Table of Contents

Volume 513 Number 7518 pp279-454

18 September 2014

About the cover

By sequencing and comparing the genomes of nine ancient Europeans that bridge the transition to agriculture in Europe between 8,000 and 7,000 years ago, David Reich and colleagues show that most present-day Europeans derive from at least three highly differentiated populations — west European hunter-gatherers, ancient north Eurasians (related to Upper Palaeolithic Siberians) and early European farmers of mainly Near Eastern origin. They further propose that early European farmers had about 44% ancestry from a ‘basal Eurasian’ population that split before the diversification of other non-African lineages. These results raise interesting new questions, for instance that of where and when the Near Eastern farmers mixed with European hunter-gatherers to produce the early European farmers. Cover: Leonardo Gonzalez.

This Week


  • Diversity challenge

    There is growing evidence that embracing diversity — in all its senses — is key to doing good science. But there is still work to be done to ensure that inclusivity is the default, not the exception.

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  • Amped-up plants

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World View


Seven Days

  • Seven days: 12–18 September 2014

    The week in science: Swiss scientists regain access to EU grants, Canadian archaeologists find long-lost ship, and Japanese regulators move to restart nuclear power.

    News in Focus


    • Diversity: Pride in science

      No Alt text available for this image

      The sciences can be a sanctuary for gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender individuals, but biases may still discourage many from coming out.

      • M Mitchell Waldrop


    Autumn Books

    • Genetics: Under the skin

      Nathaniel Comfort wonders at the enduring trend of misrepresenting race.

      • Review of A Troublesome Inheritance: Genes, Race and Human History, Race Unmasked: Biology and Race in the 20th Century & The Myth of Race: The Troubling Persistence of an Unscientific Idea
        Nicholas Wade, Michael Yudell & Robert Wald Sussman
    • Physics: In thrall to uncertainty

      A history of how quantum theory has permeated Western culture refreshes Jim Baggott.

      • Review of The Quantum Moment: How Planck, Bohr, Einstein, and Heisenberg Taught Us to Love Uncertainty
        Robert P. Crease & Alfred Scharff Goldhaber
    • Linguistics: The write stuff

      Steven Pinker's provocative treatise on language use and abuse would benefit from more data, finds Paul Raeburn.

      • Review of The Sense of Style: The Thinking Person's Guide to Writing in the 21st Century
        Steven Pinker
    • Evolution: Tribes like us

      Tim Lenton is intrigued by E. O. Wilson's sweeping perspective on humanity's past — and possible futures.

      • Review of The Meaning of Human Existence
        Edward O. Wilson
    • Climate policy: A societal sea change

      Nico Stehr ponders Naomi Klein's call for strategic mass action on climate change.

      • Review of This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs the Climate
        Naomi Klein
    • Internet: Technology and its discontents

      Jaron Lanier surveys four studies probing the vexed nexus of mind and digisphere.

      • Review of Mind Change: How Digital Technologies Are Leaving Their Mark on Our Brains, The Organized Mind: Thinking Straight in the Age of Information Overload, The Impulse Society: What's Wrong With Getting What We Want? & The Glass Cage: Automation and Us
        Susan Greenfield, Daniel J. Levitin, Paul Roberts & Nicholas Carr




    Career Briefs


    naturejobs job listings and advertising features



    Technology Feature

    • When disease strikes from nowhere

      When healthy parents have a child with a genetic disorder, the cause is sometimes a new mutation. Tools are emerging to meet the challenge of finding such changes.

      • Vivien Marx


    Brief Communications Arising



    • Multifunctional organoboron compounds for scalable natural product synthesis

      • Fanke Meng
      • Kevin P. McGrath
      • Amir H. Hoveyda

      A catalytic process is reported that begins with a highly selective copper–boron addition to a monosubstituted allene, and in which the resulting boron-substituted organocopper intermediate then participates in a chemoselective, site-selective and enantioselective allylic substitution; this approach is used in the enantioselective synthesis of gram quantities of two natural products.

      See also
    • The genomic substrate for adaptive radiation in African cichlid fishOpen

      • David Brawand
      • Catherine E. Wagner
      • Yang I. Li
      • Milan Malinsky
      • Irene Keller
      • Shaohua Fan
      • Oleg Simakov
      • Alvin Y. Ng
      • Zhi Wei Lim
      • Etienne Bezault
      • Jason Turner-Maier
      • Jeremy Johnson
      • Rosa Alcazar
      • Hyun Ji Noh
      • Pamela Russell
      • Bronwen Aken
      • Jessica Alföldi
      • Chris Amemiya
      • Naoual Azzouzi
      • Jean-François Baroiller
      • Frederique Barloy-Hubler
      • Aaron Berlin
      • Ryan Bloomquist
      • Karen L. Carleton
      • Matthew A. Conte
      • Helena D'Cotta
      • Orly Eshel
      • Leslie Gaffney
      • Francis Galibert
      • Hugo F. Gante
      • Sante Gnerre
      • Lucie Greuter
      • Richard Guyon
      • Natalie S. Haddad
      • Wilfried Haerty
      • Rayna M. Harris
      • Hans A. Hofmann
      • Thibaut Hourlier
      • Gideon Hulata
      • David B. Jaffe
      • Marcia Lara
      • Alison P. Lee
      • Iain MacCallum
      • Salome Mwaiko
      • Masato Nikaido
      • Hidenori Nishihara
      • Catherine Ozouf-Costaz
      • David J. Penman
      • Dariusz Przybylski
      • Michaelle Rakotomanga
      • Suzy C. P. Renn
      • Filipe J. Ribeiro
      • Micha Ron
      • Walter Salzburger
      • Luis Sanchez-Pulido
      • M. Emilia Santos
      • Steve Searle
      • Ted Sharpe
      • Ross Swofford
      • Frederick J. Tan
      • Louise Williams
      • Sarah Young
      • Shuangye Yin
      • Norihiro Okada
      • Thomas D. Kocher
      • Eric A. Miska
      • Eric S. Lander
      • Byrappa Venkatesh
      • Russell D. Fernald
      • Axel Meyer
      • Chris P. Ponting
      • J. Todd Streelman
      • Kerstin Lindblad-Toh
      • Ole Seehausen
      • Federica Di Palma

      Genomes and transcriptomes of five distinct lineages of African cichlids, a textbook example of adaptive radiation, have been sequenced and analysed to reveal that many types of molecular changes contributed to rapid evolution, and that standing variation accumulated during periods of relaxed selection may have primed subsequent diversification.

      See also
    • Proteogenomic characterization of human colon and rectal cancer

      • Bing Zhang
      • Jing Wang
      • Xiaojing Wang
      • Jing Zhu
      • Qi Liu
      • Zhiao Shi
      • Matthew C. Chambers
      • Lisa J. Zimmerman
      • Kent F. Shaddox
      • Sangtae Kim
      • Sherri R. Davies
      • Sean Wang
      • Pei Wang
      • Christopher R. Kinsinger
      • Robert C. Rivers
      • Henry Rodriguez
      • R. Reid Townsend
      • Matthew J. C. Ellis
      • Steven A. Carr
      • David L. Tabb
      • Robert J. Coffey
      • Robbert J. C. Slebos
      • Daniel C. Liebler
      • the NCI CPTAC

      Proteome analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) colorectal cancer specimens reveals that DNA- or RNA-level measurements cannot reliably predict protein abundance, colorectal tumours can be separated into distinct proteotypes, and that copy number alterations drive mRNA abundance changes but few extend to protein-level changes.

    • Molecular architecture and mechanism of the anaphase-promoting complex

      • Leifu Chang
      • Ziguo Zhang
      • Jing Yang
      • Stephen H. McLaughlin
      • David Barford

      The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a large E3 ligase that mediates ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis of cell cycle regulatory proteins; here the complete secondary structure architecture of human APC/C complexed with its coactivator CDH1 and substrate HSL1 is determined at 7.4 Å resolution, revealing allosteric changes induced by the coactivator that enhance affinity for UBCH10–ubiqutin.


    • A massive galaxy in its core formation phase three billion years after the Big Bang

      • Erica Nelson
      • Pieter van Dokkum
      • Marijn Franx
      • Gabriel Brammer
      • Ivelina Momcheva
      • Natascha Förster Schreiber
      • Elisabete da Cunha
      • Linda Tacconi
      • Rachel Bezanson
      • Allison Kirkpatrick
      • Joel Leja
      • Hans-Walter Rix
      • Rosalind Skelton
      • Arjen van der Wel
      • Katherine Whitaker
      • Stijn Wuyts

      Hubble Space Telescope, Keck telescope and Spitzer satellite data reveal the formation of the dense stellar core of a massive galaxy occurring three billion years after the Big Bang.

    • A supermassive black hole in an ultra-compact dwarf galaxy

      • Anil C. Seth
      • Remco van den Bosch
      • Steffen Mieske
      • Holger Baumgardt
      • Mark den Brok
      • Jay Strader
      • Nadine Neumayer
      • Igor Chilingarian
      • Michael Hilker
      • Richard McDermid
      • Lee Spitler
      • Jean Brodie
      • Matthias J. Frank
      • Jonelle L. Walsh

      Dynamical modelling of the ultra-compact dwarf galaxy M60-UCD1 reveals the presence of a supermassive black hole; this suggests the object is a stripped galaxy nucleus and implies the existence of supermassive black holes in many other ultra-compact dwarf galaxies.

      See also
    • Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics

      • Patrice F. Rey
      • Nicolas Coltice
      • Nicolas Flament

      The slow gravitational collapse of early continents could have kick-started transient episodes of plate tectonics until, as the Earth’s interior cooled and oceanic lithosphere became heavier, plate tectonics became self-sustaining.

    • Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans

      • A list of authors and their affiliations appears at the end of the paper

      A sequencing study comparing ancient and contemporary genomes reveals that most present-day Europeans derive from at least three highly differentiated populations: west European hunter-gatherers, ancient north Eurasians (related to Upper Palaeolithic Siberians) and early European farmers of mainly Near Eastern origin.

    • Lethal aggression in Pan is better explained by adaptive strategies than human impacts

      • Michael L. Wilson
      • Christophe Boesch
      • Barbara Fruth
      • Takeshi Furuichi
      • Ian C. Gilby
      • Chie Hashimoto
      • Catherine L. Hobaiter
      • Gottfried Hohmann
      • Noriko Itoh
      • Kathelijne Koops
      • Julia N. Lloyd
      • Tetsuro Matsuzawa
      • John C. Mitani
      • Deus C. Mjungu
      • David Morgan
      • Martin N. Muller
      • Roger Mundry
      • Michio Nakamura
      • Jill Pruetz
      • Anne E. Pusey
      • Julia Riedel
      • Crickette Sanz
      • Anne M. Schel
      • Nicole Simmons
      • Michel Waller
      • David P. Watts
      • Frances White
      • Roman M. Wittig
      • Klaus Zuberbühler
      • Richard W. Wrangham

      A meta-analysis of studies on chimpanzees and bonobos across Africa shows that their conspecific aggression is the normal and expected product of adaptive strategies to obtain resources or mates and has no connection with the impacts of human activities.

      See also
    • Optimization of lag time underlies antibiotic tolerance in evolved bacterial populations

      • Ofer Fridman
      • Amir Goldberg
      • Irine Ronin
      • Noam Shoresh
      • Nathalie Q. Balaban

      Repeated exposure of the bacterium Escherichia coli to clinically relevant concentrations of ampicillin results in the evolution of tolerance—the ability to survive until the antibiotic concentration diminishes—through an extension of the lag phase, a finding that has implications for slowing the evolution of antibiotic resistance.

    • Genome sequencing of normal cells reveals developmental lineages and mutational processes

      • Sam Behjati
      • Meritxell Huch
      • Ruben van Boxtel
      • Wouter Karthaus
      • David C. Wedge
      • Asif U. Tamuri
      • Iñigo Martincorena
      • Mia Petljak
      • Ludmil B. Alexandrov
      • Gunes Gundem
      • Patrick S. Tarpey
      • Sophie Roerink
      • Joyce Blokker
      • Mark Maddison
      • Laura Mudie
      • Ben Robinson
      • Serena Nik-Zainal
      • Peter Campbell
      • Nick Goldman
      • Marc van de Wetering
      • Edwin Cuppen
      • Hans Clevers
      • Michael R. Stratton

      On the basis of whole-genome sequences of clonal lines derived from normal mouse tissues, variation in mutational patterns and load across different tissues are described and early embryonic cell divisions are reconstructed.

    • Bidirectional switch of the valence associated with a hippocampal contextual memory engram

      • Roger L. Redondo
      • Joshua Kim
      • Autumn L. Arons
      • Steve Ramirez
      • Xu Liu
      • Susumu Tonegawa

      An optogenetic approach in mice was used to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying memory valence association; dentate gyrus, but not amygdala, memory engram cells exhibit plasticity in valence associations, suggesting that emotional memory associations can be changed at the circuit level.

      See also
    • Exonuclease-mediated degradation of nascent RNA silences genes linked to severe malaria

      • Qingfeng Zhang
      • T. Nicolai Siegel
      • Rafael M. Martins
      • Fei Wang
      • Jun Cao
      • Qi Gao
      • Xiu Cheng
      • Lubin Jiang
      • Chung-Chau Hon
      • Christine Scheidig-Benatar
      • Hiroshi Sakamoto
      • Louise Turner
      • Anja T. R. Jensen
      • Aurelie Claes
      • Julien Guizetti
      • Nicholas A. Malmquist
      • Artur Scherf

      A novel type of post-transcriptional regulation controls the expression of virulence genes in blood-stage malaria parasites.

    • Endocrinization of FGF1 produces a neomorphic and potent insulin sensitizer

      • Jae Myoung Suh
      • Johan W. Jonker
      • Maryam Ahmadian
      • Regina Goetz
      • Denise Lackey
      • Olivia Osborn
      • Zhifeng Huang
      • Weilin Liu
      • Eiji Yoshihara
      • Theo H. van Dijk
      • Rick Havinga
      • Weiwei Fan
      • Yun-Qiang Yin
      • Ruth T. Yu
      • Christopher Liddle
      • Annette R. Atkins
      • Jerrold M. Olefsky
      • Moosa Mohammadi
      • Michael Downes
      • Ronald M. Evans

      Pharmacological fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) normalizes blood glucose in diabetic mice by means of an FGF receptor signalling pathway that is independent of its mitogenic activity.

    • Coordinated regulation of protein synthesis and degradation by mTORC1

      • Yinan Zhang
      • Justin Nicholatos
      • John R. Dreier
      • Stéphane J. H. Ricoult
      • Scott B. Widenmaier
      • Gökhan S. Hotamisligil
      • David J. Kwiatkowski
      • Brendan D. Manning

      mTORC1 is known to stimulate protein synthesis; now, it is shown to also promote the synthesis of proteasomes, which degrade proteins into the amino acids needed to create new proteins.