Table of Contents

Volume 529 Number 7585 pp127-248

14 January 2016

About the cover

A representation of a high-surface-area, mesoporous polymer of β-cyclodextrin. Water purification and remediation is often carried out using various forms of activated carbon; it is inexpensive, but only partially removes many organic pollutants. However, regenerating activated carbon for reuse is energy intensive, requiring high temperatures, and performance decreases upon recycling. Now William Dichtel, Damian Helbling and colleagues have developed an alternative to activated carbon for water remediation: a porous material based on crosslinked cyclodextrins. Not only does the material outperform activated carbons at adsorbing a range of pharmaceuticals, pesticides and other pollutants, but it is easily regenerated by washing at room temperature. Cover: Michio Matsumoto & Scarlet Duba

This Week

Editorials

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World View

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Seven Days

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    News in Focus

    Features

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    • Trouble in Tibet

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      Rapid changes in Tibetan grasslands are threatening Asia's main water supply and the livelihood of nomads.

      • Jane Qiu
    • Why boredom is anything but boring

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      Implicated in everything from traumatic brain injury to learning ability, boredom has become extremely interesting to scientists.

      • Maggie Koerth-Baker

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    Books and Arts

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    • Entomology: A life of insects and ire

      Professional feuds and private oddities abound in a biography of Harrison Dyar, finds William Foster.

      • Review of Moths, Myths, and Mosquitoes: The Eccentric Life of Harrison Dyar
        Marc Epstein
    • Books in brief

      Barbara Kiser reviews five of the week's best science picks.

    • Gerontology: Extending the healthspan

      Linda Partridge examines studies on preventative medicine for the ageing.

      • Review of Aging: The Longevity Dividend
        S. Jay Olshansky, George M. Martin & James L. Kirkland

    Careers

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    Q&As

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    naturejobs job listings and advertising features

    Futures

    research

    Articles

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    • The global spectrum of plant form and function

      • Sandra Díaz
      • Jens Kattge
      • Johannes H. C. Cornelissen
      • Ian J. Wright
      • Sandra Lavorel
      • Stéphane Dray
      • Björn Reu
      • Michael Kleyer
      • Christian Wirth
      • I. Colin Prentice
      • Eric Garnier
      • Gerhard Bönisch
      • Mark Westoby
      • Hendrik Poorter
      • Peter B. Reich
      • Angela T. Moles
      • John Dickie
      • Andrew N. Gillison
      • Amy E. Zanne
      • Jérôme Chave
      • S. Joseph Wright
      • Serge N. Sheremet’ev
      • Hervé Jactel
      • Christopher Baraloto
      • Bruno Cerabolini
      • Simon Pierce
      • Bill Shipley
      • Donald Kirkup
      • Fernando Casanoves
      • Julia S. Joswig
      • Angela Günther
      • Valeria Falczuk
      • Nadja Rüger
      • Miguel D. Mahecha
      • Lucas D. Gorné

      The authors found that the key elements of plant form and function, analysed at global scale, are largely concentrated into a two-dimensional plane indexed by the size of whole plants and organs on the one hand, and the construction costs for photosynthetic leaf area, on the other.

      See also
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    • An ID2-dependent mechanism for VHL inactivation in cancer

      • Sang Bae Lee
      • Veronique Frattini
      • Mukesh Bansal
      • Angelica M. Castano
      • Dan Sherman
      • Keino Hutchinson
      • Jeffrey N. Bruce
      • Andrea Califano
      • Guangchao Liu
      • Timothy Cardozo
      • Antonio Iavarone
      • Anna Lasorella

      HIFα transcription factors are highly expressed in cancer stem cells from glioma; DYRK1 kinases inhibit the protein ID2 to modulate the level of HIF2α and the tumorigenic properties of glioblastoma-associated cancer stem cells.

    Letters

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    • Eight per cent leakage of Lyman continuum photons from a compact, star-forming dwarf galaxy

      • Y. I. Izotov
      • I. Orlitová
      • D. Schaerer
      • T. X. Thuan
      • A. Verhamme
      • N. G. Guseva
      • G. Worseck

      Far-ultraviolet observations of the nearby low-mass star-forming galaxy J0925+1403 show that the galaxy is leaking ionizing radiation with an escape fraction of about 8 per cent, which is sufficient to ionize intergalactic medium material that is about 40 times as massive as the stellar mass of the galaxy.

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    • Weakened magnetic braking as the origin of anomalously rapid rotation in old field stars

      • Jennifer L. van Saders
      • Tugdual Ceillier
      • Travis S. Metcalfe
      • Victor Silva Aguirre
      • Marc H. Pinsonneault
      • Rafael A. García
      • Savita Mathur
      • Guy R. Davies

      The age of a young to middle-aged star can be determined from how quickly or slowly it rotates, but the relationship breaks down for old stars; models now show that old stars are rotating much more quickly than expected, perhaps because magnetic winds are weaker and therefore brake the rotation less effectively.

    • Controlling many-body states by the electric-field effect in a two-dimensional material

      • L. J. Li
      • E. C. T. O’Farrell
      • K. P. Loh
      • G. Eda
      • B. Özyilmaz
      • A. H. Castro Neto

      To be able to control the properties of a system that has strong electron–electron interactions using only an external electric field would be ideal, but the material must be thin enough to avoid shielding of the electric field in the bulk material; here pure electric-field control of the charge-density wave and superconductivity transition temperatures is achieved by electrolyte gating through an electric-field double layer transistor in the two-dimensional material 1T-TiSe2.

    • Rapid removal of organic micropollutants from water by a porous β-cyclodextrin polymer

      • Alaaeddin Alsbaiee
      • Brian J. Smith
      • Leilei Xiao
      • Yuhan Ling
      • Damian E. Helbling
      • William R. Dichtel

      An alternative material to activated carbon for water remediation is reported: a porous material based on crosslinked cyclodextrins that is better than activated carbons at adsorbing a range of pharmaceuticals, pesticides and other anthropogenic pollutants.

    • Iron-catalysed tritiation of pharmaceuticals

      • Renyuan Pony Yu
      • David Hesk
      • Nelo Rivera
      • István Pelczer
      • Paul J. Chirik

      An iron-catalysed method for the direct 3H labelling of pharmaceuticals by hydrogen isotope exchange using tritium gas is reported; the site selectivity of the iron catalyst is orthogonal to currently used iridium catalysts and allows isotopic labelling of complementary positions in drug molecules.

    • Plant functional traits have globally consistent effects on competition

      • Georges Kunstler
      • Daniel Falster
      • David A. Coomes
      • Francis Hui
      • Robert M. Kooyman
      • Daniel C. Laughlin
      • Lourens Poorter
      • Mark Vanderwel
      • Ghislain Vieilledent
      • S. Joseph Wright
      • Masahiro Aiba
      • Christopher Baraloto
      • John Caspersen
      • J. Hans C. Cornelissen
      • Sylvie Gourlet-Fleury
      • Marc Hanewinkel
      • Bruno Herault
      • Jens Kattge
      • Hiroko Kurokawa
      • Yusuke Onoda
      • Josep Peñuelas
      • Hendrik Poorter
      • Maria Uriarte
      • Sarah Richardson
      • Paloma Ruiz-Benito
      • I-Fang Sun
      • Göran Ståhl
      • Nathan G. Swenson
      • Jill Thompson
      • Bertil Westerlund
      • Christian Wirth
      • Miguel A. Zavala
      • Hongcheng Zeng
      • Jess K. Zimmerman
      • Niklaus E. Zimmermann
      • Mark Westoby

      Data from millions of trees in thousands of locations are used to show that certain key traits affect competitive ability in predictable ways, and that there are trade-offs between traits that favour growth with and without competition.

      See also
      See also
    • Earliest hominin occupation of Sulawesi, Indonesia

      • Gerrit D. van den Bergh
      • Bo Li
      • Adam Brumm
      • Rainer Grün
      • Dida Yurnaldi
      • Mark W. Moore
      • Iwan Kurniawan
      • Ruly Setiawan
      • Fachroel Aziz
      • Richard G. Roberts
      • Suyono
      • Michael Storey
      • Erick Setiabudi
      • Michael J. Morwood

      New excavations in Sulawesi, where in situ stone artefacts associated with fossil remains of megafauna have been recovered from stratified deposits between 200,000 and 100,000 years ago, suggest that Sulawesi was host to a long-established population of archaic hominins.

    • Diet-induced extinctions in the gut microbiota compound over generations

      • Erica D. Sonnenburg
      • Samuel A. Smits
      • Mikhail Tikhonov
      • Steven K. Higginbottom
      • Ned S. Wingreen
      • Justin L. Sonnenburg

      In mice on a low microbiota-accessible carbohydrate (MAC) diet, the diversity of the gut microbiota is depleted, and the effect is transferred and compounded over generations; this phenotype is only reversed after supplementation of the missing taxa via faecal microbiota transplantation, suggesting dietary intervention alone may by insufficient at managing diseases characterized by a dysbiotic microbiota.

      See also
    • FOXO1 couples metabolic activity and growth state in the vascular endothelium

      • Kerstin Wilhelm
      • Katharina Happel
      • Guy Eelen
      • Sandra Schoors
      • Mark F. Oellerich
      • Radiance Lim
      • Barbara Zimmermann
      • Irene M. Aspalter
      • Claudio A. Franco
      • Thomas Boettger
      • Thomas Braun
      • Marcus Fruttiger
      • Klaus Rajewsky
      • Charles Keller
      • Jens C. Brüning
      • Holger Gerhardt
      • Peter Carmeliet
      • Michael Potente

      The transcription factor FOXO1 is identified as a crucial checkpoint of vascular growth, coupling the metabolic and proliferative activities of endothelial cells.

      See also
    • Intestinal epithelial tuft cells initiate type 2 mucosal immunity to helminth parasites

      • François Gerbe
      • Emmanuelle Sidot
      • Danielle J. Smyth
      • Makoto Ohmoto
      • Ichiro Matsumoto
      • Valérie Dardalhon
      • Pierre Cesses
      • Laure Garnier
      • Marie Pouzolles
      • Bénédicte Brulin
      • Marco Bruschi
      • Yvonne Harcus
      • Valérie S. Zimmermann
      • Naomi Taylor
      • Rick M. Maizels
      • Philippe Jay

      Epithelial tuft cells secretion of IL-25 is shown to regulate type 2 epithelial responses to helminth parasite infection via an IL-13/IL-4Rα-dependent feedback loop.

    • Crystal structure of a DNA catalyst

      • Almudena Ponce-Salvatierra
      • Katarzyna Wawrzyniak-Turek
      • Ulrich Steuerwald
      • Claudia Höbartner
      • Vladimir Pena

      Both DNA and RNA molecules have been shown to exhibit catalytic activity, but only the structure of catalytic RNAs has previously been determined; here the structure of an RNA-ligating DNA in the post-catalytic state is solved.

    • Structures of two distinct conformations of holo-non-ribosomal peptide synthetases

      • Eric J. Drake
      • Bradley R. Miller
      • Ce Shi
      • Jeffrey T. Tarrasch
      • Jesse A. Sundlov
      • C. Leigh Allen
      • Georgios Skiniotis
      • Courtney C. Aldrich
      • Andrew M. Gulick

      X-ray crystal structures of two distinct steps in the catalytic cycle of non-ribosomal peptide synthetases are described, offering the potential to generate novel products through engineering enzyme activity.