Table of Contents

Volume 538 Number 7626 pp427-548

27 October 2016

About the cover

This special issue of Nature explores some of the concerns of early-career scientists by attempting to give them a voice. We talk to young researchers battling to establish their labs, hoping to innovate and at the same time build a career when so much emphasis is placed on paper counts. And at a time when career progression is hampered by a global postdoc glut, scarce funding and the disappearance of tenure-track posts, we argue in our Editorial that it is up to everyone in science — young and old — to ensure that the next generation of researchers is not lost. Cover by Megapont/Folio Art.

This Week



World View


Seven Days


    News in Focus




    • Let researchers try new paths

      Demand for steady output stymies discovery. To pursue the most important research, scientists must be allowed to shift their focus, say Tolu Oni and colleagues.

    • Fewer numbers, better science

      Scientific quality is hard to define, and numbers are easy to look at. But bibliometrics are warping science — encouraging quantity over quality. Leaders at two research institutions describe how they do things differently.

    Books and Arts

    • Economic history: The roots of growth

      Brad DeLong examines a study that places the origins of the Industrial Revolution in fifteenth-century Europe.

      • Review of A Culture of Growth: The Origins of the Modern Economy
        Joel Mokyr
    • Extremophiles: Life at the deep end

      Sonja-Verena Albers reviews a riveting chronicle tracing the discovery of archaea.

      • Review of Microbes from Hell
        Patrick Forterre & Teresa Lavender Fagan
    • Sustainability: Laying waste

      Edward Humes weighs up an analysis of dangerously partial solutions to environmental damage.

      • Review of Environmentalism of the Rich
        Peter Dauvergne





    • Agents of change

      Three advocates explain how their groups are trying to improve junior researchers' experiences.

      • Virginia Gewin


    • Turning point: Cream of the crop

      William Tracy is one of only two sweetcorn breeders in the United States. Here's how he hopes to train a new generation.

      • Virginia Gewin

    naturejobs job listings and advertising features



    Brief Communication Arising

    • Lyons et al. reply

      • S. Kathleen Lyons
      • Joshua H. Miller
      • Kathryn L. Amatange
      • Anna K. Behrensmeyer
      • Antoine Bercovici
      • Jessica L. Blois
      • Matt Davis
      • William DiMichele
      • Andrew Du
      • Jussi T. Eronen
      • J. Tyler Faith
      • Gary R. Graves
      • Nathan Jud
      • Conrad Labandeira
      • Cindy V. Looy
      • Brian McGill
      • David Patterson
      • Silvia Pineda-Munoz
      • Richard Potts
      • Brett Riddle
      • Rebecca Terry
      • Anikó Tóth
      • Werner Ulrich
      • Amelia Villaseñor
      • Scott Wing
      • Heidi Anderson
      • John Anderson
      • Nicholas J. Gotelli


    • Hybrid computing using a neural network with dynamic external memory

      • Alex Graves
      • Greg Wayne
      • Malcolm Reynolds
      • Tim Harley
      • Ivo Danihelka
      • Agnieszka Grabska-Barwińska
      • Sergio Gómez Colmenarejo
      • Edward Grefenstette
      • Tiago Ramalho
      • John Agapiou
      • Adrià Puigdomènech Badia
      • Karl Moritz Hermann
      • Yori Zwols
      • Georg Ostrovski
      • Adam Cain
      • Helen King
      • Christopher Summerfield
      • Phil Blunsom
      • Koray Kavukcuoglu
      • Demis Hassabis

      A ‘differentiable neural computer’ is introduced that combines the learning capabilities of a neural network with an external memory analogous to the random-access memory in a conventional computer.

      See also
    • The MCL1 inhibitor S63845 is tolerable and effective in diverse cancer models

      • András Kotschy
      • Zoltán Szlavik
      • James Murray
      • James Davidson
      • Ana Leticia Maragno
      • Gaëtane Le Toumelin-Braizat
      • Maïa Chanrion
      • Gemma L. Kelly
      • Jia-Nan Gong
      • Donia M. Moujalled
      • Alain Bruno
      • Márton Csekei
      • Attila Paczal
      • Zoltán B. Szabo
      • Szabolcs Sipos
      • Gábor Radics
      • Agnes Proszenyak
      • Balázs Balint
      • Levente Ondi
      • Gábor Blasko
      • Alan Robertson
      • Allan Surgenor
      • Pawel Dokurno
      • Ijen Chen
      • Natalia Matassova
      • Julia Smith
      • Christopher Pedder
      • Christopher Graham
      • Aurélie Studeny
      • Gaëlle Lysiak-Auvity
      • Anne-Marie Girard
      • Fabienne Gravé
      • David Segal
      • Chris D. Riffkin
      • Giovanna Pomilio
      • Laura C. A. Galbraith
      • Brandon J. Aubrey
      • Margs S. Brennan
      • Marco J. Herold
      • Catherine Chang
      • Ghislaine Guasconi
      • Nicolas Cauquil
      • Fabien Melchiore
      • Nolwen Guigal-Stephan
      • Brian Lockhart
      • Frédéric Colland
      • John A. Hickman
      • Andrew W. Roberts
      • David C. S. Huang
      • Andrew H. Wei
      • Andreas Strasser
      • Guillaume Lessene
      • Olivier Geneste

      S63845 specifically inhibits MCL1 and induces tumour cell death in vitro and in vivo in diverse cancer-derived cell lines with an acceptable safety margin.


    • Quantum dynamics of simultaneously measured non-commuting observables

      • Shay Hacohen-Gourgy
      • Leigh S. Martin
      • Emmanuel Flurin
      • Vinay V. Ramasesh
      • K. Birgitta Whaley
      • Irfan Siddiqi

      Simultaneous measurement of two incompatible observables in a superconducting qubit placed in a cavity shows that the quantum dynamics of the system is governed by the uncertainty principle and that the wavefunction collapse is replaced by persistent diffusion.

    • Atom-at-a-time laser resonance ionization spectroscopy of nobelium

      • Mustapha Laatiaoui
      • Werner Lauth
      • Hartmut Backe
      • Michael Block
      • Dieter Ackermann
      • Bradley Cheal
      • Premaditya Chhetri
      • Christoph Emanuel Düllmann
      • Piet van Duppen
      • Julia Even
      • Rafael Ferrer
      • Francesca Giacoppo
      • Stefan Götz
      • Fritz Peter Heßberger
      • Mark Huyse
      • Oliver Kaleja
      • Jadambaa Khuyagbaatar
      • Peter Kunz
      • Felix Lautenschläger
      • Andrew Kishor Mistry
      • Sebastian Raeder
      • Enrique Minaya Ramirez
      • Thomas Walther
      • Calvin Wraith
      • Alexander Yakushev

      Resonance ionization spectroscopy of nobelium (atomic number 102) reveals its ground-state transition and an upper limit for its ionization potential, paving the way to characterizing even heavier elements via optical spectroscopy.

    • Fossil evidence of the avian vocal organ from the Mesozoic

      • Julia A. Clarke
      • Sankar Chatterjee
      • Zhiheng Li
      • Tobias Riede
      • Federico Agnolin
      • Franz Goller
      • Marcelo P. Isasi
      • Daniel R. Martinioni
      • Francisco J. Mussel
      • Fernando E. Novas

      Birds make sound in the syrinx, a unique vocal organ situated deep in the chest, but little is known about the evolution of this structure; a fossilized Cretaceous age syrinx from Antarctica is described from a species that might have been capable of making a goose-like honking sound.

      See also
    • Genomic insights into the peopling of the Southwest Pacific

      • Pontus Skoglund
      • Cosimo Posth
      • Kendra Sirak
      • Matthew Spriggs
      • Frederique Valentin
      • Stuart Bedford
      • Geoffrey R. Clark
      • Christian Reepmeyer
      • Fiona Petchey
      • Daniel Fernandes
      • Qiaomei Fu
      • Eadaoin Harney
      • Mark Lipson
      • Swapan Mallick
      • Mario Novak
      • Nadin Rohland
      • Kristin Stewardson
      • Syafiq Abdullah
      • Murray P. Cox
      • Françoise R. Friedlaender
      • Jonathan S. Friedlaender
      • Toomas Kivisild
      • George Koki
      • Pradiptajati Kusuma
      • D. Andrew Merriwether
      • Francois-X. Ricaut
      • Joseph T. S. Wee
      • Nick Patterson
      • Johannes Krause
      • Ron Pinhasi
      • David Reich

      Analysis of ancient DNA from four individuals who lived in Vanuatu and Tonga between 2,300 and 3,100 years ago suggests that the Papuan ancestry seen in present-day occupants of this region was introduced at a later date.

    • Synchronous long-term oscillations in a synthetic gene circuit

      • Laurent Potvin-Trottier
      • Nathan D. Lord
      • Glenn Vinnicombe
      • Johan Paulsson

      The first synthetic genetic oscillator or ‘repressilator’ is simplified using insights from stochastic theory, thus achieving remarkably precise and robust oscillations and informing current debates about the next generation of synthetic circuits and their potential applications in cell-based therapies.

      See also
    • T-cell acute leukaemia exhibits dynamic interactions with bone marrow microenvironments

      • Edwin D. Hawkins
      • Delfim Duarte
      • Olufolake Akinduro
      • Reema A. Khorshed
      • Diana Passaro
      • Malgorzata Nowicka
      • Lenny Straszkowski
      • Mark K. Scott
      • Steve Rothery
      • Nicola Ruivo
      • Katie Foster
      • Michaela Waibel
      • Ricky W. Johnstone
      • Simon J. Harrison
      • David A. Westerman
      • Hang Quach
      • John Gribben
      • Mark D. Robinson
      • Louise E. Purton
      • Dominique Bonnet
      • Cristina Lo Celso

      Here, leukaemia cells are followed by intravital microscopy as they infiltrate mouse bone marrow and respond to chemotherapy, revealing that at all stages analysed they are highly motile and do not display any associations with particular bone marrow sub-compartments.

    • Chromosome conformation elucidates regulatory relationships in developing human brain

      • Hyejung Won
      • Luis de la Torre-Ubieta
      • Jason L. Stein
      • Neelroop N. Parikshak
      • Jerry Huang
      • Carli K. Opland
      • Michael J. Gandal
      • Gavin J. Sutton
      • Farhad Hormozdiari
      • Daning Lu
      • Changhoon Lee
      • Eleazar Eskin
      • Irina Voineagu
      • Jason Ernst
      • Daniel H. Geschwind

      High-resolution three-dimensional maps of chromatin contacts in the developing human brain help to identify enhancer–promoter contacts, many of which are associated with human cognitive function and disease.

    • TET-mediated DNA demethylation controls gastrulation by regulating Lefty–Nodal signalling

      • Hai-Qiang Dai
      • Bang-An Wang
      • Lu Yang
      • Jia-Jia Chen
      • Guo-Chun Zhu
      • Mei-Ling Sun
      • Hao Ge
      • Rui Wang
      • Deborah L. Chapman
      • Fuchou Tang
      • Xin Sun
      • Guo-Liang Xu

      Inactivation of three Tet genes in mice leads to gastrulation phenotypes similar to those in embryos with increased Nodal signalling, revealing a functional redundancy of Tet genes and showing balanced and dynamic DNA methylation and demethylation is crucial to regulate key signalling pathways in early body plan formation.