Table of Contents

Volume 545 Number 7654 pp265-380

18 May 2017

About the cover

A group’s collective action towards a common goal, even if everyone’s interests are aligned, faces a ‘coordination’ problem: an individual’s attempts to reach a solution that is optimal for him or her locally may not be optimal for the group as a whole. In this issue, Nicholas Christakis and Hirokazu Shirado demonstrate a potential solution to this problem in the shape of autonomous software (artificial intelligence) agents, or ‘bots’. They introduced simple bots into small networks of humans engaged in solving a standard colour coordination game — in which the collective goal is for every node to have a colour different from all of its neighbour nodes — thus creating a ‘heterogeneous system’ of humans and bots. They found that using the bots to introduce noise into the decision-making process could improve the overall performance of the group. The noisy bots worked best when they were placed centrally in the network and they displayed moderate (10%) randomness. Under these conditions, the bots not only improved human–bot interactions but also human–human interactions at distant nodes, thereby helping humans to help themselves. Cover image: Cavan Huang

This Week



World View


Research Highlights


News in Focus




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Outlook: University spin-offs


supplement: Career guide Melbourne


Spotlight on genetics

Spotlight on Shenzhen

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    Single-cell genomic sequencing is poised to revolutionize fields from cancer to immunology.

    • Paul Smaglik
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  • Predictive compound accumulation rules yield a broad-spectrum antibiotic

    • Michelle F. Richter
    • Bryon S. Drown
    • Andrew P. Riley
    • Alfredo Garcia
    • Tomohiro Shirai
    • Riley L. Svec
    • Paul J. Hergenrother

    The authors use computational modelling and a set of chemically synthesized compounds to define the physicochemical properties required for small-molecule accumulation in Gram-negative bacteria.

  • Endothelial TLR4 and the microbiome drive cerebral cavernous malformations

    • Alan T. Tang
    • Jaesung P. Choi
    • Jonathan J. Kotzin
    • Yiqing Yang
    • Courtney C. Hong
    • Nicholas Hobson
    • Romuald Girard
    • Hussein A. Zeineddine
    • Rhonda Lightle
    • Thomas Moore
    • Ying Cao
    • Robert Shenkar
    • Mei Chen
    • Patricia Mericko
    • Jisheng Yang
    • Li Li
    • Ceylan Tanes
    • Dmytro Kobuley
    • Urmo Võsa
    • Kevin J. Whitehead
    • Dean Y. Li
    • Lude Franke
    • Blaine Hart
    • Markus Schwaninger
    • Jorge Henao-Mejia
    • Leslie Morrison
    • Helen Kim
    • Issam A. Awad
    • Xiangjian Zheng
    • Mark L. Kahn

    Lipopolysaccharide derived from gut bacteria can accelerate the formation of cerebral cavernous malformations by activating TLR4 on endothelial cells, and polymorphisms that increase expression of the genes encoding TLR4 or its co-receptor CD14 are associated with higher CCM lesion burden in humans.

  • Discovery of nitrate–CPK–NLP signalling in central nutrient–growth networks

    • Kun-hsiang Liu
    • Yajie Niu
    • Mineko Konishi
    • Yue Wu
    • Hao Du
    • Hoo Sun Chung
    • Lei Li
    • Marie Boudsocq
    • Matthew McCormack
    • Shugo Maekawa
    • Tetsuya Ishida
    • Chao Zhang
    • Kevan Shokat
    • Shuichi Yanagisawa
    • Jen Sheen

    In response to nitrate, Ca2+-sensor protein kinases (CPKs) act as master regulators to coordinate downstream signalling responses that are essential for shoot growth and root establishment in Arabidopsis.

  • Selectivity determinants of GPCR–G-protein binding

    • Tilman Flock
    • Alexander S. Hauser
    • Nadia Lund
    • David E. Gloriam
    • Santhanam Balaji
    • M. Madan Babu

    The identification of the positions and patterns of amino acids that form the selectivity determinants for the entire human G-protein and G-protein-coupled receptor signalling system.