ONLY SUBMIT ARTICLES, LETTERS OR BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS ONLINE. DO
NOT SUBMIT OTHER TYPES OF CONTRIBUTION ONLINE UNLESS SPECIFICALLY REQUESTED
BY A NATURE EDITOR. IF IN DOUBT, SEND AN ENQUIRY MESSAGE FIRST
The following applies to all Article, Letter and Brief Communication
submissions, whether submitted online or by mail.
- Submissions should be accompanied by a brief covering letter from
the corresponding author. This letter should contain two (100-word
or shorter) summaries: a concise paragraph to the editor indicating
the scientific grounds why the paper should be considered for a
topical, interdisciplinary journal rather than for a single-discipline
or archival journal; and a separate, 100-word summary of the paper's
appeal to a popular (non-scientific) audience, written at the level
of a good national newspaper. This second summary may be used as
the basis for Nature's press release (6.2) and other general publicity material.
- The cover letter should state clearly what is included as the
submission, including number of figures, supporting manuscripts
and any Supplementary Information (specifying number of items and
- The cover letter should also state the number of words of text
in the paper; the number of figures and parts of figures (for example,
4 figures, comprising 16 separate panels in total); a rough estimate
of the desired final size of figures in terms of number of pages;
and a full current postal address, telephone and fax numbers, and
current e-mail address. Nature usually communicates with
authors by e-mail; authors must specify if they wish to exclude
a method of communication.
- Nature does not require all authors of a paper to sign
the letter of submission, nor does it impose an order on the list
of authors. Submission to Nature is taken to mean that all
the listed authors have agreed all the content. The corresponding
(submitting) author is responsible for having ensured that this
agreement has been reached.
- A copy of a permission letter or e-mail must be included for any
work described in the paper as "personal communication".
- Permission must be obtained for use of any previously published figure or text, and included with the submission
- One copy of any relevant paper by any of the authors submitted
or in press elsewhere (including papers submitted elsewhere while
the Nature contribution is under consideration) should be
attached, ideally as PDFs but in other format if PDF is not possible,
clearly marked as such. Failure to disclose this information may
lead to rejection. (Authors submitting by mail should include one
copy of clearly identified supporting manuscripts, where possible
in electronic form, but where not, on paper.)
- Nature does not consider contributions under consideration
or published elsewhere. This policy does not apply to conference
abstracts, which are allowed. If part of a contribution has appeared
or has been submitted elsewhere, the paper is not automatically
rejected so long as the main result, conclusion and implications
are not apparent from the other work. In this event, the corresponding
author must specify in the covering letter which part of the contribution
will appear or has appeared elsewhere, indicating the publication
concerned. Authors must also state whether any material in the paper
has appeared or will appear on a preprint server and, if so, which.
Revised versions should be sent electronically via www.nature.com/nature/submit/resubs/index.html
when possible, and include the manuscript reference number. If not possible,
they should be sent by mail (one hard copy plus two disks, one of the
figures and one of all textual material, all labelled with the manuscript
reference number). All revised papers should be accompanied by one copy
of the authors' response to the referees' and editors' comments. Nature
prefers it if papers revised and resubmitted at the request of the editors
are accompanied by a completed authors' article and letter format checklist.
If a manuscript is accepted in principle for publication, it will be
required by mail as part of a package, specified by the editor in a
letter to the author, and must not be submitted online or by email.
For full instructions see final submissions.
6.1 Proofs of accepted contributions
b should be returned to the London office. All reprint orders and
enquiries should be made to email@example.com.
Instructions for ordering reprints are provided after the paper is accepted
6.2 Press release. Once scheduled
for publication, some contributions are selected by Nature's
editors for inclusion in a press release. This provides a brief summary,
together with contact details for the authors, and is distributed to
registered journalists under embargo conditions a week before the publication
date, solely for the purpose of publicizing the work in the media. These
journalists are permitted to show papers to independent specialists
of their own choosing a few days in advance of publication, again under
embargo conditions, solely for the purpose of eliciting comments on
the work described.
Authors of accepted contributions scheduled for publication may also
arrange their own publicity, but they must adhere strictly to Nature's
press embargo. Authors are advised to coordinate their own publicity
with Nature's press office, in the first instance by sending
an e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org after their paper is
accepted for publication. Before publication, Nature's press
office informs the public information departments of all authors' institutions
to allow them to prepare their own publicity.
7. Conditions of publication
Nature has a range of publication policies, with which contributors
must agree before submitting. All material considered for publication
in Nature is on condition that all authors agree to these conditions.
8. Brief Communications
This is a peer-reviewed section of Nature which is less formal
than Articles and Letters, aimed at the broadest possible readership.
The Brief Communications section is vastly oversubscribed; more than
90 per cent of contributions are returned without review because of
Nature's very limited space for this section (two to four contributions
a week can be published). Contributions are considered only if their
conclusions are clearly of discernible interest to readers in any discipline
of science. Presubmission enquiries are not considered, nor can the
editor provide detailed explanations for declining to publish contributions.
Appeals against editorial decisions are not considered except in special
circumstances in the case of Communications Arising, see below.
The following types of contribution are published:
- Short reports of a novel, topical finding of general interest, usually
needing only one small figure or table. Contributions of this type
are often submitted as Letters and are shortened at the editor's suggestion
and after advice from referees. They are not preliminary reports
or 'addenda' to published Articles or Letters.
- Short, focused reports of results of exceptional topical relevance,
for which fast publication is essential.
- A scientific perspective on a topical issue of international public
- Communications Arising, which are exceptionally interesting
or important comments and clarifications on original research papers
or other peer-reviewed material published in Nature (see below).
Submissions presenting preliminary data that confirm, extend or contradict
only part of a previously published paper (in Nature or elsewhere)
are not considered, unless they concern a matter of exceptional interest.
Contributions can be submitted as Word documents, with figures as JPEGs,
as small as possible but with a combined limit of no greater than 3
MB (ideally much smaller), using the online service. Contributions can
be submitted by post as hard copy with disk to the Brief Communications
editor (see Editorial contacts
for postal addresses), but Nature strongly prefers online submission.
Before submission, contributors should read some published issues of
Nature to appreciate the style of this section of the journal,
to get an idea of whether their contribution is of sufficient interest,
and should prepare their manuscripts according to the instructions below:
Authors must provide current e-mail, phone, fax and address details, including
an e-mail and phone number if spending time away from their usual address.
- Contributions should not exceed 500 words, or 700 words if there
is no figure or table.
- Titles must be brief. They may be changed on acceptance by the editors
for space or other reasons. Authors will be consulted about title
changes but Nature will make the final decision.
- Contributions should start with a two- or three-sentence paragraph
that summarizes the message of the article without specialized terminology,
for a non-specialist readership.
- Brief Communications contributions should have a simple message
that requires only one small figure or table. Contributions with multiple
or complex figures and/or tables will not be considered.
- Figures and tables should be sized so that they can be reduced to
single-column width (56 mm). See section 5.9 above for formats and
resolution: 150 dots per inch is usually sufficient resolution for
- Contributions should not have more than around 10 references (ideally
fewer); reference style is as for Letters and Articles, but titles
of cited articles are not required.
- Methods should be supplied as Supplementary Information; in Brief
Communications, it is not permitted to use Supplementary Information
to present additional new data. Movies and other useful illustrative
material are occasionally allowed.
- Acknowledgements and joint first authors are not allowed. People
or organizations providing essential assistance can be mentioned briefly
in the text or figure legend.
- A competing interests statement is required before final acceptance.
Instructions to authors who wish to submit Brief Communications
Arising (comments on material published in Nature)
Brief Communications Arising are published only online.
When submitting a scientific comment on a recent paper published in
Nature, please bear in mind the following additional points
to those detailed above:
- Contributions should be written as focused articles comprehensible
to nonspecialists: lists of technical points are not appropriate for
publication. They should pertain to the main conclusion of the published
paper and should not concern relatively unimportant points.
- Comments should be sent to the authors of the paper under discussion
before submission to Nature, so that disputes can be resolved
directly whenever possible and points where both parties agree removed
from the submitted contribution. Allow 2 weeks for the original authors
- When a contribution is submitted to Nature, copies of correspondence
with the original authors should be enclosed for the editor's information,
even if the original author has failed to respond, otherwise delays
The Brief Communications editor will decide how to proceed on the basis
of whether the central conclusion of the earlier paper is brought into
question; of the length of time since the original publication; and
of whether a comment or exchange of views is likely to seem of interest
to nonspecialist readers. Because Nature receives so many comments,
those that do not meet these criteria are referred to the specialist
Nature does not consider Communications Arising on papers
published in other journals.
The Brief Communications editor will not consider appeals against decisions
not to publish Communications Arising from Nature Articles and
Letters unless the grounds for appeal consist of a previously overlooked
and important scientific point and are explained in these terms.
Nature reserves the right not to consider for publication material
written in aggressive or otherwise intemperate language, or if the author(s)
behaves in an unprofessional, discourteous manner to Nature staff
Complaints. Important technical complaints pertaining to published
Articles and Letters to Nature should be submitted as Communications
Arising using the online submission service. Those endorsed after editorial
discussion, comments from the criticized authors and peer-review are
published as corrections at the end of the Letters to Nature
section, not as Brief Communications Arising, for indexing purposes.
Communications Arising submissions that meet Nature's initial
selection criteria are sent to the authors of the original paper for
a response, and the exchange to independent referees. The original authors
are given a deadline of 10 days to respond. This response is not a referee's
report, but is helpful to the editor in making a decision about publication
of the comment and/or a reply. The responders (defined as the authors
of the published contribution that is the subject of the comment, and
no-one else) must keep the comment confidential and must not use it
for their own research or for any other purpose apart from replying
to the comment, nor can they distribute it without first obtaining Nature's
permission. If the Nature author does not respond within 10 days
of receipt of the comment, the editor will proceed without the response.
Late responses may not be considered for publication.
Responses are published only when they add to the debate, and not when
they reiterate points already published. They should not contain new
data, but be confined to replying to the specific issue raised about
the published paper.
All contributions should be measured in tone, and should not contain
inflammatory or otherwise intemperate language.
Authors of Brief Communications Arising will be shown the initial response
from the Nature authors. In the event that the exchange is accepted
for publication, they will see a proof of their own contribution but
not of the final reply (if a reply is being published). Responders will
see a proof of the whole exchange but are allowed only to change typographical
9. Other contributions published in Nature
News and Views
Reviews and Progress
Occasional peer-reviewed articles
Nature Jobs editorial articles
10. Other Nature and Nature Research journals
Please see Publications and services
for a list of the other journals published by the Nature Publishing
Group and their publication policies.
For an account of the relationship between all the Nature journals,
Nature � Macmillan
Publishers Ltd 2003 Registered No. 785998 England.