Table of Contents

Volume 541 Number 7636 pp133-252

12 January 2017

About the cover

An aerial view of the river Amazon, taken from the International Space Station, on 6 April 2016. The Amazon forest both responds to and drives much of the variability in climate and biogeochemistry from annual to millennial time scales. But highly resolved records of past climate variability in the region are hard to come by, and until now it has not been clear even whether the Amazon forest was wetter or drier during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Xianfeng Wang et al. have now collected oxygen isotope data covering the past 45,000 years from stalagmite calcite deposits in the Paraíso Cave in eastern Amazonia. Their data show that rainfall was about half that of today during the LGM (around 21,000 years ago) but was some 50% greater during the mid-Holocene (6,000 years ago), broadly coinciding with global changes in temperature and carbon dioxide. Although the Amazon was drier during the glacial period, the rainforest persisted throughout. Whether or not it can be sustained in the future, however, remains an open question. Cover: Tim Peake/ESA/NASA/Getty Images

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    • Hydroclimate changes across the Amazon lowlands over the past 45,000 years

      • Xianfeng Wang
      • R. Lawrence Edwards
      • Augusto S. Auler
      • Hai Cheng
      • Xinggong Kong
      • Yongjin Wang
      • Francisco W. Cruz
      • Jeffrey A. Dorale
      • Hong-Wei Chiang

      Oxygen isotope records derived from stalagmites in the eastern Amazon reveal that rainfall was about half of today’s during the Last Glacial Maximum but half again as much during the mid-Holocene, broadly coinciding with global changes in temperature and carbon dioxide.

      See also
    • A symmoriiform chondrichthyan braincase and the origin of chimaeroid fishes

      • Michael I. Coates
      • Robert W. Gess
      • John A. Finarelli
      • Katharine E. Criswell
      • Kristen Tietjen

      The chimaeroids are one of the four principal divisions of the living jawed vertebrates and their evolutionary origins have been hard to discern; here, the study of a skull of the extinct shark Dwykaselachus shows that the chimaeroids nest among the once fairly common and widespread symmoriiforms.

    • Genome sequence and genetic diversity of European ash treesOpen

      • Elizabeth S. A. Sollars
      • Andrea L. Harper
      • Laura J. Kelly
      • Christine M. Sambles
      • Ricardo H. Ramirez-Gonzalez
      • David Swarbreck
      • Gemy Kaithakottil
      • Endymion D. Cooper
      • Cristobal Uauy
      • Lenka Havlickova
      • Gemma Worswick
      • David J. Studholme
      • Jasmin Zohren
      • Deborah L. Salmon
      • Bernardo J. Clavijo
      • Yi Li
      • Zhesi He
      • Alison Fellgett
      • Lea Vig McKinney
      • Lene Rostgaard Nielsen
      • Gerry C. Douglas
      • Erik Dahl Kjær
      • J. Allan Downie
      • David Boshier
      • Steve Lee
      • Jo Clark
      • Murray Grant
      • Ian Bancroft
      • Mario Caccamo
      • Richard J. A. Buggs

      The genome sequence and genetic diversity of European ash (Fraxinus excelsior) trees reveals the species’ varying susceptibility to ash dieback.

    • Structural variation in amyloid-β fibrils from Alzheimer's disease clinical subtypes

      • Wei Qiang
      • Wai-Ming Yau
      • Jun-Xia Lu
      • John Collinge
      • Robert Tycko

      Structural differences in 40- and 42-residue-long amyloid-β fibrils seeded in vitro from the cortical tissue of patients with different clinical subtypes of Alzheimer’s disease suggest that different fibril structures form in different disease variants and with different peptide lengths.

    • Hypoxia induces heart regeneration in adult mice

      • Yuji Nakada
      • Diana C. Canseco
      • SuWannee Thet
      • Salim Abdisalaam
      • Aroumougame Asaithamby
      • Celio X. Santos
      • Ajay M. Shah
      • Hua Zhang
      • James E. Faber
      • Michael T. Kinter
      • Luke I. Szweda
      • Chao Xing
      • Zeping Hu
      • Ralph J. Deberardinis
      • Gabriele Schiattarella
      • Joseph A. Hill
      • Orhan Oz
      • Zhigang Lu
      • Cheng Cheng Zhang
      • Wataru Kimura
      • Hesham A. Sadek

      A pathway triggered by chronic severe hypoxia boosts regeneration of injured hearts in adult mice.

    • Genome-wide in vivo screen identifies novel host regulators of metastatic colonization

      • Louise van der Weyden
      • Mark J. Arends
      • Andrew D. Campbell
      • Tobias Bald
      • Hannah Wardle-Jones
      • Nicola Griggs
      • Martin Del Castillo Velasco-Herrera
      • Thomas Tüting
      • Owen J. Sansom
      • Natasha A. Karp
      • Simon Clare
      • Diane Gleeson
      • Edward Ryder
      • Antonella Galli
      • Elizabeth Tuck
      • Emma L. Cambridge
      • Thierry Voet
      • Iain C. Macaulay
      • Kim Wong
      • Sanger Mouse Genetics Project
      • Sarah Spiegel
      • Anneliese O. Speak
      • David J. Adams

      Screening mutant mouse lines using a genome-wide in vivo assay identifies microenvironmental regulators of metastatic colonization and defines SPNS2 as an important mediator of lung colonization.

    • Structures of riboswitch RNA reaction states by mix-and-inject XFEL serial crystallography

      • J. R. Stagno
      • Y. Liu
      • Y. R. Bhandari
      • C. E. Conrad
      • S. Panja
      • M. Swain
      • L. Fan
      • G. Nelson
      • C. Li
      • D. R. Wendel
      • T. A. White
      • J. D. Coe
      • M. O. Wiedorn
      • J. Knoska
      • D. Oberthuer
      • R. A. Tuckey
      • P. Yu
      • M. Dyba
      • S. G. Tarasov
      • U. Weierstall
      • T. D. Grant
      • C. D. Schwieters
      • J. Zhang
      • A. R. Ferré-D’Amaré
      • P. Fromme
      • D. E. Draper
      • M. Liang
      • M. S. Hunter
      • S. Boutet
      • K. Tan
      • X. Zuo
      • X. Ji
      • A. Barty
      • N. A. Zatsepin
      • H. N. Chapman
      • J. C. H. Spence
      • S. A. Woodson
      • Y.-X. Wang

      Femtosecond XFEL crystallography is used to identify dynamic changes in the adenine riboswitch aptamer domain, with at least four states identified in real time, two in the apo form before binding and two with the ligand bound.