Table of Contents

Volume 533 Number 7604 pp437-572

26 May 2016

About the cover

Meerkats are small social carnivores, and within each group a single dominant breeding pair monopolizes reproduction, while their offspring are reared by all group members. Competition for the breeding role is intense and the place of an individual in the social hierarchy depends on its size and weight. Elise Huchard et al. studied a natural population of wild Kalahari meerkats and show that they are continually sizing up one another to ensure that they are not overtaken in size — and therefore social status — by younger upstarts. Once a meerkat gets to the top of the pile, it puts on a spurt of growth to ensure that it remains bigger and heavier than its largest rival. The authors suggest that similar responses to the risk of competition might occur in other social mammals such as domestic animals and primates. Cover: Nathan Thavarajah.

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Technology Feature




  • NMDAR inhibition-independent antidepressant actions of ketamine metabolites

    • Panos Zanos
    • Ruin Moaddel
    • Patrick J. Morris
    • Polymnia Georgiou
    • Jonathan Fischell
    • Greg I. Elmer
    • Manickavasagom Alkondon
    • Peixiong Yuan
    • Heather J. Pribut
    • Nagendra S. Singh
    • Katina S. S. Dossou
    • Yuhong Fang
    • Xi-Ping Huang
    • Cheryl L. Mayo
    • Irving W. Wainer
    • Edson X. Albuquerque
    • Scott M. Thompson
    • Craig J. Thomas
    • Carlos A. Zarate Jr
    • Todd D. Gould

    The metabolism of ketamine to (2S,6S;2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine (HNK) is essential for its antidepressant effects, and the (2R,6R)-HNK enantiomer lacks ketamine-related side effects but exerts rapid and sustained antidepressant actions in mice; these antidepressant effects are independent of NMDAR inhibition but require AMPAR activity.

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  • Carcinoma–astrocyte gap junctions promote brain metastasis by cGAMP transfer

    • Qing Chen
    • Adrienne Boire
    • Xin Jin
    • Manuel Valiente
    • Ekrem Emrah Er
    • Alejandro Lopez-Soto
    • Leni S. Jacob
    • Ruzeen Patwa
    • Hardik Shah
    • Ke Xu
    • Justin R. Cross
    • Joan Massagué

    A heterotypic cell interaction between astrocytes and tumour cells colonizing the brain is discovered; by establishing gap junctions, tumour cells trigger the activation of innate immune response signalling in astrocytes, which results in the secretion of factors that support growth and chemoresistance in brain metastatic cells.


  • Suppressing star formation in quiescent galaxies with supermassive black hole winds

    • Edmond Cheung
    • Kevin Bundy
    • Michele Cappellari
    • Sébastien Peirani
    • Wiphu Rujopakarn
    • Kyle Westfall
    • Renbin Yan
    • Matthew Bershady
    • Jenny E. Greene
    • Timothy M. Heckman
    • Niv Drory
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    • Karen L. Masters
    • Daniel Thomas
    • David A. Wake
    • Anne-Marie Weijmans
    • Kate Rubin
    • Francesco Belfiore
    • Benedetta Vulcani
    • Yan-mei Chen
    • Kai Zhang
    • Joseph D. Gelfand
    • Dmitry Bizyaev
    • A. Roman-Lopes
    • Donald P. Schneider

    In order for quiescent galaxies to maintain their low-to-non-existent star formation, there must be a mechanism to remove or heat gas that would otherwise cool to form stars; now supermassive black hole winds that are sufficient to suppress star formation in such galaxies are reported.

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  • A resonant chain of four transiting, sub-Neptune planets

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  • A high-temperature ferromagnetic topological insulating phase by proximity coupling

    • Ferhat Katmis
    • Valeria Lauter
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    • Badih A. Assaf
    • Michelle E. Jamer
    • Peng Wei
    • Biswarup Satpati
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    • Ilya Eremin
    • Don Heiman
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    • P. Bryan Changala
    • David Patterson
    • Bryce J. Bjork
    • Oliver H. Heckl
    • John M. Doyle
    • Jun Ye

    Combining cavity-enhanced direct frequency comb spectroscopy with buffer gas cooling enables rapid collection of well-resolved infrared spectra for molecules such as nitromethane, naphthalene and adamantane, confirming the value of the combined approach for studying much larger and more complex molecules than have been probed so far.

  • Ion-induced nucleation of pure biogenic particlesOpen

    • Jasper Kirkby
    • Jonathan Duplissy
    • Kamalika Sengupta
    • Carla Frege
    • Hamish Gordon
    • Christina Williamson
    • Martin Heinritzi
    • Mario Simon
    • Chao Yan
    • João Almeida
    • Jasmin Tröstl
    • Tuomo Nieminen
    • Ismael K. Ortega
    • Robert Wagner
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    • Antonio Amorim
    • Anne-Kathrin Bernhammer
    • Federico Bianchi
    • Martin Breitenlechner
    • Sophia Brilke
    • Xuemeng Chen
    • Jill Craven
    • Antonio Dias
    • Sebastian Ehrhart
    • Richard C. Flagan
    • Alessandro Franchin
    • Claudia Fuchs
    • Roberto Guida
    • Jani Hakala
    • Christopher R. Hoyle
    • Tuija Jokinen
    • Heikki Junninen
    • Juha Kangasluoma
    • Jaeseok Kim
    • Manuel Krapf
    • Andreas Kürten
    • Ari Laaksonen
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    • Vladimir Makhmutov
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    • Alexandru Rap
    • Nigel A. D. Richards
    • Ilona Riipinen
    • Matti P. Rissanen
    • Linda Rondo
    • Nina Sarnela
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    • John H. Seinfeld
    • Mikko Sipilä
    • Gerhard Steiner
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    • Frank Stratmann
    • Antonio Tomé
    • Annele Virtanen
    • Alexander L. Vogel
    • Andrea C. Wagner
    • Paul E. Wagner
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    • Daniela Wimmer
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    • Xuan Zhang
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    • Josef Dommen
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    • Markku Kulmala
    • Kenneth S. Carslaw
    • Joachim Curtius

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    • Sebastian Ehrhart
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    • Alessandro Franchin
    • Claudia Fuchs
    • Roberto Guida
    • Martin Gysel
    • Armin Hansel
    • Christopher R. Hoyle
    • Tuija Jokinen
    • Heikki Junninen
    • Juha Kangasluoma
    • Helmi Keskinen
    • Jaeseok Kim
    • Manuel Krapf
    • Andreas Kürten
    • Ari Laaksonen
    • Michael Lawler
    • Markus Leiminger
    • Serge Mathot
    • Ottmar Möhler
    • Tuomo Nieminen
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    • Felix M. Piel
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    • Linda Rondo
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    • James N. Smith
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    • Andrea C. Wagner
    • Ernest Weingartner
    • Daniela Wimmer
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    • Penglin Ye
    • Kenneth S. Carslaw
    • Joachim Curtius
    • Josef Dommen
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    • Markku Kulmala
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    • Douglas R. Worsnop
    • Neil M. Donahue
    • Urs Baltensperger

    The growth of nucleated organic particles has been investigated in controlled laboratory experiments under atmospheric conditions; initial growth is driven by organic vapours of extremely low volatility, and accelerated by more abundant vapours of slightly higher volatility, leading to markedly different modelled concentrations of atmospheric cloud condensation nuclei when this growth mechanism is taken into account.

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  • Competitive growth in a cooperative mammal

    • Elise Huchard
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    • Tim Clutton-Brock

    In wild Kalahari meerkats (Suricata suricatta), subordinates of both sexes respond to experimentally induced increases in the growth of same-sex rivals by raising their own growth rate and food intake.

  • How sexual selection can drive the evolution of costly sperm ornamentation

    • Stefan Lüpold
    • Mollie K. Manier
    • Nalini Puniamoorthy
    • Christopher Schoff
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    • Shannon H. Buckley Luepold
    • John M. Belote
    • Scott Pitnick

    The ‘big-sperm paradox’, the observed production of few, gigantic sperm by some fruit flies (seemingly at odds with fundamental theory addressing how sexual selection works) is shown to be a result of co-evolution driven by genetic and functional relationships between sperm length, design of the female reproductive tract and features of the mating system.

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  • Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment

    • Aysu Okbay
    • Jonathan P. Beauchamp
    • Mark Alan Fontana
    • James J. Lee
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    • Patrick Turley
    • Guo-Bo Chen
    • Valur Emilsson
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    • Behrooz Z. Alizadeh
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    • Jessica D. Faul
    • Mary F. Feitosa
    • Andreas J. Forstner
    • Ilaria Gandin
    • Bjarni Gunnarsson
    • Bjarni V. Halldórsson
    • Tamara B. Harris
    • Andrew C. Heath
    • Lynne J. Hocking
    • Elizabeth G. Holliday
    • Georg Homuth
    • Michael A. Horan
    • Jouke-Jan Hottenga
    • Philip L. de Jager
    • Peter K. Joshi
    • Astanand Jugessur
    • Marika A. Kaakinen
    • Mika Kähönen
    • Stavroula Kanoni
    • Liisa Keltigangas-Järvinen
    • Lambertus A. L. M. Kiemeney
    • Ivana Kolcic
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    • Aldi T. Kraja
    • Martin Kroh
    • Zoltan Kutalik
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    • Lenore J. Launer
    • Maël P. Lebreton
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    • Paul Lichtenstein
    • Peter Lichtner
    • David C. M. Liewald
    • LifeLines Cohort Study
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    • Tomi Mäki-Opas
    • Riccardo E. Marioni
    • Pedro Marques-Vidal
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    • George McMahon
    • Christa Meisinger
    • Thomas Meitinger
    • Yusplitri Milaneschi
    • Lili Milani
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    • Ronny Myhre
    • Christopher P. Nelson
    • Dale R. Nyholt
    • William E. R. Ollier
    • Aarno Palotie
    • Lavinia Paternoster
    • Nancy L. Pedersen
    • Katja E. Petrovic
    • David J. Porteous
    • Katri Räikkönen
    • Susan M. Ring
    • Antonietta Robino
    • Olga Rostapshova
    • Igor Rudan
    • Aldo Rustichini
    • Veikko Salomaa
    • Alan R. Sanders
    • Antti-Pekka Sarin
    • Helena Schmidt
    • Rodney J. Scott
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    • Jennifer A. Smith
    • Jan A. Staessen
    • Elisabeth Steinhagen-Thiessen
    • Konstantin Strauch
    • Antonio Terracciano
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    • Sheila Ulivi
    • Simona Vaccargiu
    • Lydia Quaye
    • Frank J. A. van Rooij
    • Cristina Venturini
    • Anna A. E. Vinkhuyzen
    • Uwe Völker
    • Henry Völzke
    • Judith M. Vonk
    • Diego Vozzi
    • Johannes Waage
    • Erin B. Ware
    • Gonneke Willemsen
    • John R. Attia
    • David A. Bennett
    • Klaus Berger
    • Lars Bertram
    • Hans Bisgaard
    • Dorret I. Boomsma
    • Ingrid B. Borecki
    • Ute Bültmann
    • Christopher F. Chabris
    • Francesco Cucca
    • Daniele Cusi
    • Ian J. Deary
    • George V. Dedoussis
    • Cornelia M. van Duijn
    • Johan G. Eriksson
    • Barbara Franke
    • Lude Franke
    • Paolo Gasparini
    • Pablo V. Gejman
    • Christian Gieger
    • Hans-Jörgen Grabe
    • Jacob Gratten
    • Patrick J. F. Groenen
    • Vilmundur Gudnason
    • Pim van der Harst
    • Caroline Hayward
    • David A. Hinds
    • Wolfgang Hoffmann
    • Elina Hyppönen
    • William G. Iacono
    • Bo Jacobsson
    • Marjo-Riitta Järvelin
    • Karl-Heinz Jöckel
    • Jaakko Kaprio
    • Sharon L. R. Kardia
    • Terho Lehtimäki
    • Steven F. Lehrer
    • Patrik K. E. Magnusson
    • Nicholas G. Martin
    • Matt McGue
    • Andres Metspalu
    • Neil Pendleton
    • Brenda W. J. H. Penninx
    • Markus Perola
    • Nicola Pirastu
    • Mario Pirastu
    • Ozren Polasek
    • Danielle Posthuma
    • Christine Power
    • Michael A. Province
    • Nilesh J. Samani
    • David Schlessinger
    • Reinhold Schmidt
    • Thorkild I. A. Sørensen
    • Tim D. Spector
    • Kari Stefansson
    • Unnur Thorsteinsdottir
    • A. Roy Thurik
    • Nicholas J. Timpson
    • Henning Tiemeier
    • Joyce Y. Tung
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    • Veronique Vitart
    • Peter Vollenweider
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    • James F. Wilson
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    • Sarah E. Medland
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    A genome-wide association study in 293,723 individuals identifies 74 genetic variants associated with educational attainment, which, although only explaining a small proportion of the variation in educational attainment, highlights candidate genes and pathways for further study.

  • Redirecting abiraterone metabolism to fine-tune prostate cancer anti-androgen therapy

    • Zhenfei Li
    • Mohammad Alyamani
    • Jianneng Li
    • Kevin Rogacki
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    • Mary-Ellen Taplin
    • Richard J. Auchus
    • Nima Sharifi

    The prostate cancer drug abiraterone can be metabolized into several substances with different effects, and optimization of this process could be helpful for fine-tuning the treatment of prostate cancer.

  • Structural insights into inhibition of lipid I production in bacterial cell wall synthesis

    • Ben C. Chung
    • Ellene H. Mashalidis
    • Tetsuya Tanino
    • Mijung Kim
    • Akira Matsuda
    • Jiyong Hong
    • Satoshi Ichikawa
    • Seok-Yong Lee

    The crystal structure of the MraY enzyme from Aquifex aeolicus in complex with the naturally occurring nucleoside inhibitor muraymycin D2 (MD2) reveals that MraY undergoes a large conformational rearrangement near the active site after the binding of MD2, leading to the generation of a nucleoside-binding pocket and a peptide-binding site.

  • Crystal structure of the human sterol transporter ABCG5/ABCG8

    • Jyh-Yeuan Lee
    • Lisa N. Kinch
    • Dominika M. Borek
    • Jin Wang
    • Junmei Wang
    • Ina L. Urbatsch
    • Xiao-Song Xie
    • Nikolai V. Grishin
    • Jonathan C. Cohen
    • Zbyszek Otwinowski
    • Helen H. Hobbs
    • Daniel M. Rosenbaum

    The X-ray structure of human ABCG5/ABCG8 heterodimer in a nucleotide-free state, being the first atomic model of an ABC sterol transporter.