Piezo2 is the major transducer of mechanical forces for touch sensation in mice

Journal name:
Nature
Volume:
516,
Pages:
121–125
Date published:
DOI:
doi:10.1038/nature13980
Received
Accepted
Published online

The sense of touch provides critical information about our physical environment by transforming mechanical energy into electrical signals1. It is postulated that mechanically activated cation channels initiate touch sensation, but the identity of these molecules in mammals has been elusive2. Piezo2 is a rapidly adapting, mechanically activated ion channel expressed in a subset of sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion and in cutaneous mechanoreceptors known as Merkel-cell–neurite complexes3, 4. It has been demonstrated that Merkel cells have a role in vertebrate mechanosensation using Piezo2, particularly in shaping the type of current sent by the innervating sensory neuron4, 5, 6; however, major aspects of touch sensation remain intact without Merkel cell activity4, 7. Here we show that mice lacking Piezo2 in both adult sensory neurons and Merkel cells exhibit a profound loss of touch sensation. We precisely localize Piezo2 to the peripheral endings of a broad range of low-threshold mechanoreceptors that innervate both hairy and glabrous skin. Most rapidly adapting, mechanically activated currents in dorsal root ganglion neuronal cultures are absent in Piezo2 conditional knockout mice, and ex vivo skin nerve preparation studies show that the mechanosensitivity of low-threshold mechanoreceptors strongly depends on Piezo2. This cellular phenotype correlates with an unprecedented behavioural phenotype: an almost complete deficit in light-touch sensation in multiple behavioural assays, without affecting other somatosensory functions. Our results highlight that a single ion channel that displays rapidly adapting, mechanically activated currents in vitro is responsible for the mechanosensitivity of most low-threshold mechanoreceptor subtypes involved in innocuous touch sensation. Notably, we find that touch and pain sensation are separable, suggesting that as-yet-unknown mechanically activated ion channel(s) must account for noxious (painful) mechanosensation.

At a glance

Figures

  1. Piezo2 is localized at the nerve terminals of sensory neurons that innervate the skin.
    Figure 1: Piezo2 is localized at the nerve terminals of sensory neurons that innervate the skin.

    a, b, Representative images of immunostaining of GFP, Nefh and DAPI (4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, blue) in the hair follicle of dorsal skin of Piezo2-GFP mice. GFP staining indicates localization of the Piezo2–GFP fusion protein and Nefh marks myelinated neurons. c, Representative image of immunostaining of GFP, Krt8 (a specific marker of Merkel cells) and DAPI (blue) in glabrous skin of Piezo2-GFP mice. d, Representative images of immunostaining of GFP and S100 (a marker of Schwann cells) in glabrous skin. Arrows mark lanceolate endings (a) and arrowheads mark circumferential fibres (b). Dashed lines demarcate the epidermal–dermal junction (c and d). Der, dermis; Epi, epidermis; HS, hair shaft. Scale bars, 20 μm.

  2. Advil-creERT2 mediates efficient deletion of Piezo2 and leads to specific loss of rapidly adapting, mechanically activated currents in cultured DRG neurons.
    Figure 2: Advil-creERT2 mediates efficient deletion of Piezo2 and leads to specific loss of rapidly adapting, mechanically activated currents in cultured DRG neurons.

    a, Immunostaining of DRG neurons from tamoxifen-treated Advil-creERT2 × Ai9 mice for tdTomato epifluorescence and anti-Piezo2 antibody. Arrowheads indicate the relatively few tdTomato/Piezo2+ neurons that would presumably not be deleted in Piezo2CKO mice. b, Representative images of immunostaining using anti-Piezo2 antibody in DRGs from Advil-creERT2 × Piezo2loxP mice before and after tamoxifen treatment. c, qPCR of Piezo2 from isolated DRGs from Piezo2WT and Piezo2CKO mice with Piezo2WT values normalized at 100% (n = 3 independent experiments, P < 0.0001, Student’s t-test). d, The proportion of DRG neurons responding with rapidly (RA, τinact < 10 ms), intermediately (IA, τinact 10–30 ms) and slowly (SA, τinact > 30 ms) adapting mechanically activated currents from Piezo2WT and Piezo2CKO littermates. NR, non-responsive to displacements of at least one-third cell diameter; NS, not significant. Results from n = 3 independent experiments. Error bars represent s.e.m., ***P < 0.0001 for rapidly adapting and ***P < 0.0005 for non-responsive, Student’s t-test. Scale bars, 100 μm (a, b).

  3. Piezo2 is required for mechanoreceptor function in ex vivo skin nerve preparation.
    Figure 3: Piezo2 is required for mechanoreceptor function in ex vivo skin nerve preparation.

    a, Proportions of mechanically sensitive Aβ, Aδ and C fibres in Piezo2CKO mice compared to Piezo2WT controls, one-sided Fisher’s exact test, **P < 0.01. b, Typical examples of SAM I mechanoreceptor responses from Piezo2CKO and Piezo2WT mice. c, Mean discharge rates (400-ms bins) during the course of ramp and hold stimuli with different onset velocities for SAM I receptors. Note the almost complete lack of dynamic ramp discharge in SAM I receptors recorded from Piezo2CKO mice. d, Normally, SAM I discharge rates increase with increasing ramp speed, however SAM I receptors from Piezo2CKO mice showed a strong reduction in velocity sensitivity with firing discharge increasing only marginally with increasing stimulus velocity (repeated measures ANOVA, F = 19.69, P < 0.0001, with Bonferroni post hoc test, ***P < 0.001). e, Rapidly adapting afferents also displayed reduced velocity sensitivity in Piezo2CKO mutant mice (repeated measures ANOVA, F = 4.36, P < 0.05, with Bonferroni post hoc test, ***P < 0.001). f, Mean force thresholds for nociceptor discharge. Individual nociceptors threshold were calculated by averaging the thresholds of first spikes occurring during the stimulus ramp phase for all six stimuli applied. Note significant elevation of mechanical thresholds for Aδ mechanonociceptors in Piezo2CKO mice (Mann–Whitney test, *P < 0.05), but no change in C-fibre mechanical thresholds. g, Discharge rates and heat thresholds to standard noxious heat ramps did not differ between polymodal C fibres recorded from Piezo2CKO and Piezo2WT mice. Data are presented as mean ± s.e.m.

  4. Piezo2CKO mice show profound and specific defects in innocuous touch sensation in multiple behavioural assays.
    Figure 4: Piezo2CKO mice show profound and specific defects in innocuous touch sensation in multiple behavioural assays.

    a, Per cent response to varying forces (see Methods for an explanation of the units) of von Frey filaments in Piezo2WT (n = 14) and Piezo2CKO mice (n = 12). b, Per cent response to a sweep of a cotton swab on the hind paw in Piezo2WT (n = 14) and Piezo2CKO mice (n = 9). Of note, 6 out of 9 Piezo2CKO mice showed zero responses to the cotton stimulus. c, Measurement of time spent in a behavioural assay where mice are placed in an apparatus consisting of two platforms, with one side mechanically active and the other side kept still. For the first 10 min, no stimulation is given to either side (‘off’) to allow for acclimation. Mechanical stimulation is then provided to one side for 1 hour and per cent time spent on the two sides is plotted, Piezo2WT (n = 15) and Piezo2CKO mice (n = 11). d, Number of bouts in response to a 3 cm piece of adhesive tape affixed to the back of a mouse over a 5 min period in Piezo2WT (n = 14) and Piezo2CKO mice (n = 10). e, Percentage of time spent on either side of a two-choice assay with one zone set at 18 °C and one zone set at 32 °C in Piezo2WT (n = 13) and Piezo2CKO mice (n = 10). Error bars represent s.e.m., all experiments performed with at least four separate cohorts of both male and female littermate control mice, *P < 0.05, **P < 0.005, ***P < 0.0005, Mann–Whitney non-parametric analysis.

  5. Mechanically activated currents elicited in cultured DRG neurons from Piezo2WT and Piezo2CKO mice by poking with a blunt probe.
    Extended Data Fig. 1: Mechanically activated currents elicited in cultured DRG neurons from Piezo2WT and Piezo2CKO mice by poking with a blunt probe.

    a, Representative traces of rapidly adapting (RA) currents in Piezo2WT (top) and Piezo2CKO (bottom). Piezo2WT DRG neurons show characteristic rapidly adapting currents; a subpopulation can be active with apparent low thresholds (right). Piezo2CKO mice contained a few rapidly adapting type cells but none appeared to be low-threshold mechanoreceptors. b, c, Representative traces of intermediately adapting (IA) and slowly adapting (SA) currents, respectively, with no observable differences between the two genotypes. All data were low-pass filtered off line at 4 kHz. Action potentials were elicited by current injection in all neurons. Piezo2WT: RA, left: 20 μm diameter, 5 μm apparent threshold; RA, right: 28 μm diameter, 1 μm apparent threshold; IA: 23 μm diameter, 6 μm apparent threshold; SA: 20 μm diameter; 2 μm apparent threshold. Piezo2CKO: RA, left: 23 μm diameter, 8 μm apparent threshold; RA, right: none found; IA: 20 μm diameter, 5.5 μm apparent threshold; SA: 30 μm diameter, 8 μm apparent threshold. Lower right shows an example of the probe displacement protocol (stimulus). Results from n = 3 independent experiments.

  6. Apparent threshold analysis of Piezo2WT and Piezo2CKO DRG neurons.
    Extended Data Fig. 2: Apparent threshold analysis of Piezo2WT and Piezo2CKO DRG neurons.

    The smallest soma indentation eliciting a detectable mechanically activated response (apparent threshold) depends, in part, on the incremental distance applied (0.5 μm) and the proportional displacement in relation to the soma diameter. The apparent thresholds of all rapidly adapting responses normalized to soma diameter reveal a wide range of sensitivities of Piezo2WT DRG neurons (black) and the high apparent threshold responses of the remaining rapidly adapting neurons in Piezo2CKO DRG neurons (red). The lowest apparent thresholds are observed only in Piezo2WT. Results from n = 3 independent experiments.

  7. Expression of various markers of subpopulations of DRG neurons are similar in Piezo2WT and Piezo2CKO mice.
    Extended Data Fig. 3: Expression of various markers of subpopulations of DRG neurons are similar in Piezo2WT and Piezo2CKO mice.

    a, b, Representative images from immunofluorescence of Nefh in DRGs from Piezo2WT (a) or Piezo2CKO (b) mice. c, d, Representative image from immunofluorescence of thymidine hydroxylase (TH) in DRGs from Piezo2WT (c) or Piezo2CKO (d) mice. e, f, Representative image from immunofluorescence of CGRP in DRGs from Piezo2WT (e) or Piezo2CKO (f) mice. All markers stained in green. Scale bars, 100 μm.

  8. DRG innervation of skin is unaffected in Piezo2CKO mice.
    Extended Data Fig. 4: DRG innervation of skin is unaffected in Piezo2CKO mice.

    a, d, Representative image of immunostaining of Krt8 (green) and Nefh (red) in Merkel-cell–neurite complexes in Piezo2WT (a) and Piezo2CKO (d) glabrous skin. b, e, f, Representative image of immunostaining of S100 (green) and Nefh (red) in circumferential fibres (arrowheads) and lanceolate endings (arrows) in the hair follicle of Piezo2WT (b) and Piezo2CKO dorsal skin (e and f). c, g, Representative image of immunostaining of S100 (green) and Nefh (red) in Meissner’s corpuscles in Piezo2WT (c) and Piezo2CKO (g) glabrous skin. Bg, bulge of the hair follicle; Der, dermis; Epi, epidermis; HS, hair shaft. Scale bars, 20 μm.

  9. Physiological properties of nociceptors are unaffected in Piezo2CKO mice.
    Extended Data Fig. 5: Physiological properties of nociceptors are unaffected in Piezo2CKO mice.

    a, No change in conduction velocities of Aβ-, Aδ- and C-fibre afferents in Piezo2CKO compared to Piezo2WT (Mann–Whitney test). b, Proportions of receptor types encountered among Aβ, Aδ and C fibres are shown. A-M, Aδ mechanonociceptor; C-M, C mechanonociceptor; C-MH, C mechano/heat receptor, responding both to noxious heat and mechanical stimuli; RAM, rapidly adapting mechanoreceptor; SAM, slowly adapting mechanoreceptor. c, Stimulus response properties of Aδ mechanonociceptors recorded in Piezo2CKO compared to Piezo2WT were not significantly different. d, D-hair receptors recorded from Piezo2CKO displayed stimulus response properties that were indistinguishable from control afferents. e, The stimulus response properties of C fibres in Piezo2CKO were not significantly different from C fibres recorded in control Piezo2WT mice. Data are presented as mean ± s.e.m., repeated measures ANOVA analysis for ce.

  10. Development of the novel two-choice mechanosensory assay.
    Extended Data Fig. 6: Development of the novel two-choice mechanosensory assay.

    a, Schematic of instrument construction and image of instrument from above. b, Schematic of the instrument from below, with the top cover removed, and photo of tactile transducers underneath the platform. c, Avoidance behaviour of C57BL/6J mice to the mechanically active side. Error bars represent s.e.m., n = 12 mice, 6 males and 6 females. **P < 0.005, ***P < 0.0001, Mann–Whitney non-parametric analysis.

  11. Piezo2CKO mice do not show deficits in noxious mechanical or thermal stimuli or in inflammatory pain responses.
    Extended Data Fig. 7: Piezo2CKO mice do not show deficits in noxious mechanical or thermal stimuli or in inflammatory pain responses.

    a, Threshold for withdrawal response to a ramping protocol of von Frey stimulation from low force to high in Piezo2WT (n = 9) and Piezo2CKO (n = 7) mice. b, Time to response (latency) to application of a 500 g tail clip to the base of the tail in Piezo2WT (n = 6) and Piezo2CKO (n = 7) mice. c, Threshold for response to a Randall–Selitto pinching stimulus to the hind paw in Piezo2WT (n = 5) and Piezo2CKO (n = 7) mice. d, Time to withdrawal of hind paw in response to an infrared light heat source (Hargreaves assay) in Piezo2WT (n = 13) and Piezo2CKO (n = 9) mice. e, Ramping von Frey protocol in baseline (before CFA injection) and 24 h post CFA injection in Piezo2WT (n = 11) and Piezo2CKO (n = 9) mice. f, Ramping von Frey protocol in baseline (before bradykinin injection) and at time points 5, 15 and 30 min post injection in Piezo2WT (n = 6) and Piezo2CKO (n = 6) mice. Error bars represent s.e.m., all experiments performed with at least two separate cohorts of both male and female mice, **P < 0.005, ***P < 0.0001, Mann–Whitney non-parametric analysis.

  12. Piezo1 expression and function in DRGs.
    Extended Data Fig. 8: Piezo1 expression and function in DRGs.

    a, In situ hybridization expression analysis of Piezo1 in DRG neurons relative to Piezo2. Robust expression of Piezo2 but not Piezo1 is observed, and this agrees with previously reported results using qPCR3. b, siRNA for Piezo1 in cultured DRG neurons does not affect the number of mechanically sensitive neurons or the ratio of rapidly, intermediately or slowly adapting currents (number of recorded neurons in each category indicated on top of bar graphs). Data from three independent preparations, not significant by Student’s t-test. Scale bar, 100 μm. KD, knockdown; scr, scrambled.

Tables

  1. Electrical properties of Piezo2WT and Piezo2CKO cultured DRG neurons
    Extended Data Table 1: Electrical properties of Piezo2WT and Piezo2CKO cultured DRG neurons
  2. Properties of single fibres recorded from Piezo2WT and Piezo2CKO using the saphenous nerve ex vivo skin nerve preparation
    Extended Data Table 2: Properties of single fibres recorded from Piezo2WT and Piezo2CKO using the saphenous nerve ex vivo skin nerve preparation

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Author information

  1. Present address: Ion Channels and Sensory Transduction group, Aix Marseille University, CNRS, CRN2M-UMR 7286, 13344 Marseille, France.

    • Bertrand Coste

Affiliations

  1. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, Dorris Neuroscience Center, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California 92037, USA

    • Sanjeev S. Ranade,
    • Seung-Hyun Woo,
    • Adrienne E. Dubin,
    • Bertrand Coste,
    • Allain G. Francisco,
    • Kritika Reddy,
    • Zhaozhu Qiu &
    • Ardem Patapoutian
  2. Department of Neuroscience, Max-Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, Robert-Rössle Straße 10, D-13092 Berlin, Germany

    • Rabih A. Moshourab,
    • Christiane Wetzel,
    • Valérie Bégay &
    • Gary R. Lewin
  3. Klinik für Anästhesiologie mit Schwerpunkt Operative Intensivmedizin, Campus Charité Mitte and Virchow-Klinikum Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Augustburgerplatz 1, 13353 Berlin, Germany

    • Rabih A. Moshourab
  4. Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation, San Diego, California 92121, USA

    • Matt Petrus,
    • Jayanti Mathur,
    • James Mainquist,
    • A. J. Wilson &
    • Zhaozhu Qiu
  5. Molecular Nociception Group, Wolfson Institute for Biomedical Research, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK

    • John N. Wood

Contributions

S.S.R. and A.P. designed experiments and wrote the manuscript along with G.R.L. S.S.R., J.N.W. and Z.Q. generated transgenic lines used in this study. S.-H.W. performed all immunostaining experiments. A.E.D. conducted electrophysiology on cultured DRG neurons and J.M. isolated and cultured cells. R.A.M., C.W., V.B. and G.R.L. performed skin nerve electrophysiology and analysed the data. S.S.R., M.P., A.G.F. and K.R. performed behavioural assays on mice. B.C., J.M. and A.J.W. developed the novel two-choice mechanosensory instrument.

Competing financial interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

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Author details

Extended data figures and tables

Extended Data Figures

  1. Extended Data Figure 1: Mechanically activated currents elicited in cultured DRG neurons from Piezo2WT and Piezo2CKO mice by poking with a blunt probe. (72 KB)

    a, Representative traces of rapidly adapting (RA) currents in Piezo2WT (top) and Piezo2CKO (bottom). Piezo2WT DRG neurons show characteristic rapidly adapting currents; a subpopulation can be active with apparent low thresholds (right). Piezo2CKO mice contained a few rapidly adapting type cells but none appeared to be low-threshold mechanoreceptors. b, c, Representative traces of intermediately adapting (IA) and slowly adapting (SA) currents, respectively, with no observable differences between the two genotypes. All data were low-pass filtered off line at 4 kHz. Action potentials were elicited by current injection in all neurons. Piezo2WT: RA, left: 20 μm diameter, 5 μm apparent threshold; RA, right: 28 μm diameter, 1 μm apparent threshold; IA: 23 μm diameter, 6 μm apparent threshold; SA: 20 μm diameter; 2 μm apparent threshold. Piezo2CKO: RA, left: 23 μm diameter, 8 μm apparent threshold; RA, right: none found; IA: 20 μm diameter, 5.5 μm apparent threshold; SA: 30 μm diameter, 8 μm apparent threshold. Lower right shows an example of the probe displacement protocol (stimulus). Results from n = 3 independent experiments.

  2. Extended Data Figure 2: Apparent threshold analysis of Piezo2WT and Piezo2CKO DRG neurons. (67 KB)

    The smallest soma indentation eliciting a detectable mechanically activated response (apparent threshold) depends, in part, on the incremental distance applied (0.5 μm) and the proportional displacement in relation to the soma diameter. The apparent thresholds of all rapidly adapting responses normalized to soma diameter reveal a wide range of sensitivities of Piezo2WT DRG neurons (black) and the high apparent threshold responses of the remaining rapidly adapting neurons in Piezo2CKO DRG neurons (red). The lowest apparent thresholds are observed only in Piezo2WT. Results from n = 3 independent experiments.

  3. Extended Data Figure 3: Expression of various markers of subpopulations of DRG neurons are similar in Piezo2WT and Piezo2CKO mice. (641 KB)

    a, b, Representative images from immunofluorescence of Nefh in DRGs from Piezo2WT (a) or Piezo2CKO (b) mice. c, d, Representative image from immunofluorescence of thymidine hydroxylase (TH) in DRGs from Piezo2WT (c) or Piezo2CKO (d) mice. e, f, Representative image from immunofluorescence of CGRP in DRGs from Piezo2WT (e) or Piezo2CKO (f) mice. All markers stained in green. Scale bars, 100 μm.

  4. Extended Data Figure 4: DRG innervation of skin is unaffected in Piezo2CKO mice. (386 KB)

    a, d, Representative image of immunostaining of Krt8 (green) and Nefh (red) in Merkel-cell–neurite complexes in Piezo2WT (a) and Piezo2CKO (d) glabrous skin. b, e, f, Representative image of immunostaining of S100 (green) and Nefh (red) in circumferential fibres (arrowheads) and lanceolate endings (arrows) in the hair follicle of Piezo2WT (b) and Piezo2CKO dorsal skin (e and f). c, g, Representative image of immunostaining of S100 (green) and Nefh (red) in Meissner’s corpuscles in Piezo2WT (c) and Piezo2CKO (g) glabrous skin. Bg, bulge of the hair follicle; Der, dermis; Epi, epidermis; HS, hair shaft. Scale bars, 20 μm.

  5. Extended Data Figure 5: Physiological properties of nociceptors are unaffected in Piezo2CKO mice. (190 KB)

    a, No change in conduction velocities of Aβ-, Aδ- and C-fibre afferents in Piezo2CKO compared to Piezo2WT (Mann–Whitney test). b, Proportions of receptor types encountered among Aβ, Aδ and C fibres are shown. A-M, Aδ mechanonociceptor; C-M, C mechanonociceptor; C-MH, C mechano/heat receptor, responding both to noxious heat and mechanical stimuli; RAM, rapidly adapting mechanoreceptor; SAM, slowly adapting mechanoreceptor. c, Stimulus response properties of Aδ mechanonociceptors recorded in Piezo2CKO compared to Piezo2WT were not significantly different. d, D-hair receptors recorded from Piezo2CKO displayed stimulus response properties that were indistinguishable from control afferents. e, The stimulus response properties of C fibres in Piezo2CKO were not significantly different from C fibres recorded in control Piezo2WT mice. Data are presented as mean ± s.e.m., repeated measures ANOVA analysis for ce.

  6. Extended Data Figure 6: Development of the novel two-choice mechanosensory assay. (199 KB)

    a, Schematic of instrument construction and image of instrument from above. b, Schematic of the instrument from below, with the top cover removed, and photo of tactile transducers underneath the platform. c, Avoidance behaviour of C57BL/6J mice to the mechanically active side. Error bars represent s.e.m., n = 12 mice, 6 males and 6 females. **P < 0.005, ***P < 0.0001, Mann–Whitney non-parametric analysis.

  7. Extended Data Figure 7: Piezo2CKO mice do not show deficits in noxious mechanical or thermal stimuli or in inflammatory pain responses. (113 KB)

    a, Threshold for withdrawal response to a ramping protocol of von Frey stimulation from low force to high in Piezo2WT (n = 9) and Piezo2CKO (n = 7) mice. b, Time to response (latency) to application of a 500 g tail clip to the base of the tail in Piezo2WT (n = 6) and Piezo2CKO (n = 7) mice. c, Threshold for response to a Randall–Selitto pinching stimulus to the hind paw in Piezo2WT (n = 5) and Piezo2CKO (n = 7) mice. d, Time to withdrawal of hind paw in response to an infrared light heat source (Hargreaves assay) in Piezo2WT (n = 13) and Piezo2CKO (n = 9) mice. e, Ramping von Frey protocol in baseline (before CFA injection) and 24 h post CFA injection in Piezo2WT (n = 11) and Piezo2CKO (n = 9) mice. f, Ramping von Frey protocol in baseline (before bradykinin injection) and at time points 5, 15 and 30 min post injection in Piezo2WT (n = 6) and Piezo2CKO (n = 6) mice. Error bars represent s.e.m., all experiments performed with at least two separate cohorts of both male and female mice, **P < 0.005, ***P < 0.0001, Mann–Whitney non-parametric analysis.

  8. Extended Data Figure 8: Piezo1 expression and function in DRGs. (174 KB)

    a, In situ hybridization expression analysis of Piezo1 in DRG neurons relative to Piezo2. Robust expression of Piezo2 but not Piezo1 is observed, and this agrees with previously reported results using qPCR3. b, siRNA for Piezo1 in cultured DRG neurons does not affect the number of mechanically sensitive neurons or the ratio of rapidly, intermediately or slowly adapting currents (number of recorded neurons in each category indicated on top of bar graphs). Data from three independent preparations, not significant by Student’s t-test. Scale bar, 100 μm. KD, knockdown; scr, scrambled.

Extended Data Tables

  1. Extended Data Table 1: Electrical properties of Piezo2WT and Piezo2CKO cultured DRG neurons (141 KB)
  2. Extended Data Table 2: Properties of single fibres recorded from Piezo2WT and Piezo2CKO using the saphenous nerve ex vivo skin nerve preparation (80 KB)

Additional data