Table of Contents

Volume 525 Number 7569 pp289-418

17 September 2015

About the cover

To tackle the challenges facing society — energy, water, climate, food, health — scientists and social scientists must work together. Yet research that transcends traditional academic boundaries is still unfashionable and poorly rewarded. This special issue of Nature examines what governments, funders, journals, universities and academics must do to make interdisciplinary work a joy rather than a curse. Cover: Dean Trippe

This Week


  • Too close for comfort?

    Relationships between industry and researchers can be hard to define, but universities and other institutions must do more to scrutinize the work of their scientists for conflicts of interest.

  • Mind meld

    Interdisciplinary science must break down barriers between fields to build common ground.

  • Protection priority

    All involved in animal research must ensure that rules for ethical experiments are observed.

World View


Seven Days


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    Technology Feature



    Brief Communication Arising



    • Labelling and optical erasure of synaptic memory traces in the motor cortex

      • Akiko Hayashi-Takagi
      • Sho Yagishita
      • Mayumi Nakamura
      • Fukutoshi Shirai
      • Yi I. Wu
      • Amanda L. Loshbaugh
      • Brian Kuhlman
      • Klaus M. Hahn
      • Haruo Kasai

      A new light-activated probe that targets recently active neuronal spines for manipulation induces shrinkage of recently potentiated spines following a motor learning task; spine shrinkage disrupted learning, suggesting a causal relationship between the specific subset of targeted spines and the learned behaviour.

      See also
    • Panorama of ancient metazoan macromolecular complexes

      • Cuihong Wan
      • Blake Borgeson
      • Sadhna Phanse
      • Fan Tu
      • Kevin Drew
      • Greg Clark
      • Xuejian Xiong
      • Olga Kagan
      • Julian Kwan
      • Alexandr Bezginov
      • Kyle Chessman
      • Swati Pal
      • Graham Cromar
      • Ophelia Papoulas
      • Zuyao Ni
      • Daniel R. Boutz
      • Snejana Stoilova
      • Pierre C. Havugimana
      • Xinghua Guo
      • Ramy H. Malty
      • Mihail Sarov
      • Jack Greenblatt
      • Mohan Babu
      • W. Brent Derry
      • Elisabeth R. Tillier
      • John B. Wallingford
      • John Parkinson
      • Edward M. Marcotte
      • Andrew Emili

      Using biochemical fractionation and mass spectrometry, animal protein complexes are identified from nine species in parallel, and, along with genome sequence information, complex conservation is investigated and over one million protein–protein interactions are predicted in 122 eukaryotes.

    • The mechanism of DNA replication termination in vertebrates

      • James M. Dewar
      • Magda Budzowska
      • Johannes C. Walter

      This study describes a new model of eukaryotic replication termination in which converging leading strands pass each other unhindered and the replicative DNA helicase is unloaded late, after all strands have been ligated.


    • Relativistic boost as the cause of periodicity in a massive black-hole binary candidate

      • Daniel J. D'Orazio
      • Zoltán Haiman
      • David Schiminovich

      The amplitude and sinusoid-like shape of the optical variability of the light curve of PG 1302-102 is best fitted by relativistic Doppler boosting of emission from a compact, steadily accreting, unequal-mass binary, which is consistent with archival ultraviolet data, and suggests the existence of a binary black hole in the relativistic regime.

    • Spawning rings of exceptional points out of Dirac cones

      • Bo Zhen
      • Chia Wei Hsu
      • Yuichi Igarashi
      • Ling Lu
      • Ido Kaminer
      • Adi Pick
      • Song-Liang Chua
      • John D. Joannopoulos
      • Marin Soljačić

      Exceptional points are singularities in non-Hermitian systems that can produce unusual effects, and it is shown that a Dirac cone in a photonic crystal can generate a continuous ring of exceptional points through flattening the tip of the cone.

    • Inhomogeneity of charge-density-wave order and quenched disorder in a high-Tc superconductor

      • G. Campi
      • A. Bianconi
      • N. Poccia
      • G. Bianconi
      • L. Barba
      • G. Arrighetti
      • D. Innocenti
      • J. Karpinski
      • N. D. Zhigadlo
      • S. M. Kazakov
      • M. Burghammer
      • M. v. Zimmermann
      • M. Sprung
      • A. Ricci

      Micro X-ray diffraction imaging of the spatial distribution of charge-density-wave puddles and quenched disorder in HgBa2CuO4 + y reveals a complex, inhomogeneous spatial landscape due to the interplay between charge and dopant order.

      See also
    • Non-adaptive plasticity potentiates rapid adaptive evolution of gene expression in nature

      • Cameron K. Ghalambor
      • Kim L. Hoke
      • Emily W. Ruell
      • Eva K. Fischer
      • David N. Reznick
      • Kimberly A. Hughes

      Experimentally transplanting guppies to evolve in a novel, predator-free environment reveals that the direction of plasticity in gene expression is usually opposite to the direction of adaptive evolution; that is, those genes whose expression changes are disadvantageous are more strongly selected upon than those whose changes are advantageous.

      See also
    • Erosion of the chronic myeloid leukaemia stem cell pool by PPARγ agonists

      • Stéphane Prost
      • Francis Relouzat
      • Marc Spentchian
      • Yasmine Ouzegdouh
      • Joseph Saliba
      • Gérald Massonnet
      • Jean-Paul Beressi
      • Els Verhoeyen
      • Victoria Raggueneau
      • Benjamin Maneglier
      • Sylvie Castaigne
      • Christine Chomienne
      • Stany Chrétien
      • Philippe Rousselot
      • Philippe Leboulch

      Although imatinib gives good clinical results in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), residual disease attributed to quiescent CML stem cells remains in many patients; here glitazones are shown to reduce the pool of CML stem cells and achieve lasting disease eradication in CML patients in combination with imatinib.

      See also
    • The spliceosome is a therapeutic vulnerability in MYC-driven cancer

      • Tiffany Y.-T. Hsu
      • Lukas M. Simon
      • Nicholas J. Neill
      • Richard Marcotte
      • Azin Sayad
      • Christopher S. Bland
      • Gloria V. Echeverria
      • Tingting Sun
      • Sarah J. Kurley
      • Siddhartha Tyagi
      • Kristen L. Karlin
      • Rocio Dominguez-Vidaña
      • Jessica D. Hartman
      • Alexander Renwick
      • Kathleen Scorsone
      • Ronald J. Bernardi
      • Samuel O. Skinner
      • Antrix Jain
      • Mayra Orellana
      • Chandraiah Lagisetti
      • Ido Golding
      • Sung Y. Jung
      • Joel R. Neilson
      • Xiang H.-F. Zhang
      • Thomas A. Cooper
      • Thomas R. Webb
      • Benjamin G. Neel
      • Chad A. Shaw
      • Thomas F. Westbrook

      Splicing factors such as BUD31 are identified in a synthetic-lethal screen with cells overexpressing the transcription factor MYC; oncogenic MYC leads to an increase in pre-mRNA synthesis, and spliceosome inhibition impairs the growth and tumorigenicity of MYC-dependent breast cancers, suggesting that spliceosome components may be potential therapeutic targets for MYC-driven cancers.

    • Tet2 is required to resolve inflammation by recruiting Hdac2 to specifically repress IL-6

      • Qian Zhang
      • Kai Zhao
      • Qicong Shen
      • Yanmei Han
      • Yan Gu
      • Xia Li
      • Dezhi Zhao
      • Yiqi Liu
      • Chunmei Wang
      • Xiang Zhang
      • Xiaoping Su
      • Juan Liu
      • Wei Ge
      • Ross L. Levine
      • Nan Li
      • Xuetao Cao

      The Tet2 enzyme, which catalyses de novo hydroxymethylation of DNA, is shown here to act as a transcriptional repressor by recruiting the histone deacetylase Hdac2 to the Il6 promoter in the course of resolution of the LPS-induced inflammatory response.

    • Replisome speed determines the efficiency of the Tus−Ter replication termination barrier

      • Mohamed M. Elshenawy
      • Slobodan Jergic
      • Zhi-Qiang Xu
      • Mohamed A. Sobhy
      • Masateru Takahashi
      • Aaron J. Oakley
      • Nicholas E. Dixon
      • Samir M. Hamdan

      The Tus–Ter termination site of Escherichia coli is not completely efficient in stopping DNA replication, with about half of replisomes bypassing this blockade; here the speed of the replication machinery is shown to determine the outcome of the encounter between the replisome and Tus–Ter.

    • Integrator mediates the biogenesis of enhancer RNAs

      • Fan Lai
      • Alessandro Gardini
      • Anda Zhang
      • Ramin Shiekhattar

      This study demonstrates a role for the Integrator complex in the stimulus-dependent induction of eRNAs and their 3′ processing; together with previously known roles of Integrator in transcription elongation and RNA processing, these results indicate that Integrator has broad functions in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression.

    • Crystal structure of the dynamin tetramer

      • Thomas F. Reubold
      • Katja Faelber
      • Nuria Plattner
      • York Posor
      • Katharina Ketel
      • Ute Curth
      • Jeanette Schlegel
      • Roopsee Anand
      • Dietmar J. Manstein
      • Frank Noé
      • Volker Haucke
      • Oliver Daumke
      • Susanne Eschenburg

      The crystal structure of the large GTPase dynamin tetramer is presented, suggesting a mechanism by which oligomerization of dynamin is regulated, and revealing how mutations that interfere with tetramer formation and autoinhibition are of relevance to understanding the congenital muscle disorders Charcot–Marie–Tooth neuropathy and centronuclear myopathy.