The deep ocean is the largest and least-explored ecosystem on Earth, and a uniquely energy-poor environment. The distribution, drivers and origins of deep-sea biodiversity remain unknown at global scales1, 2, 3. Here we analyse a database of more than 165,000 distribution records of Ophiuroidea (brittle stars), a dominant component of sea-floor fauna, and find patterns of biodiversity unlike known terrestrial or coastal marine realms. Both patterns and environmental predictors of deep-sea (2,000–6,500 m) species richness fundamentally differ from those found in coastal (0–20 m), continental shelf (20–200 m), and upper-slope (200–2,000 m) waters. Continental shelf to upper-slope richness consistently peaks in tropical Indo-west Pacific and Caribbean (0–30°) latitudes, and is well explained by variations in water temperature. In contrast, deep-sea species show maximum richness at higher latitudes (30–50°), concentrated in areas of high carbon export flux and regions close to continental margins. We reconcile this structuring of oceanic biodiversity using a species–energy framework, with kinetic energy predicting shallow-water richness, while chemical energy (export productivity) and proximity to slope habitats drive deep-sea diversity. Our findings provide a global baseline for conservation efforts across the sea floor, and demonstrate that deep-sea ecosystems show a biodiversity pattern consistent with ecological theory, despite being different from other planetary-scale habitats.
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Extended data figures and tables
Extended Data Figures
- Extended Data Figure 1: Distribution of global sampling effort across deep-sea bathomes. (715 KB)
a–c, Spatial plots of sampling effort for ophiuroid occurrence data at the same equal-area grid cells used in MSODM at 500-km equal area grid cells, maximum effort is capped at 100 surveys to help visualize low and high regions of repeated effort. Shelf effort from 20–200 m (a), slope effort from 200–2,000 m (b) and deep-water collection effort from 2,000–6,500 m (c). d–f, Ophiuroid distribution data are presented for shelf (d; red; 20–200 m), slope (e; orange; 200–2,000 m) and deep-water (f; yellow; 2,000–6,500 m); key represents depth profile. Land maps used in these figures are from the public domain Natural Earth and freely available for personal, educational, and commercial purposes. See http://www.naturalearthdata.com/about/terms-of-use/ for more details.
- Extended Data Figure 2: Model estimated global deep-sea species richness across different depth strata. (742 KB)
a–c, Maps of species counts ( ) as calculated using MSODM are presented as shelf (a), slope (b) and deep-water species (c). is an estimate of species present per cell based on our occurrence matrix (Z). Z is a latent variable used to calculated presences and absences of species within each cell. The estimated count of species ( ) per 500km equal area grid cell are reported in each figure key. Land maps used in these figures are from the public domain Natural Earth and freely available for personal, educational, and commercial purposes. See http://www.naturalearthdata.com/about/terms-of-use/ for more details.
- Extended Data Figure 3: Linear partial residual plots as derived from SLMs. (390 KB)
a–i, Partial residual plots for significant variables included in the models for global deep-sea richness at shelf (a–c, 20–200 m), upper-slope (d–f, 200–2,000 m) and deep-water (LSA; g–i, 2,000–6,500 m). Hatched lines are partial fits (red lines). Values on the x axis are centred and normalized (mean = 0, variance = 1), as derived from SLMs.
- Extended Data Figure 4: Environmental relationships covariate estimated with the multi-species occupancy–detection model. (542 KB)
The shaded areas represent the regions delimited by the tenth–ninetieth percentiles of the estimates obtained from the responses of all species. From top to bottom, rows display the estimates of occupancy (ψ), for shelf (green), slope (blue) and abyss (red) species. All covariates were centred and normalized (mean = 0, variance = 1).
- Extended Data Figure 5: Bayesian posterior estimates. (136 KB)
a–c, Deep-water MSODM parameter estimates, for shelf (a), slope (b), and deep-water species (c). Posterior distributions of parameter estimates are across all species. All covariates were centred and normalized (mean = 0, variance = 1).
- Extended Data Figure 6: Mean variance of MSODM predictions of species occupancy probabilities. (583 KB)
Variance for shelf diversity (a, 20–200 m), slope diversity (b, 200–2,000 m) and deep-water diversity (c, 2,000–6,500 m). Land maps used in these figures are from the public domain Natural Earth and freely available for personal, educational, and commercial purposes. See http://www.naturalearthdata.com/about/terms-of-use/ for more details.
Extended Data Tables
- Supplementary Information (55 KB)
This file contains ophiuroid biological data sources used to construct species richness patterns.