Table of Contents

Volume 521 Number 7553 pp394-556

28 May 2015

About the cover

A robot with a broken front-right leg. To keep walking despite that damage, it executes an ‘Intelligent Trial and Error’ algorithm that conducts experiments based on previous (simulated) experience to find a behaviour that still works. Autonomous mobile robots would be extremely useful in remote or hostile environments such as space, deep oceans or disaster areas. An outstanding challenge is to make such robots able to recover after damage. Jean-Baptiste Mouret and colleagues have developed a machine learning algorithm that enables damaged robots to quickly regain their ability to perform tasks. When they sustain damage — such as broken or even missing legs — the robots adopt an intelligent trial-and-error approach, trying out possible behaviours that they calculate to be potentially high-performing. After a handful of such experiments they discover, in less than two minutes, a compensatory behaviour that works in spite of the damage. Cover Antoine Cully/ Pierre & Marie Curie University. Inset: Alexander Vail

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    • New species from Ethiopia further expands Middle Pliocene hominin diversity

      • Yohannes Haile-Selassie
      • Luis Gibert
      • Stephanie M. Melillo
      • Timothy M. Ryan
      • Mulugeta Alene
      • Alan Deino
      • Naomi E. Levin
      • Gary Scott
      • Beverly Z. Saylor

      A new hominin species, Australopithecus deyiremeda, which lived between 3.5 and 3.3 million years ago, at around the same time as species such as Au. afarensis (‘Lucy’), is discovered in Ethiopia; its morphology suggests that some dental features traditionally associated with later genera such as Paranthropus and Homo emerged earlier than previously thought.

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    • Whole–genome characterization of chemoresistant ovarian cancer

      • Ann-Marie Patch
      • Elizabeth L. Christie
      • Dariush Etemadmoghadam
      • Dale W. Garsed
      • Joshy George
      • Sian Fereday
      • Katia Nones
      • Prue Cowin
      • Kathryn Alsop
      • Peter J. Bailey
      • Karin S. Kassahn
      • Felicity Newell
      • Michael C. J. Quinn
      • Stephen Kazakoff
      • Kelly Quek
      • Charlotte Wilhelm-Benartzi
      • Ed Curry
      • Huei San Leong
      • The Australian Ovarian Cancer Study Group
      • Anne Hamilton
      • Linda Mileshkin
      • George Au-Yeung
      • Catherine Kennedy
      • Jillian Hung
      • Yoke-Eng Chiew
      • Paul Harnett
      • Michael Friedlander
      • Michael Quinn
      • Jan Pyman
      • Stephen Cordner
      • Patricia O’Brien
      • Jodie Leditschke
      • Greg Young
      • Kate Strachan
      • Paul Waring
      • Walid Azar
      • Chris Mitchell
      • Nadia Traficante
      • Joy Hendley
      • Heather Thorne
      • Mark Shackleton
      • David K. Miller
      • Gisela Mir Arnau
      • Richard W. Tothill
      • Timothy P. Holloway
      • Timothy Semple
      • Ivon Harliwong
      • Craig Nourse
      • Ehsan Nourbakhsh
      • Suzanne Manning
      • Senel Idrisoglu
      • Timothy J. C. Bruxner
      • Angelika N. Christ
      • Barsha Poudel
      • Oliver Holmes
      • Matthew Anderson
      • Conrad Leonard
      • Andrew Lonie
      • Nathan Hall
      • Scott Wood
      • Darrin F. Taylor
      • Qinying Xu
      • J. Lynn Fink
      • Nick Waddell
      • Ronny Drapkin
      • Euan Stronach
      • Hani Gabra
      • Robert Brown
      • Andrea Jewell
      • Shivashankar H. Nagaraj
      • Emma Markham
      • Peter J. Wilson
      • Jason Ellul
      • Orla McNally
      • Maria A. Doyle
      • Ravikiran Vedururu
      • Collin Stewart
      • Ernst Lengyel
      • John V. Pearson
      • Nicola Waddell
      • Anna deFazio
      • Sean M. Grimmond
      • David D. L. Bowtell

      Whole-genome sequencing of tumour and germline DNA samples from 92 patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer identifies frequent gene breakages that inactivate the tumour suppressors RB1, NF1, RAD51B and PTEN, and contribute to chemotherapy resistance; acquired resistance was associated with diverse mechanisms such as reversions of germline BRCA1/2 mutations and overexpression of the drug efflux pump MDR1.


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      • M. Garg
      • S. Yu. Kruchinin
      • A. Moulet
      • M. Th. Hassan
      • E. Goulielmakis

      Intense light interacting with a thin film of silicon dioxide is used to generate broadband extreme ultraviolet radiation; the spectra reveal detailed information on the energy dispersion of the conduction band of silicon dioxide, which is at present inaccessible by conventional photoemission spectroscopy.

    • Ocean impact on decadal Atlantic climate variability revealed by sea-level observations

      • Gerard D. McCarthy
      • Ivan D. Haigh
      • Joël J.-M. Hirschi
      • Jeremy P. Grist
      • David A. Smeed

      The circulation of the North Atlantic Ocean, interpreted via the sea level gradient along the US coast, is found to respond to atmospheric drivers from the North Atlantic Oscillation, and in turn influences the oceanic temperature changes characterized by Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation; in this way, ocean circulation acts as the intermediary between atmospheric and ocean oscillations.

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    • Diverse coupling of neurons to populations in sensory cortex

      • Michael Okun
      • Nicholas A. Steinmetz
      • Lee Cossell
      • M. Florencia Iacaruso
      • Ho Ko
      • Péter Barthó
      • Tirin Moore
      • Sonja B. Hofer
      • Thomas D. Mrsic-Flogel
      • Matteo Carandini
      • Kenneth D. Harris

      Exploring the relationship between population coupling and neuronal activity reveals that neighbouring neurons can differ in their coupling to the overall firing rate of the population, the circuitry of which may potentially help to explain the complex activity patterns in cortical populations.

    • Global genetic analysis in mice unveils central role for cilia in congenital heart disease

      • You Li
      • Nikolai T. Klena
      • George C. Gabriel
      • Xiaoqin Liu
      • Andrew J. Kim
      • Kristi Lemke
      • Yu Chen
      • Bishwanath Chatterjee
      • William Devine
      • Rama Rao Damerla
      • Chienfu Chang
      • Hisato Yagi
      • Jovenal T. San Agustin
      • Mohamed Thahir
      • Shane Anderton
      • Caroline Lawhead
      • Anita Vescovi
      • Herbert Pratt
      • Judy Morgan
      • Leslie Haynes
      • Cynthia L. Smith
      • Janan T. Eppig
      • Laura Reinholdt
      • Richard Francis
      • Linda Leatherbury
      • Madhavi K. Ganapathiraju
      • Kimimasa Tobita
      • Gregory J. Pazour
      • Cecilia W. Lo

      A forward genetic screen in fetal mice to identify genes involved in congenital heart disease (CHD) reveals that a large proportion of genes associated with CHD are related to cilia and cilia-transduced cell signalling, with potential implications for the human disease.

    • Coordinated regulation of bidirectional COPI transport at the Golgi by CDC42

      • Seung-Yeol Park
      • Jia-Shu Yang
      • Angela B. Schmider
      • Roy J. Soberman
      • Victor W. Hsu

      The COPI complex, which has a role in retrograde transport through the Golgi, is shown to also mediate anterograde tubular transport through the Golgi; in response to external stimuli, the small GTPase CDC42 acts as an essential modulator of bidirectional Golgi transport, and promotes the sorting of cargoes destined for anterograde transport into the tubules at the expense of those targeted for retrograde transport.

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    • Defining fundamental steps in the assembly of the Drosophila RNAi enzyme complex

      • Shintaro Iwasaki
      • Hiroshi M. Sasaki
      • Yuriko Sakaguchi
      • Tsutomu Suzuki
      • Hisashi Tadakuma
      • Yukihide Tomari

      The assembly of single Drosophila RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs) is reconstituted using seven purified proteins, revealing that chaperones help stabilize the interaction of the protein heterodimer Dicer-2–R2D2 bound to the short interfering RNA with Ago2.

    • MAD2L2 controls DNA repair at telomeres and DNA breaks by inhibiting 5′ end resection

      • Vera Boersma
      • Nathalie Moatti
      • Sandra Segura-Bayona
      • Marieke H. Peuscher
      • Jaco van der Torre
      • Brigitte A. Wevers
      • Alexandre Orthwein
      • Daniel Durocher
      • Jacqueline J. L. Jacobs

      MAD2L2 regulates DNA repair at deprotected telomeres and at ionizing-radiation-induced double-stranded DNA breaks by inhibiting resection of the 5′ ends; the ends are thus shunted into the non-homologous end-joining pathway.

    • REV7 counteracts DNA double-strand break resection and affects PARP inhibition

      • Guotai Xu
      • J. Ross Chapman
      • Inger Brandsma
      • Jingsong Yuan
      • Martin Mistrik
      • Peter Bouwman
      • Jirina Bartkova
      • Ewa Gogola
      • Daniël Warmerdam
      • Marco Barazas
      • Janneke E. Jaspers
      • Kenji Watanabe
      • Mark Pieterse
      • Ariena Kersbergen
      • Wendy Sol
      • Patrick H. N. Celie
      • Philip C. Schouten
      • Bram van den Broek
      • Ahmed Salman
      • Marja Nieuwland
      • Iris de Rink
      • Jorma de Ronde
      • Kees Jalink
      • Simon J. Boulton
      • Junjie Chen
      • Dik C. van Gent
      • Jiri Bartek
      • Jos Jonkers
      • Piet Borst
      • Sven Rottenberg

      Loss of REV7 is shown to regulate end resection of double-stranded DNA breaks in BRCA1-deficient cells, leading to PARP inhibitor resistance and restoration of homologous recombination; REV7 dictates pathway choice in BRCA1-deficient cells and during immunoglobulin class switching.