Table of Contents

Volume 523 Number 7560 pp255-376

16 July 2015

About the cover

In a collaboration with Scientific American, Nature takes a look at modern movements in teaching science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). By applying the principles of twenty-first-century learning, educators should be able to produce scientists better prepared for the modern, multidisciplinary workforce and a more science-literate populace in general. Cover: Vasava

This Week


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  • An education

    The world can no longer afford to support learning systems in which only the most capable students can thrive.

World View


Seven Days


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    Books and Arts

    • Early child development: Body of knowledge

      As government education experts call for toddler literacy, and baby apps proliferate, are we losing sight of materials-based learning? Infant scientists and young explorers thrive in the open air and through free play, eager to grasp the world — literally.



    • STEM education: To build a scientist

      Thought leaders across the globe answer one question: what is the biggest missing piece in how we educate scientists? Responses ranged from the practical to the philosophical.

    naturejobs job listings and advertising features




    • Receptor-mediated exopolysaccharide perception controls bacterial infection

      • Y. Kawaharada
      • S. Kelly
      • M. Wibroe Nielsen
      • C. T. Hjuler
      • K. Gysel
      • A. Muszyński
      • R. W. Carlson
      • M. B. Thygesen
      • N. Sandal
      • M. H. Asmussen
      • M. Vinther
      • S. U. Andersen
      • L. Krusell
      • S. Thirup
      • K. J. Jensen
      • C. W. Ronson
      • M. Blaise
      • S. Radutoiu
      • J. Stougaard

      This paper describes the discovery of the exopolysaccharide receptor (Epr3) in plants, and shows that its expression is induced upon perception of the bacterial Nod factors; the EPR3 receptor recognizes exopolysaccharides on the surface of rhizobia, thus controlling the symbiotic infection of the roots of legumes.

      See also
    • Progesterone receptor modulates ERα action in breast cancer

      • Hisham Mohammed
      • I. Alasdair Russell
      • Rory Stark
      • Oscar M. Rueda
      • Theresa E. Hickey
      • Gerard A. Tarulli
      • Aurelien A. A. Serandour
      • Stephen N. Birrell
      • Alejandra Bruna
      • Amel Saadi
      • Suraj Menon
      • James Hadfield
      • Michelle Pugh
      • Ganesh V. Raj
      • Gordon D. Brown
      • Clive D’Santos
      • Jessica L. L. Robinson
      • Grace Silva
      • Rosalind Launchbury
      • Charles M. Perou
      • John Stingl
      • Carlos Caldas
      • Wayne D. Tilley
      • Jason S. Carroll

      Progesterones, oestrogens and their receptors (PR, ERα and ERβ) are essential in normal breast development and homeostasis, as well as in breast cancer; here it is shown that PR controls ERα function by redirecting where ERα binds to the chromatin, acting as a proliferative brake in ERα+ breast tumours.


    • Rapidly rotating second-generation progenitors for the ‘blue hook’ stars of ω Centauri

      • Marco Tailo
      • Francesca D’Antona
      • Enrico Vesperini
      • Marcella Di Criscienzo
      • Paolo Ventura
      • Antonino P. Milone
      • Andrea Bellini
      • Aaron Dotter
      • Thibaut Decressin
      • Annibale D’Ercole
      • Vittoria Caloi
      • Roberto Capuzzo-Dolcetta

      The observed range of luminosities of the extremely hot ‘blue hook’ stars of the globular cluster ω Centauri is successfully explained by a model in which the progenitors of these stars are second-generation helium-rich stars characterized by a range of rotation rates arising during the cluster’s very early evolution.

    • Quantum-dot-in-perovskite solids

      • Zhijun Ning
      • Xiwen Gong
      • Riccardo Comin
      • Grant Walters
      • Fengjia Fan
      • Oleksandr Voznyy
      • Emre Yassitepe
      • Andrei Buin
      • Sjoerd Hoogland
      • Edward H. Sargent

      Organohalide perovskites and preformed colloidal quantum dots are combined in the solution phase to produce epitaxially aligned ‘dots-in-a-matrix’ crystals that have both the excellent electrical transport properties of the perovskite matrix and the high radiative efficiency of the quantum dots.

    • Supramolecular assemblies underpin turnover of outer membrane proteins in bacteria

      • Patrice Rassam
      • Nikki A. Copeland
      • Oliver Birkholz
      • Csaba Tóth
      • Matthieu Chavent
      • Anna L. Duncan
      • Stephen J. Cross
      • Nicholas G. Housden
      • Renata Kaminska
      • Urban Seger
      • Diana M. Quinn
      • Tamsin J. Garrod
      • Mark S. P. Sansom
      • Jacob Piehler
      • Christoph G. Baumann
      • Colin Kleanthous

      Fluorescent labelling is used to show that in E. coli, outer membrane protein (OMP) turnover is passive and binary in nature, and OMPs cluster to form islands in which diffusion of individual proteins is restricted owing to lateral interactions with other OMPs; new OMPs are inserted mostly at mid-cell, meaning that old OMP islands are displaced to the poles of growing cells.

    • Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels

      • Antoine Louveau
      • Igor Smirnov
      • Timothy J. Keyes
      • Jacob D. Eccles
      • Sherin J. Rouhani
      • J. David Peske
      • Noel C. Derecki
      • David Castle
      • James W. Mandell
      • Kevin S. Lee
      • Tajie H. Harris
      • Jonathan Kipnis

      The central nervous system undergoes constant immune surveillance, but the route that immune cells take to exit the brain has been unclear as it had been thought to lack a classical lymphatic drainage system; here functional lymphatic vessels able to carry both fluid and immune cells from the cerebrospinal fluid are shown to be located in the brain meninges.

    • HDL-bound sphingosine-1-phosphate restrains lymphopoiesis and neuroinflammation

      • Victoria A. Blaho
      • Sylvain Galvani
      • Eric Engelbrecht
      • Catherine Liu
      • Steven L. Swendeman
      • Mari Kono
      • Richard L. Proia
      • Lawrence Steinman
      • May H. Han
      • Timothy Hla

      Apolipoprotein-M-bound sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is found to restrain the generation of new lymphocytes—and, consequently, adaptive immune responses—by activating the S1P1 receptor on bone marrow lymphocyte progenitors in mice.

    • Conversion of abiraterone to D4A drives anti-tumour activity in prostate cancer

      • Zhenfei Li
      • Andrew C. Bishop
      • Mohammad Alyamani
      • Jorge A. Garcia
      • Robert Dreicer
      • Dustin Bunch
      • Jiayan Liu
      • Sunil K. Upadhyay
      • Richard J. Auchus
      • Nima Sharifi

      The drug abiraterone is converted to Δ4-abiraterone (D4A) in mice and patients with prostate cancer, which has more potent anti-tumour activity and may lead to more effective therapies.

    • A noisy linear map underlies oscillations in cell size and gene expression in bacteria

      • Yu Tanouchi
      • Anand Pai
      • Heungwon Park
      • Shuqiang Huang
      • Rumen Stamatov
      • Nicolas E. Buchler
      • Lingchong You

      Quantification of single-cell growth over long periods of time in E. coli shows transient oscillations in cell size, with periods stretching across more than ten generations; a noisy negative feedback on cell-size control is proposed in which cells with a small initial size tend to divide later than cells with a large initial size with implications for the genetic and physiological processes required.

    • Intersecting transcription networks constrain gene regulatory evolution

      • Trevor R. Sorrells
      • Lauren N. Booth
      • Brian B. Tuch
      • Alexander D. Johnson

      Epistatic interactions, whereby a mutation's effect is contingent on another mutation, have been shown to constrain evolution within single proteins, and how such interactions arise in gene regulatory networks has remained unclear; here the appearance of pheromone-response regulator binding sites in the regulatory DNA of the a-specific genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are shown to have required specific changes in a second pathway during the evolution from its common ancestor with Candida albicans.

      See also
    • Structural basis for retroviral integration into nucleosomes

      • Daniel P. Maskell
      • Ludovic Renault
      • Erik Serrao
      • Paul Lesbats
      • Rishi Matadeen
      • Stephen Hare
      • Dirk Lindemann
      • Alan N. Engelman
      • Alessandro Costa
      • Peter Cherepanov

      Retroviruses such as HIV rely on the intasome, a tetramer of integrase protein bound to the viral DNA ends interacting with host chromatin, for integration into the host genome; the structure of the intasome as it interacts with a nucleosome is now solved, giving insight into the integration process.