Table of Contents

Volume 543 Number 7643 pp8-144

2 March 2017

About the cover

In this special issue on human migration, Nature investigates the facts behind the headlines on migration and speaks to refugee and immigrant scientists. Vivek Wadhwa celebrates the foreign-born entrepreneurs who have brought jobs and wealth to America. And Huub Dijstelbloem and Gemma Galdon Clavell highlight ethical issues around the increasing use of technology to track people’s movements. Cover art: Alberto Seveso

This Week



World View


Seven Days


News in Focus






  • Visa policy: Access denied

    Political change is causing scientists worldwide to worry about how immigration law might affect their ability to do research.

    • Chris Woolston

Career Briefs


naturejobs job listings and advertising features







  • The integral role of iron in ocean biogeochemistry

    • Alessandro Tagliabue
    • Andrew R. Bowie
    • Philip W. Boyd
    • Kristen N. Buck
    • Kenneth S. Johnson
    • Mak A. Saito

    The recent expansion of observational data has changed our understanding of the ocean iron cycle and its linkages with nutrients such as carbon and nitrogen.


  • Evidence for early life in Earth’s oldest hydrothermal vent precipitates

    • Matthew S. Dodd
    • Dominic Papineau
    • Tor Grenne
    • John F. Slack
    • Martin Rittner
    • Franco Pirajno
    • Jonathan O’Neil
    • Crispin T. S. Little

    Perhaps the earliest known signs of life have been found in Quebec, where features such as haematite tubes suggest that filamentous microbes lived around hydrothermal vents at least 3,770 million years ago.

  • Whole-genome landscape of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours

    • Aldo Scarpa
    • David K. Chang
    • Katia Nones
    • Vincenzo Corbo
    • Ann-Marie Patch
    • Peter Bailey
    • Rita T. Lawlor
    • Amber L. Johns
    • David K. Miller
    • Andrea Mafficini
    • Borislav Rusev
    • Maria Scardoni
    • Davide Antonello
    • Stefano Barbi
    • Katarzyna O. Sikora
    • Sara Cingarlini
    • Caterina Vicentini
    • Skye McKay
    • Michael C. J. Quinn
    • Timothy J. C. Bruxner
    • Angelika N. Christ
    • Ivon Harliwong
    • Senel Idrisoglu
    • Suzanne McLean
    • Craig Nourse
    • Ehsan Nourbakhsh
    • Peter J. Wilson
    • Matthew J. Anderson
    • J. Lynn Fink
    • Felicity Newell
    • Nick Waddell
    • Oliver Holmes
    • Stephen H. Kazakoff
    • Conrad Leonard
    • Scott Wood
    • Qinying Xu
    • Shivashankar Hiriyur Nagaraj
    • Eliana Amato
    • Irene Dalai
    • Samantha Bersani
    • Ivana Cataldo
    • Angelo P. Dei Tos
    • Paola Capelli
    • Maria Vittoria Davì
    • Luca Landoni
    • Anna Malpaga
    • Marco Miotto
    • Vicki L. J. Whitehall
    • Barbara A. Leggett
    • Janelle L. Harris
    • Jonathan Harris
    • Marc D. Jones
    • Jeremy Humphris
    • Lorraine A. Chantrill
    • Venessa Chin
    • Adnan M. Nagrial
    • Marina Pajic
    • Christopher J. Scarlett
    • Andreia Pinho
    • Ilse Rooman
    • Christopher Toon
    • Jianmin Wu
    • Mark Pinese
    • Mark Cowley
    • Andrew Barbour
    • Amanda Mawson
    • Emily S. Humphrey
    • Emily K. Colvin
    • Angela Chou
    • Jessica A. Lovell
    • Nigel B. Jamieson
    • Fraser Duthie
    • Marie-Claude Gingras
    • William E. Fisher
    • Rebecca A. Dagg
    • Loretta M. S. Lau
    • Michael Lee
    • Hilda A. Pickett
    • Roger R. Reddel
    • Jaswinder S. Samra
    • James G. Kench
    • Neil D. Merrett
    • Krishna Epari
    • Nam Q. Nguyen
    • Nikolajs Zeps
    • Massimo Falconi
    • Michele Simbolo
    • Giovanni Butturini
    • George Van Buren
    • Stefano Partelli
    • Matteo Fassan
    • Australian Pancreatic Cancer Genome Initiative
    • Kum Kum Khanna
    • Anthony J. Gill
    • David A. Wheeler
    • Richard A. Gibbs
    • Elizabeth A. Musgrove
    • Claudio Bassi
    • Giampaolo Tortora
    • Paolo Pederzoli
    • John V. Pearson
    • Nicola Waddell
    • Andrew V. Biankin
    • Sean M. Grimmond

    The genomes of 102 primary pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours have been sequenced, revealing mutations in genes with functions such as chromatin remodelling, DNA damage repair, mTOR activation and telomere maintenance, and a greater-than-expected contribution from germ line mutations.

  • Intragenic DNA methylation prevents spurious transcription initiation

    • Francesco Neri
    • Stefania Rapelli
    • Anna Krepelova
    • Danny Incarnato
    • Caterina Parlato
    • Giulia Basile
    • Mara Maldotti
    • Francesca Anselmi
    • Salvatore Oliviero

    Intragenic DNA methylation, dependent on Dnmt3b, protects the gene body from spurious entry of RNA Polymerase II and aberrant transcription initiation events.

  • Elucidation of the biosynthesis of the methane catalyst coenzyme F430

    • Simon J. Moore
    • Sven T. Sowa
    • Christopher Schuchardt
    • Evelyne Deery
    • Andrew D. Lawrence
    • José Vazquez Ramos
    • Susan Billig
    • Claudia Birkemeyer
    • Peter T. Chivers
    • Mark J. Howard
    • Stephen E. J. Rigby
    • Gunhild Layer
    • Martin J. Warren

    The enzymes and pathway involved in the biosynthesis of coenzyme F430 are identified, completing our understanding of how members of the cyclic modified tetrapyrrole family are constructed.

    See also


  • The response of relativistic outflowing gas to the inner accretion disk of a black hole

    • Michael L. Parker
    • Ciro Pinto
    • Andrew C. Fabian
    • Anne Lohfink
    • Douglas J. K. Buisson
    • William N. Alston
    • Erin Kara
    • Edward M. Cackett
    • Chia-Ying Chiang
    • Thomas Dauser
    • Barbara De Marco
    • Luigi C. Gallo
    • Javier Garcia
    • Fiona A. Harrison
    • Ashley L. King
    • Matthew J. Middleton
    • Jon M. Miller
    • Giovanni Miniutti
    • Christopher S. Reynolds
    • Phil Uttley
    • Ranjan Vasudevan
    • Dominic J. Walton
    • Daniel R. Wilkins
    • Abderahmen Zoghbi

    X-ray detection of an ultrafast outflow of gas is strongly linked with energy emission from the inner accretion disk of a black hole, suggesting that X-rays ionize the outflowing disk wind.

  • Abiotic tooth enamel

    • Bongjun Yeom
    • Trisha Sain
    • Naida Lacevic
    • Daria Bukharina
    • Sang-Ho Cha
    • Anthony M. Waas
    • Ellen M. Arruda
    • Nicholas A. Kotov

    Nanometre-scale columnar structures in tooth enamel inspire novel nanocomposites containing layers of vertically aligned nanowires, produced by layer-by-layer fabrication and combining high values of both storage modulus and energy dissipation.

    See also
  • Prefrontal cortex output circuits guide reward seeking through divergent cue encoding

    • James M. Otis
    • Vijay M. K. Namboodiri
    • Ana M. Matan
    • Elisa S. Voets
    • Emily P. Mohorn
    • Oksana Kosyk
    • Jenna A. McHenry
    • J. Elliott Robinson
    • Shanna L. Resendez
    • Mark A. Rossi
    • Garret D. Stuber

    Neurons that project from the prefrontal cortex to either the nucleus accumbens or paraventricular thalamus receive different inputs, differentially encode reward-predictive cues, and have opposing effects on reward seeking during cue presentation.

  • Targeting a CAR to the TRAC locus with CRISPR/Cas9 enhances tumour rejection

    • Justin Eyquem
    • Jorge Mansilla-Soto
    • Theodoros Giavridis
    • Sjoukje J. C. van der Stegen
    • Mohamad Hamieh
    • Kristen M. Cunanan
    • Ashlesha Odak
    • Mithat Gönen
    • Michel Sadelain

    Introducing chimeric antigen receptors into the endogenous T-cell receptor locus reduces tonic signalling, averts accelerated T-cell differentiation and delays T-cell exhaustion, leading to enhanced function and anti-tumour efficacy compared to random integrations.

    See also
  • Extrachromosomal oncogene amplification drives tumour evolution and genetic heterogeneity

    • Kristen M. Turner
    • Viraj Deshpande
    • Doruk Beyter
    • Tomoyuki Koga
    • Jessica Rusert
    • Catherine Lee
    • Bin Li
    • Karen Arden
    • Bing Ren
    • David A. Nathanson
    • Harley I. Kornblum
    • Michael D. Taylor
    • Sharmeela Kaushal
    • Webster K. Cavenee
    • Robert Wechsler-Reya
    • Frank B. Furnari
    • Scott R. Vandenberg
    • P. Nagesh Rao
    • Geoffrey M. Wahl
    • Vineet Bafna
    • Paul S. Mischel

    Circular extrachromosomal DNA is found in nearly half of human cancers of a wide variety of histologic types, increasing the copy number of driver oncogenes and intratumoral heterogeneity more effectively than chromosomal amplification and contributing to tumor evolution.

  • Untimely expression of gametogenic genes in vegetative cells causes uniparental disomy

    • H. Diego Folco
    • Venkata R. Chalamcharla
    • Tomoyasu Sugiyama
    • Gobi Thillainadesan
    • Martin Zofall
    • Vanivilasini Balachandran
    • Jothy Dhakshnamoorthy
    • Takeshi Mizuguchi
    • Shiv I. S. Grewal

    Uniparental disomy in fission yeast is triggered by aberrant expression of gametogenic genes in vegetative cells, and is associated with the activation of meiotic cohesin Rec8 in cells with defects in the RNA interference machinery.

  • Light-induced structural changes and the site of O=O bond formation in PSII caught by XFEL

    • Michihiro Suga
    • Fusamichi Akita
    • Michihiro Sugahara
    • Minoru Kubo
    • Yoshiki Nakajima
    • Takanori Nakane
    • Keitaro Yamashita
    • Yasufumi Umena
    • Makoto Nakabayashi
    • Takahiro Yamane
    • Takamitsu Nakano
    • Mamoru Suzuki
    • Tetsuya Masuda
    • Shigeyuki Inoue
    • Tetsunari Kimura
    • Takashi Nomura
    • Shinichiro Yonekura
    • Long-Jiang Yu
    • Tomohiro Sakamoto
    • Taiki Motomura
    • Jing-Hua Chen
    • Yuki Kato
    • Takumi Noguchi
    • Kensuke Tono
    • Yasumasa Joti
    • Takashi Kameshima
    • Takaki Hatsui
    • Eriko Nango
    • Rie Tanaka
    • Hisashi Naitow
    • Yoshinori Matsuura
    • Ayumi Yamashita
    • Masaki Yamamoto
    • Osamu Nureki
    • Makina Yabashi
    • Tetsuya Ishikawa
    • So Iwata
    • Jian-Ren Shen

    A new approach, time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography, is used to view the intermediate states of a photosystem complex following illumination, shedding light on proton transfer and O=O bond formation.