Table of Contents

Volume 537 Number 7621 pp449-578

22 September 2016

About the cover

In this Nature ‘Science and inequality’ special issue we look at what science can say about inequality as a phenomenon, and the way inequality plays out within the science workforce. Economist Branko Milanovic uses historical data to follow the ebb and flow of inequality on a timescale of centuries. Mike Savage tackles the question of what ‘class’ actually means. And in two News Features we look in detail at what inequality means within science itself. Cover art: Peter Crowther

This Week



World View


Seven Days


News in Focus




  • End class wars

    Mike Savage calls on sociologists to resolve their differences over definitions of social class to allow better analyses of inequality.

  • Income inequality is cyclical

    Periodic rises and falls in the gap between the rich and poor over centuries indicate that inequality will not grow forever, argues Branko Milanovic.

Books and Arts

  • Public health: Beating Ebola

    Peter Piot ponders two books on the epidemic that offer important lessons from an avoidable catastrophe.

    • Review of Ebola: How a People's Science Helped End an Epidemic and Ebola's Message: Public Health and Medicine in the Twenty-First Century
      Paul Richards; Nicholas G. Evans, Tara C. Smith & Maimuna S. Majumder
  • Books in brief

    Barbara Kiser reviews five of the week's best science picks.





  • Salaries: Reality check

    A feeling that good performance is not adequately rewarded is pervading the research world.

    • Chris Woolston

naturejobs job listings and advertising features



Outlook: Lysosomal storage disorders

Produced with support from:

Ultragenyx Pharmaceutical Inc. Shire plc Biomarin Pharmaceutical Inc.



Brief Communication Arising



  • Perimortem fractures in Lucy suggest mortality from fall out of tall tree

    • John Kappelman
    • Richard A. Ketcham
    • Stephen Pearce
    • Lawrence Todd
    • Wiley Akins
    • Matthew W. Colbert
    • Mulugeta Feseha
    • Jessica A. Maisano
    • Adrienne Witzel

    Careful study of the famous fossil ‘Lucy’, a hominin who died over 3 million years ago, suggests that she died as a result of multiple injuries sustained in a fall–probably out of a tall tree.

  • High-throughput discovery of novel developmental phenotypes

    • Mary E. Dickinson
    • Ann M. Flenniken
    • Xiao Ji
    • Lydia Teboul
    • Michael D. Wong
    • Jacqueline K. White
    • Terrence F. Meehan
    • Wolfgang J. Weninger
    • Henrik Westerberg
    • Hibret Adissu
    • Candice N. Baker
    • Lynette Bower
    • James M. Brown
    • L. Brianna Caddle
    • Francesco Chiani
    • Dave Clary
    • James Cleak
    • Mark J. Daly
    • James M. Denegre
    • Brendan Doe
    • Mary E. Dolan
    • Sarah M. Edie
    • Helmut Fuchs
    • Valerie Gailus-Durner
    • Antonella Galli
    • Alessia Gambadoro
    • Juan Gallegos
    • Shiying Guo
    • Neil R. Horner
    • Chih-Wei Hsu
    • Sara J. Johnson
    • Sowmya Kalaga
    • Lance C. Keith
    • Louise Lanoue
    • Thomas N. Lawson
    • Monkol Lek
    • Manuel Mark
    • Susan Marschall
    • Jeremy Mason
    • Melissa L. McElwee
    • Susan Newbigging
    • Lauryl M. J. Nutter
    • Kevin A. Peterson
    • Ramiro Ramirez-Solis
    • Douglas J. Rowland
    • Edward Ryder
    • Kaitlin E. Samocha
    • John R. Seavitt
    • Mohammed Selloum
    • Zsombor Szoke-Kovacs
    • Masaru Tamura
    • Amanda G. Trainor
    • Ilinca Tudose
    • Shigeharu Wakana
    • Jonathan Warren
    • Olivia Wendling
    • David B. West
    • Leeyean Wong
    • Atsushi Yoshiki
    • The International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium
    • Daniel G. MacArthur
    • Glauco P. Tocchini-Valentini
    • Xiang Gao
    • Paul Flicek
    • Allan Bradley
    • William C. Skarnes
    • Monica J. Justice
    • Helen E. Parkinson
    • Mark Moore
    • Sara Wells
    • Robert E. Braun
    • Karen L. Svenson
    • Martin Hrabe de Angelis
    • Yann Herault
    • Tim Mohun
    • Ann-Marie Mallon
    • R. Mark Henkelman
    • Steve D. M. Brown
    • David J. Adams
    • K. C. Kent Lloyd
    • Colin McKerlie
    • Arthur L. Beaudet
    • Maja Bućan
    • Stephen A. Murray

    Identification and characterization, using a comprehensive embryonic phenotyping pipeline, of 410 lethal alleles during the generation of the first 1,751 of 5,000 unique gene knockouts produced by the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium.


  • A partially differentiated interior for (1) Ceres deduced from its gravity field and shape

    • R. S. Park
    • A. S. Konopliv
    • B. G. Bills
    • N. Rambaux
    • J. C. Castillo-Rogez
    • C. A. Raymond
    • A. T. Vaughan
    • A. I. Ermakov
    • M. T. Zuber
    • R. R. Fu
    • M. J. Toplis
    • C. T. Russell
    • A. Nathues
    • F. Preusker

    Gravity and shape measurements for Ceres obtained from the Dawn spacecraft mission show that it is in hydrostatic equilibrium with its inferred normalized mean moment of inertia of 0.37, suggesting that Ceres has a rocky chondritic core overlaid by a volatile-rich icy shell.

  • Holograms for acoustics

    • Kai Melde
    • Andrew G. Mark
    • Tian Qiu
    • Peer Fischer

    Holograms for sound waves, encoded in a 3D printed plate, are used to shape sound fields that can be used for the contactless manipulation of objects.

    See also
  • Atomically engineered ferroic layers yield a room-temperature magnetoelectric multiferroic

    • Julia A. Mundy
    • Charles M. Brooks
    • Megan E. Holtz
    • Jarrett A. Moyer
    • Hena Das
    • Alejandro F. Rébola
    • John T. Heron
    • James D. Clarkson
    • Steven M. Disseler
    • Zhiqi Liu
    • Alan Farhan
    • Rainer Held
    • Robert Hovden
    • Elliot Padgett
    • Qingyun Mao
    • Hanjong Paik
    • Rajiv Misra
    • Lena F. Kourkoutis
    • Elke Arenholz
    • Andreas Scholl
    • Julie A. Borchers
    • William D. Ratcliff
    • Ramamoorthy Ramesh
    • Craig J. Fennie
    • Peter Schiffer
    • David A. Muller
    • Darrell G. Schlom

    A single-phase multiferroic material is constructed, in which ferroelectricity and strong magnetic ordering are coupled near room temperature, enabling direct electric-field control of magnetism.

    See also
  • Switching on electrocatalytic activity in solid oxide cells

    • Jae-ha Myung
    • Dragos Neagu
    • David N. Miller
    • John T. S. Irvine

    A new way of activating the electrodes in solid oxide cells involves applying an electrical potential to trigger the exsolution of metal catalysts to the electrode surface; the success of this technique raises the possibility of regenerating the electrodes during operation.

  • Molecular-scale evidence of aerosol particle formation via sequential addition of HIO3

    • Mikko Sipilä
    • Nina Sarnela
    • Tuija Jokinen
    • Henning Henschel
    • Heikki Junninen
    • Jenni Kontkanen
    • Stefanie Richters
    • Juha Kangasluoma
    • Alessandro Franchin
    • Otso Peräkylä
    • Matti P. Rissanen
    • Mikael Ehn
    • Hanna Vehkamäki
    • Theo Kurten
    • Torsten Berndt
    • Tuukka Petäjä
    • Douglas Worsnop
    • Darius Ceburnis
    • Veli-Matti Kerminen
    • Markku Kulmala
    • Colin O’Dowd

    Field data from an iodine-rich, coastal environment point to the molecular steps involved in the formation of new aerosol particles from iodine vapours over coastal regions.

  • Ionic immune suppression within the tumour microenvironment limits T cell effector function

    • Robert Eil
    • Suman K. Vodnala
    • David Clever
    • Christopher A. Klebanoff
    • Madhusudhanan Sukumar
    • Jenny H. Pan
    • Douglas C. Palmer
    • Alena Gros
    • Tori N. Yamamoto
    • Shashank J. Patel
    • Geoffrey C. Guittard
    • Zhiya Yu
    • Valentina Carbonaro
    • Klaus Okkenhaug
    • David S. Schrump
    • W. Marston Linehan
    • Rahul Roychoudhuri
    • Nicholas P. Restifo

    Potassium ions released by necrotic cells in tumours impair T cell function by increasing the intracellular potassium concentration in vitro and in vivo.

    See also
  • Fumarate is an epigenetic modifier that elicits epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    • Marco Sciacovelli
    • Emanuel Gonçalves
    • Timothy Isaac Johnson
    • Vincent Roberto Zecchini
    • Ana Sofia Henriques da Costa
    • Edoardo Gaude
    • Alizee Vercauteren Drubbel
    • Sebastian Julian Theobald
    • Sandra Riekje Abbo
    • Maxine Gia Binh Tran
    • Vinothini Rajeeve
    • Simone Cardaci
    • Sarah Foster
    • Haiyang Yun
    • Pedro Cutillas
    • Anne Warren
    • Vincent Gnanapragasam
    • Eyal Gottlieb
    • Kristian Franze
    • Brian Huntly
    • Eamonn Richard Maher
    • Patrick Henry Maxwell
    • Julio Saez-Rodriguez
    • Christian Frezza

    Accumulation of fumarate resulting from mutations in fumarate hydratase,which are associated with renal and other cancers, is shown to induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition—a process associated with cancer initiation.

  • Broad histone H3K4me3 domains in mouse oocytes modulate maternal-to-zygotic transition

    • John Arne Dahl
    • Inkyung Jung
    • Håvard Aanes
    • Gareth D. Greggains
    • Adeel Manaf
    • Mads Lerdrup
    • Guoqiang Li
    • Samantha Kuan
    • Bin Li
    • Ah Young Lee
    • Sebastian Preissl
    • Ingunn Jermstad
    • Mads Haugland Haugen
    • Rajikala Suganthan
    • Magnar Bjørås
    • Klaus Hansen
    • Knut Tomas Dalen
    • Peter Fedorcsak
    • Bing Ren
    • Arne Klungland

    Three papers in this issue of Nature use highly sensitive ChIP–seq assays to describe the dynamic patterns of histone modifications during early mouse embryogenesis, showing that oocytes have a distinctive epigenome and providing insights into how the maternal gene expression program transitions to the zygotic program.

    See also
    See also
    See also
    See also
  • Allelic reprogramming of the histone modification H3K4me3 in early mammalian development

    • Bingjie Zhang
    • Hui Zheng
    • Bo Huang
    • Wenzhi Li
    • Yunlong Xiang
    • Xu Peng
    • Jia Ming
    • Xiaotong Wu
    • Yu Zhang
    • Qianhua Xu
    • Wenqiang Liu
    • Xiaochen Kou
    • Yanhong Zhao
    • Wenteng He
    • Chong Li
    • Bo Chen
    • Yuanyuan Li
    • Qiujun Wang
    • Jing Ma
    • Qiangzong Yin
    • Kehkooi Kee
    • Anming Meng
    • Shaorong Gao
    • Feng Xu
    • Jie Na
    • Wei Xie

    Three papers in this issue of Nature use highly sensitive ChIP–seq assays to describe the dynamic patterns of histone modifications during early mouse embryogenesis, showing that oocytes have a distinctive epigenome and providing insights into how the maternal gene expression program transitions to the zygotic program.

    See also
    See also
    See also
    See also
  • Distinct features of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 chromatin domains in pre-implantation embryos

    • Xiaoyu Liu
    • Chenfei Wang
    • Wenqiang Liu
    • Jingyi Li
    • Chong Li
    • Xiaochen Kou
    • Jiayu Chen
    • Yanhong Zhao
    • Haibo Gao
    • Hong Wang
    • Yong Zhang
    • Yawei Gao
    • Shaorong Gao

    Three papers in this issue of Nature use highly sensitive ChIP–seq assays to describe the dynamic patterns of histone modifications during early mouse embryogenesis, showing that oocytes have a distinctive epigenome and providing insights into how the maternal gene expression program transitions to the zygotic program.

    See also
    See also
    See also
    See also
  • A blue-light photoreceptor mediates the feedback regulation of photosynthesis

    • Dimitris Petroutsos
    • Ryutaro Tokutsu
    • Shinichiro Maruyama
    • Serena Flori
    • Andre Greiner
    • Leonardo Magneschi
    • Loic Cusant
    • Tilman Kottke
    • Maria Mittag
    • Peter Hegemann
    • Giovanni Finazzi
    • Jun Minagawa

    Algae rely on blue-light-sensitive phototropin to trigger induction of LHCRS3, allowing it to dissipate energy from excess light that would otherwise compromise the fitness of the organism.

  • Structural basis of kainate subtype glutamate receptor desensitization

    • Joel R. Meyerson
    • Sagar Chittori
    • Alan Merk
    • Prashant Rao
    • Tae Hee Han
    • Mihaela Serpe
    • Mark L. Mayer
    • Sriram Subramaniam

    The high-resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of the kainate receptor GluK2 subtype in its desensitized state is reported, which reveals that desensitization is attained by establishing a ring-like structure in the ligand-binding domains.


  • Corrigendum: A large light-mass component of cosmic rays at 1017–1017.5 electronvolts from radio observations

    • S. Buitink
    • A. Corstanje
    • H. Falcke
    • J. R. Hörandel
    • T. Huege
    • A. Nelles
    • J. P. Rachen
    • L. Rossetto
    • P. Schellart
    • O. Scholten
    • S. ter Veen
    • S. Thoudam
    • T. N. G. Trinh
    • J. Anderson
    • A. Asgekar
    • I. M. Avruch
    • M. E. Bell
    • M. J. Bentum
    • G. Bernardi
    • P. Best
    • A. Bonafede
    • F. Breitling
    • J. W. Broderick
    • W. N. Brouw
    • M. Brüggen
    • H. R. Butcher
    • D. Carbone
    • B. Ciardi
    • J. E. Conway
    • F. de Gasperin
    • E. de Geus
    • A. Deller
    • R.-J. Dettmar
    • G. van Diepen
    • S. Duscha
    • J. Eislöffel
    • D. Engels
    • J. E. Enriquez
    • R. A. Fallows
    • R. Fender
    • C. Ferrari
    • W. Frieswijk
    • M. A. Garrett
    • J. M. Grießmeier
    • A. W. Gunst
    • M. P. van Haarlem
    • T. E. Hassall
    • G. Heald
    • J. W. T. Hessels
    • M. Hoeft
    • A. Horneffer
    • M. Iacobelli
    • H. Intema
    • E. Juette
    • A. Karastergiou
    • V. I. Kondratiev
    • M. Kramer
    • M. Kuniyoshi
    • G. Kuper
    • J. van Leeuwen
    • G. M. Loose
    • P. Maat
    • G. Mann
    • S. Markoff
    • R. McFadden
    • D. McKay-Bukowski
    • J. P. McKean
    • M. Mevius
    • D. D. Mulcahy
    • H. Munk
    • M. J. Norden
    • E. Orru
    • H. Paas
    • M. Pandey-Pommier
    • V. N. Pandey
    • M. Pietka
    • R. Pizzo
    • A. G. Polatidis
    • W. Reich
    • H. J. A. Röttgering
    • A. M. M. Scaife
    • D. J. Schwarz
    • M. Serylak
    • J. Sluman
    • O. Smirnov
    • B. W. Stappers
    • M. Steinmetz
    • A. Stewart
    • J. Swinbank
    • M. Tagger
    • Y. Tang
    • C. Tasse
    • M. C. Toribio
    • R. Vermeulen
    • C. Vocks
    • C. Vogt
    • R. J. van Weeren
    • R. A. M. J. Wijers
    • S. J. Wijnholds
    • M. W. Wise
    • O. Wucknitz
    • S. Yatawatta
    • P. Zarka
    • J. A. Zensus