Table of Contents

Volume 514 Number 7523 pp403-528

23 October 2014

About the cover

A magnetic model of the Sun before a solar eruption produced by an ejected magnetic rope (top/blue) using data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager of the NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory mission. Coronal mass ejections are large-scale eruptions in the solar atmosphere that consist of a giant cloud of solar plasma embedded in a magnetic field. They have the potential to produce solar storms here on Earth that can damage artificial satellites and disrupt ground-based power generation. Using observations of the photospheric magnetic field made during the four days leading up to the coronal mass ejection of 13 December 2006, together with numerical modelling, Tahar Amari et al. show that the physical mechanism responsible for such ejections is best explained as the appearance and the later ejection of a ‘twisted rope’ of magnetic flux. Cover: Tahar Amari/ CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique. France.

This Week


  • A ripe time for gaining ground

    After three years of heated debate, the advocates and critics of gain-of-function research must work to agree on how best to regulate the work.

  • The ice bucket

    Social-media fun for medical research bypasses animal sensitivities.

  • Toxic influence

    Europe must act to stop livestock drugs from wiping out its vulture populations.

World View


Seven Days

  • Seven days: 17–23 October 2014

    The week in science: Snail discovery revives publishing spat; proposed nuclear-waste site passes key US safety evaluation; and biopharmaceutical firm AbbVie cools on US$54-billion takeover deal.

News in Focus


  • The discovery of Homo floresiensis: Tales of the hobbit

    No Alt text available for this image

    In 2004, researchers announced the discovery of Homo floresiensis, a small relative of modern humans that lived as recently as 18,000 years ago. The ‘hobbit’ is now considered the most important hominin fossil in a generation. Here, the scientists behind the find tell its story.

    • Ewen Callaway


Books and Arts







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Brief Communications Arising



  • Genome sequence of a 45,000-year-old modern human from western Siberia

    • Qiaomei Fu
    • Heng Li
    • Priya Moorjani
    • Flora Jay
    • Sergey M. Slepchenko
    • Aleksei A. Bondarev
    • Philip L. F. Johnson
    • Ayinuer Aximu-Petri
    • Kay Prüfer
    • Cesare de Filippo
    • Matthias Meyer
    • Nicolas Zwyns
    • Domingo C. Salazar-García
    • Yaroslav V. Kuzmin
    • Susan G. Keates
    • Pavel A. Kosintsev
    • Dmitry I. Razhev
    • Michael P. Richards
    • Nikolai V. Peristov
    • Michael Lachmann
    • Katerina Douka
    • Thomas F. G. Higham
    • Montgomery Slatkin
    • Jean-Jacques Hublin
    • David Reich
    • Janet Kelso
    • T. Bence Viola
    • Svante Pääbo

    The high-quality genome sequence of a 45,000-year-old modern human from Siberia reveals that gene flow from Neanderthals into the ancestors of this individual had already occurred about 7,000 to 13,000 years earlier; genomic comparisons show that he belonged to a population that lived close in time to the separation of populations in east and west Eurasia and that may represent an early modern human radiation out of Africa that has no direct descendants today.

  • Pulmonary macrophage transplantation therapy

    • Takuji Suzuki
    • Paritha Arumugam
    • Takuro Sakagami
    • Nico Lachmann
    • Claudia Chalk
    • Anthony Sallese
    • Shuichi Abe
    • Cole Trapnell
    • Brenna Carey
    • Thomas Moritz
    • Punam Malik
    • Carolyn Lutzko
    • Robert E. Wood
    • Bruce C. Trapnell

    This study reports the correction of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) in Csf2rb–/– mice by a single transfer of either wild-type or gene-corrected macrophages directly to the lungs — the transplanted macrophages persisted for at least 1 year; this transplantation strategy obviated the need for myeloablation and immunosuppression and should be a feasible therapy for humans with hereditary PAP.

    See also
  • Structure and immune recognition of trimeric pre-fusion HIV-1 Env

    • Marie Pancera
    • Tongqing Zhou
    • Aliaksandr Druz
    • Ivelin S. Georgiev
    • Cinque Soto
    • Jason Gorman
    • Jinghe Huang
    • Priyamvada Acharya
    • Gwo-Yu Chuang
    • Gilad Ofek
    • Guillaume B. E. Stewart-Jones
    • Jonathan Stuckey
    • Robert T. Bailer
    • M. Gordon Joyce
    • Mark K. Louder
    • Nancy Tumba
    • Yongping Yang
    • Baoshan Zhang
    • Myron S. Cohen
    • Barton F. Haynes
    • John R. Mascola
    • Lynn Morris
    • James B. Munro
    • Scott C. Blanchard
    • Walther Mothes
    • Mark Connors
    • Peter D. Kwong

    A crystal structure of the human immunodeficiency virus Env trimer, used by the virus to infect cells, is determined here; the new structure, which shows the pre-fusion form of Env, increases our understanding of the fusion mechanism and of how the conformation of Env allows the virus to evade the immune response.

    See also


  • Two families of exocomets in the β Pictoris system

    • F. Kiefer
    • A. Lecavelier des Etangs
    • J. Boissier
    • A. Vidal-Madjar
    • H. Beust
    • A.-M. Lagrange
    • G. Hébrard
    • R. Ferlet

    Statistical analysis of over a thousand spectra of the star β Pictoris reveals that it has two kinds of exocomets circling it: old exhausted comets trapped in mean-motion resonance with a massive planet, and fragments of comets.

    See also
  • Piezoelectricity of single-atomic-layer MoS2 for energy conversion and piezotronics

    • Wenzhuo Wu
    • Lei Wang
    • Yilei Li
    • Fan Zhang
    • Long Lin
    • Simiao Niu
    • Daniel Chenet
    • Xian Zhang
    • Yufeng Hao
    • Tony F. Heinz
    • James Hone
    • Zhong Lin Wang

    The two-dimensional semiconducting material molybdenum disulphide shows strong piezoelectricity in its single-layered form, suggesting possible applications in nanoscale electromechanical devices for sensing and energy harvesting.

  • Identification of an iridium-containing compound with a formal oxidation state of IX

    • Guanjun Wang
    • Mingfei Zhou
    • James T. Goettel
    • Gary J. Schrobilgen
    • Jing Su
    • Jun Li
    • Tobias Schlöder
    • Sebastian Riedel

    The tetrahedral iridium tetroxide cation [IrO4]+, which has an iridium 5d0 valence electron configuration and a formal oxidation state of IX, is generated in the gas phase, identified by infrared photodissociation spectroscopy, and predicted, by quantum chemical calculations, to be the most stable of all possible [IrO4]+ isomers.

  • Methane dynamics regulated by microbial community response to permafrost thaw

    • Carmody K. McCalley
    • Ben J. Woodcroft
    • Suzanne B. Hodgkins
    • Richard A. Wehr
    • Eun-Hae Kim
    • Rhiannon Mondav
    • Patrick M. Crill
    • Jeffrey P. Chanton
    • Virginia I. Rich
    • Gene W. Tyson
    • Scott R. Saleska

    The abundance of key microbial lineages can be used to predict atmospherically relevant patterns in methane isotopes and the proportion of carbon metabolized to methane during permafrost thaw, suggesting that microbial ecology may be important in ecosystem-scale responses to global change.

  • Limited impact on decadal-scale climate change from increased use of natural gas

    • Haewon McJeon
    • Jae Edmonds
    • Nico Bauer
    • Leon Clarke
    • Brian Fisher
    • Brian P. Flannery
    • Jérôme Hilaire
    • Volker Krey
    • Giacomo Marangoni
    • Raymond Mi
    • Keywan Riahi
    • Holger Rogner
    • Massimo Tavoni

    It has been hoped that making abundant natural gas available by hydraulic fracturing (fracking) would reduce greenhouse gas emissions but now modelling shows that increased consumption will have limited effect on climate change.

    See also
  • Producing more grain with lower environmental costs

    • Xinping Chen
    • Zhenling Cui
    • Mingsheng Fan
    • Peter Vitousek
    • Ming Zhao
    • Wenqi Ma
    • Zhenlin Wang
    • Weijian Zhang
    • Xiaoyuan Yan
    • Jianchang Yang
    • Xiping Deng
    • Qiang Gao
    • Qiang Zhang
    • Shiwei Guo
    • Jun Ren
    • Shiqing Li
    • Youliang Ye
    • Zhaohui Wang
    • Jianliang Huang
    • Qiyuan Tang
    • Yixiang Sun
    • Xianlong Peng
    • Jiwang Zhang
    • Mingrong He
    • Yunji Zhu
    • Jiquan Xue
    • Guiliang Wang
    • Liang Wu
    • Ning An
    • Liangquan Wu
    • Lin Ma
    • Weifeng Zhang
    • Fusuo Zhang

    In an experiment across China to test integrated soil–crop system management for rice, wheat and maize against current practice, improvements in grain yield are equivalent to high-input techniques, but nutrient use, nutrient loss and greenhouse gas emissions are lower than current practice.

  • Pre-Columbian mycobacterial genomes reveal seals as a source of New World human tuberculosis

    • Kirsten I. Bos
    • Kelly M. Harkins
    • Alexander Herbig
    • Mireia Coscolla
    • Nico Weber
    • Iñaki Comas
    • Stephen A. Forrest
    • Josephine M. Bryant
    • Simon R. Harris
    • Verena J. Schuenemann
    • Tessa J. Campbell
    • Kerttu Majander
    • Alicia K. Wilbur
    • Ricardo A. Guichon
    • Dawnie L. Wolfe Steadman
    • Della Collins Cook
    • Stefan Niemann
    • Marcel A. Behr
    • Martin Zumarraga
    • Ricardo Bastida
    • Daniel Huson
    • Kay Nieselt
    • Douglas Young
    • Julian Parkhill
    • Jane E. Buikstra
    • Sebastien Gagneux
    • Anne C. Stone
    • Johannes Krause

    Three 1,000-year-old mycobacterial genomes from Peruvian human skeletons reveal that a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex derived from seals caused human disease before contact in the Americas.

  • Dendritic cells control fibroblastic reticular network tension and lymph node expansion

    • Sophie E. Acton
    • Aaron J. Farrugia
    • Jillian L. Astarita
    • Diego Mourão-Sá
    • Robert P. Jenkins
    • Emma Nye
    • Steven Hooper
    • Janneke van Blijswijk
    • Neil C. Rogers
    • Kathryn J. Snelgrove
    • Ian Rosewell
    • Luis F. Moita
    • Gordon Stamp
    • Shannon J. Turley
    • Erik Sahai
    • Caetano Reis e Sousa

    During inflammation, the lymph node stromal compartment is shown to accommodate high numbers of infiltrating lymphocytes by relaxing the cytoskeleton of fibroblastic reticular cells, allowing the latter to stretch and the lymph node to expand.

    See also
  • Diabetes recovery by age-dependent conversion of pancreatic δ-cells into insulin producers

    • Simona Chera
    • Delphine Baronnier
    • Luiza Ghila
    • Valentina Cigliola
    • Jan N. Jensen
    • Guoqiang Gu
    • Kenichiro Furuyama
    • Fabrizio Thorel
    • Fiona M. Gribble
    • Frank Reimann
    • Pedro L. Herrera

    An investigation of the influence of age on the generation of insulin-producing cells after β-cell loss in mice reveals that, whereas α-cells can reprogram to produce insulin from puberty to adulthood, efficient reconstitution in the very young is through δ-cell reprogramming, leading to complete diabetes recovery.

  • High-fat-diet-mediated dysbiosis promotes intestinal carcinogenesis independently of obesity

    • Manon D. Schulz
    • Çiğdem Atay
    • Jessica Heringer
    • Franziska K. Romrig
    • Sarah Schwitalla
    • Begüm Aydin
    • Paul K. Ziegler
    • Julia Varga
    • Wolfgang Reindl
    • Claudia Pommerenke
    • Gabriela Salinas-Riester
    • Andreas Böck
    • Carl Alpert
    • Michael Blaut
    • Sara C. Polson
    • Lydia Brandl
    • Thomas Kirchner
    • Florian R. Greten
    • Shawn W. Polson
    • Melek C. Arkan

    A high-fat diet promotes intestinal tumorigenesis independently of obesity in a mouse model with oncogene activation, by changing the composition of the gut microbiota and altering immune regulation.

  • Contrasting roles of histone 3 lysine 27 demethylases in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    • Panagiotis Ntziachristos
    • Aristotelis Tsirigos
    • G. Grant Welstead
    • Thomas Trimarchi
    • Sofia Bakogianni
    • Luyao Xu
    • Evangelia Loizou
    • Linda Holmfeldt
    • Alexandros Strikoudis
    • Bryan King
    • Jasper Mullenders
    • Jared Becksfort
    • Jelena Nedjic
    • Elisabeth Paietta
    • Martin S. Tallman
    • Jacob M. Rowe
    • Giovanni Tonon
    • Takashi Satoh
    • Laurens Kruidenier
    • Rab Prinjha
    • Shizuo Akira
    • Pieter Van Vlierberghe
    • Adolfo A. Ferrando
    • Rudolf Jaenisch
    • Charles G. Mullighan
    • Iannis Aifantis

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) is a haematological malignancy with a poor prognosis and no available targeted therapies; now two histone H3 lysine 27 demethylases, JMJD3 and UTX, are shown to have contrasting roles in human T-ALL cells and a mouse model of the disease, and a small molecule demethylase inhibitor is found to inhibit the growth of T-ALL cell lines, introducing a potential therapeutic avenue for acute leukaemia.

  • Structure and mechanism of Zn2+-transporting P-type ATPases

    • Kaituo Wang
    • Oleg Sitsel
    • Gabriele Meloni
    • Henriette Elisabeth Autzen
    • Magnus Andersson
    • Tetyana Klymchuk
    • Anna Marie Nielsen
    • Douglas C. Rees
    • Poul Nissen
    • Pontus Gourdon

    The X-ray crystal structures of a zinc-ion-transporting P-type ATPase are solved in a zinc-free, phosphoenzyme ‘ground’ state and in a transition state of dephosphorylation, characterizing these transporters of an essential micronutrient that is needed for many biological processes but is cytotoxic when free.