Table of Contents

Volume 513 Number 7516 pp6-136

4 September 2014

About the cover

A slice through the Laniakea supercluster — home: velocity flow streams within our supercluster are shown white, external flows dark blue. The Milky Way is a member of the Local Group of galaxies. The Milky Way is a member of the Local Group of galaxies. Now have sufficient data on the distances and motions of galaxies to be able to describe a much larger level of organization in our corner of the Universe — a supercluster 160 megaparsecs across and containing 1017 solar masses. Brent Tully et al. use a new catalogue of ‘peculiar velocities’, line-of-sight departures from cosmic expansion caused by gravitational perturbation, to develop a map representing the distribution of matter. They identify a ‘home’ supercluster that they name Laniakea — from the Hawaiian lani and akea (‘heaven’ and ‘spacious’). It includes the Virgo cluster, the Norma, Hydra and Centaurus clusters (also known as the Great Attractor), the Pavo-Indus filament and a number of voids. Cover art: Mark A. Garlick / Source: Daniel Pomarede.

This Week


  • There is life after academia

    With high numbers of postdocs emerging from universities, prospective PhD students must be prepared for the fact that they will probably not end up with a career in research.

  • Heavenly homes

    The discovery of our Galaxy’s place in the Universe adds detail to our address.

  • The digital toolbox

    A new section of Nature examines the software and websites that make research easier.

World View


Seven Days


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  • Migrations and dynamics of the intertropical convergence zone

    • Tapio Schneider
    • Tobias Bischoff
    • Gerald H. Haug

    The intertropical convergence zone, where global rainfall is greatest, is a narrow belt of clouds usually centred about six degrees north of the Equator; this Review links its migrations on various timescales to the atmospheric energy balance.


  • Developmental plasticity and the origin of tetrapods

    • Emily M. Standen
    • Trina Y. Du
    • Hans C. E. Larsson

    The most primitive extant bony fish, Polypterus, exhibits adaptive plasticity for life on land when raised on land rather than in water, suggesting that environmentally induced phenotypic plasticity might have facilitated the macroevolutionary transition to life on land.

    See also
  • Alterations of the human gut microbiome in liver cirrhosis

    • Nan Qin
    • Fengling Yang
    • Ang Li
    • Edi Prifti
    • Yanfei Chen
    • Li Shao
    • Jing Guo
    • Emmanuelle Le Chatelier
    • Jian Yao
    • Lingjiao Wu
    • Jiawei Zhou
    • Shujun Ni
    • Lin Liu
    • Nicolas Pons
    • Jean Michel Batto
    • Sean P. Kennedy
    • Pierre Leonard
    • Chunhui Yuan
    • Wenchao Ding
    • Yuanting Chen
    • Xinjun Hu
    • Beiwen Zheng
    • Guirong Qian
    • Wei Xu
    • S. Dusko Ehrlich
    • Shusen Zheng
    • Lanjuan Li

    Invasion of the gut by oral bacteria in liver cirrhosis.

  • RNA G-quadruplexes cause eIF4A-dependent oncogene translation in cancer

    • Andrew L. Wolfe
    • Kamini Singh
    • Yi Zhong
    • Philipp Drewe
    • Vinagolu K. Rajasekhar
    • Viraj R. Sanghvi
    • Konstantinos J. Mavrakis
    • Man Jiang
    • Justine E. Roderick
    • Joni Van der Meulen
    • Jonathan H. Schatz
    • Christina M. Rodrigo
    • Chunying Zhao
    • Pieter Rondou
    • Elisa de Stanchina
    • Julie Teruya-Feldstein
    • Michelle A. Kelliher
    • Frank Speleman
    • John A. Porco
    • Jerry Pelletier
    • Gunnar Rätsch
    • Hans-Guido Wendel

    The translation of many messenger RNAs that encode important oncogenes and transcription factors depends on the eIF4A RNA helicase to resolve G-quadruplex structures, implying eIF4A inhibition as an effective cancer therapy.


  • The Laniakea supercluster of galaxies

    • R. Brent Tully
    • Hélène Courtois
    • Yehuda Hoffman
    • Daniel Pomarède

    Examination of a three-dimensional map of galaxies and their velocities shows a surface bounding the motions of galaxies that are inward after removal of the mean cosmic expansion and long-range flows; the galaxies within this surface lie within our home supercluster.

    See also
  • A 400-solar-mass black hole in the galaxy M82

    • Dheeraj R. Pasham
    • Tod E. Strohmayer
    • Richard F. Mushotzky

    The discovery of two stable peaks at frequencies with a ratio of 3:2 in the power spectrum of X-ray emission from the brightest X-ray source in galaxy M82 suggests that, if the relationship between frequency and mass that holds for stellar-mass black holes can be extended to intermediate masses, the black hole believed to be the source of the emission has a mass approximately 400 times that of the Sun.

  • Temperature sensitivity of soil respiration rates enhanced by microbial community response

    • Kristiina Karhu
    • Marc D. Auffret
    • Jennifer A. J. Dungait
    • David W. Hopkins
    • James I. Prosser
    • Brajesh K. Singh
    • Jens-Arne Subke
    • Philip A. Wookey
    • Göran I. Ågren
    • Maria-Teresa Sebastià
    • Fabrice Gouriveau
    • Göran Bergkvist
    • Patrick Meir
    • Andrew T. Nottingham
    • Norma Salinas
    • Iain P. Hartley

    Microbial community responses in soils from the Arctic to the Amazon often enhance the longer-term temperature sensitivity of respiration, particularly in soils with high carbon-to-nitrogen ratios and in soils from cold regions, suggesting that carbon stored in Arctic and boreal soils could be more vulnerable to climate warming than currently predicted.

  • Asymmetric three-dimensional topography over mantle plumes

    • Evgueni Burov
    • Taras Gerya

    Three-dimensional numerical models of the interaction of a mantle plume with a rheologically realistic lithosphere predict complex surface evolution very different from the smooth, radially symmetric patterns usually assumed to be the signature of a mantle upwelling, with strongly asymmetric small-scale three-dimensional features such as rifts and linear fault structures.

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  • RIPK1 maintains epithelial homeostasis by inhibiting apoptosis and necroptosis

    • Marius Dannappel
    • Katerina Vlantis
    • Snehlata Kumari
    • Apostolos Polykratis
    • Chun Kim
    • Laurens Wachsmuth
    • Christina Eftychi
    • Juan Lin
    • Teresa Corona
    • Nicole Hermance
    • Matija Zelic
    • Petra Kirsch
    • Marijana Basic
    • Andre Bleich
    • Michelle Kelliher
    • Manolis Pasparakis

    RIPK1 is shown to have a crucial role—independent of its known kinase function—in suppressing epithelial cell apoptosis and necroptosis in mice, thereby regulating homeostasis and preventing inflammation in barrier tissues.

    See also
    See also
  • RIPK1 ensures intestinal homeostasis by protecting the epithelium against apoptosis

    • Nozomi Takahashi
    • Lars Vereecke
    • Mathieu J. M. Bertrand
    • Linde Duprez
    • Scott B. Berger
    • Tatyana Divert
    • Amanda Gonçalves
    • Mozes Sze
    • Barbara Gilbert
    • Stephanie Kourula
    • Vera Goossens
    • Sylvie Lefebvre
    • Claudia Günther
    • Christoph Becker
    • John Bertin
    • Peter J. Gough
    • Wim Declercq
    • Geert van Loo
    • Peter Vandenabeele

    This study provides evidence for a critical role of RIPK1 in suppressing caspase-8-mediated cell death and maintaining intestinal homeostasis independently of its kinase activity.

    See also
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  • Tumour-derived PTH-related protein triggers adipose tissue browning and cancer cachexia

    • Serkan Kir
    • James P. White
    • Sandra Kleiner
    • Lawrence Kazak
    • Paul Cohen
    • Vickie E. Baracos
    • Bruce M. Spiegelman

    Many patients with cancer experience cachexia, a wasting disorder of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle that leads to weight loss and frailty; now, tumour-derived parathyroid-hormone-related protein has been shown to stimulate the expression of genes involved in heat production in adipose tissues and to have an important role in tissue wasting.

  • eIF4F is a nexus of resistance to anti-BRAF and anti-MEK cancer therapies

    • Lise Boussemart
    • Hélène Malka-Mahieu
    • Isabelle Girault
    • Delphine Allard
    • Oskar Hemmingsson
    • Gorana Tomasic
    • Marina Thomas
    • Christine Basmadjian
    • Nigel Ribeiro
    • Frédéric Thuaud
    • Christina Mateus
    • Emilie Routier
    • Nyam Kamsu-Kom
    • Sandrine Agoussi
    • Alexander M. Eggermont
    • Laurent Désaubry
    • Caroline Robert
    • Stéphan Vagner

    BRAF mutations occur frequently in melanomas, but patients generally develop resistance to agents targeting mutant BRAF; now, the persistent formation of the translation initiation complex eIF4F has been described as an indicator of multiple mechanisms of resistance that arise in BRAF-mutated tumours and as a promising therapeutic target.

  • Mutant IDH inhibits HNF-4α to block hepatocyte differentiation and promote biliary cancer

    • Supriya K. Saha
    • Christine A. Parachoniak
    • Krishna S. Ghanta
    • Julien Fitamant
    • Kenneth N. Ross
    • Mortada S. Najem
    • Sushma Gurumurthy
    • Esra A. Akbay
    • Daniela Sia
    • Helena Cornella
    • Oriana Miltiadous
    • Chad Walesky
    • Vikram Deshpande
    • Andrew X. Zhu
    • Aram F. Hezel
    • Katharine E. Yen
    • Kimberly S. Straley
    • Jeremy Travins
    • Janeta Popovici-Muller
    • Camelia Gliser
    • Cristina R. Ferrone
    • Udayan Apte
    • Josep M. Llovet
    • Kwok-Kin Wong
    • Sridhar Ramaswamy
    • Nabeel Bardeesy

    Gain-of-function mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) are among the most common genetic alterations in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHCC), a deadly cancer of the liver bile ducts; now mutant IDH is shown to block liver cell differentiation through the suppression of HNF-4α, a master regulator of hepatocyte identity and quiescence, leading to expansion of liver progenitor cells primed for progression to IHCC.

  • Dynamic and static maintenance of epigenetic memory in pluripotent and somatic cells

    • Zohar Shipony
    • Zohar Mukamel
    • Netta Mendelson Cohen
    • Gilad Landan
    • Elad Chomsky
    • Shlomit Reich Zeliger
    • Yael Chagit Fried
    • Elena Ainbinder
    • Nir Friedman
    • Amos Tanay

    Using a new method to estimate DNA methylation turnover rate, embryonic stem cells are shown to lack clonal transmission of methylation but still maintain a stable epigenetic state, whereas somatic cells transmit methylation clonally but lose epigenetic state coherence owing to the persistence of accumulated methylation errors.

  • Saturation editing of genomic regions by multiplex homology-directed repair

    • Gregory M. Findlay
    • Evan A. Boyle
    • Ronald J. Hause
    • Jason C. Klein
    • Jay Shendure

    The authors perform saturation mutagenesis of genomic regions in their native endogenous chromosomal context by using CRISPR/Cas9 RNA-guided cleavage and multiplex homology-directed repair; its utility is demonstrated by measuring the effects of hundreds to thousands of genomic edits to BRCA1 and DBR1 on splicing and cellular fitness, respectively.

    See also