Table of Contents

Volume 511 Number 7508 pp125-258

10 July 2014

About the cover

The fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, or Bd, has been implicated in the declines of many amphibian species worldwide. There has been little evidence that amphibians can acquire resistance to this pathogen, but now Jason Rohr and colleagues present experiments on several amphibian species, including the Cuban tree frog Osteopilus septentrionalis, shown here, that demonstrate that frogs can learn to avoid the pathogen, can overcome Bd-induced immunosuppression after repeated exposure, and can be immunized against it using dead pathogen. Conservation projects have removed threatened amphibian species from Bd-positive habitats and are breeding them in captivity. Using vaccines to induce resistance in captive-bred amphibians prior to a return to the wild could make it possible in the future to repopulate areas that have seen catastrophic declines. Cover photo: Joseph Gamble

This Week


  • Brain fog

    The criticism of Europe’s Human Brain Project by leading scientists reflects a messy management structure that is in urgent need of clear direction.

  • Barriers to trust

    An outbreak of Ebola highlights the difficulties of implementing public-health measures.

  • Be concerned

    A possible link between neonicotinoid pesticide use and a decline in bird numbers is worrying.

World View


Seven Days

  • Seven days: 4–10 July 2014

    The week in science: NASA launches carbon-tracking satellite; European particle accelerators funded; and gloom over Caribbean coral reefs.

News in Focus




Summer Books

  • Summer books

    As the wild blue yonder beckons and labs and classrooms empty, Nature's regular reviewers share their holiday reads.





  • Column: A wake-up call

    Graduate students must educate themselves and others about academia's dim job prospects, says Jessica Polka.

    • Jessica Polka

naturejobs job listings and advertising features



Brief Communication Arising

  • Venkatesh et al. reply

    • Byrappa Venkatesh
    • Alison P. Lee
    • Jeremy B. Swann
    • Yuko Ohta
    • Martin F. Flajnik
    • Masanori Kasahara
    • Thomas Boehm
    • Wesley C. Warren




  • Abnormalities in human pluripotent cells due to reprogramming mechanisms

    • Hong Ma
    • Robert Morey
    • Ryan C. O'Neil
    • Yupeng He
    • Brittany Daughtry
    • Matthew D. Schultz
    • Manoj Hariharan
    • Joseph R. Nery
    • Rosa Castanon
    • Karen Sabatini
    • Rathi D. Thiagarajan
    • Masahito Tachibana
    • Eunju Kang
    • Rebecca Tippner-Hedges
    • Riffat Ahmed
    • Nuria Marti Gutierrez
    • Crystal Van Dyken
    • Alim Polat
    • Atsushi Sugawara
    • Michelle Sparman
    • Sumita Gokhale
    • Paula Amato
    • Don P.Wolf
    • Joseph R. Ecker
    • Louise C. Laurent
    • Shoukhrat Mitalipov

    Genome-wide analysis of matched human IVF embryonic stem cells (IVF ES cells), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) and nuclear transfer ES cells (NT ES cells) derived by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) reveals that human somatic cells can be faithfully reprogrammed to pluripotency by SCNT; NT ES cells and iPS cells derived from the same somatic cells contain comparable numbers of de novo copy number variations, but whereas DNA methylation and transcriptome profiles of NT ES cells and IVF ES cells are similar, iPS cells have residual patterns typical of parental somatic cells.

    See also
  • Aryl hydrocarbon receptor control of a disease tolerance defence pathway

    • Alban Bessede
    • Marco Gargaro
    • Maria T. Pallotta
    • Davide Matino
    • Giuseppe Servillo
    • Cinzia Brunacci
    • Silvio Bicciato
    • Emilia M. C. Mazza
    • Antonio Macchiarulo
    • Carmine Vacca
    • Rossana Iannitti
    • Luciana Tissi
    • Claudia Volpi
    • Maria L. Belladonna
    • Ciriana Orabona
    • Roberta Bianchi
    • Tobias V. Lanz
    • Michael Platten
    • Maria A. Della Fazia
    • Danilo Piobbico
    • Teresa Zelante
    • Hiroshi Funakoshi
    • Toshikazu Nakamura
    • David Gilot
    • Michael S. Denison
    • Gilles J. Guillemin
    • James B. DuHadaway
    • George C. Prendergast
    • Richard Metz
    • Michel Geffard
    • Louis Boon
    • Matteo Pirro
    • Alfonso Iorio
    • Bernard Veyret
    • Luigina Romani
    • Ursula Grohmann
    • Francesca Fallarino
    • Paolo Puccetti

    Initial exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces endotoxin tolerance, which reduces immunological reactions to LPS; here it is shown that primary LPS challenge is controlled by AhR, TDO2 and IL-10, whereas sustained effects require AhR, IDO1 and TGF-β, allowing for disease tolerance with reduced immunopathology in infections.

  • NMDA receptor structures reveal subunit arrangement and pore architecture

    • Chia-Hsueh Lee
    • Wei Lü
    • Jennifer Carlisle Michel
    • April Goehring
    • Juan Du
    • Xianqiang Song
    • Eric Gouaux

    X-ray crystal structures are presented of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, a calcium-permeable ion channel that opens upon binding of glutamate and glycine; glutamate is a key excitatory neurotransmitter and enhanced structural insight of this receptor may aid development of therapeutic small molecules.

    See also


  • Cooperating with the future

    • Oliver P. Hauser
    • David G. Rand
    • Alexander Peysakhovich
    • Martin A. Nowak

    An intergenerational cooperation game has been developed to study decision-making regarding resource use: when decisions about resource extraction were made individually the resource was rapidly depleted by a minority of defectors; the resource was sustainably maintained across generations, however, when decisions were made democratically by voting.

    See also
  • Amphibians acquire resistance to live and dead fungus overcoming fungal immunosuppression

    • Taegan A. McMahon
    • Brittany F. Sears
    • Matthew D. Venesky
    • Scott M. Bessler
    • Jenise M. Brown
    • Kaitlin Deutsch
    • Neal T. Halstead
    • Garrett Lentz
    • Nadia Tenouri
    • Suzanne Young
    • David J. Civitello
    • Nicole Ortega
    • J. Scott Fites
    • Laura K. Reinert
    • Louise A. Rollins-Smith
    • Thomas R. Raffel
    • Jason R. Rohr

    The fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated in the decline of a large number of amphibian species; here it is shown that frogs can learn to avoid the pathogen, acquire resistance to it and be immunized against it using dead pathogen, findings that potentially offer a way in which resistant populations could be reintroduced into areas that have seen catastrophic declines.

  • Horizontal genome transfer as an asexual path to the formation of new species

    • Ignacia Fuentes
    • Sandra Stegemann
    • Hieronim Golczyk
    • Daniel Karcher
    • Ralph Bock

    The formation of a new species can occur by an asexual mechanism by transfer of entire nuclear genomes between plant cells as shown by the creation of a new allopolyploid plant from parental herbaceous and woody plant species, this mechanism is a potential new tool for crop improvement.

  • Cntnap4 differentially contributes to GABAergic and dopaminergic synaptic transmission

    • T. Karayannis
    • E. Au
    • J. C. Patel
    • I. Kruglikov
    • S. Markx
    • R. Delorme
    • D. Héron
    • D. Salomon
    • J. Glessner
    • S. Restituito
    • A. Gordon
    • L. Rodriguez-Murillo
    • N. C. Roy
    • J. A. Gogos
    • B. Rudy
    • M. E. Rice
    • M. Karayiorgou
    • H. Hakonarson
    • B. Keren
    • G. Huguet
    • T. Bourgeron
    • C. Hoeffer
    • R. W. Tsien
    • E. Peles
    • G. Fishell

    The molecular relationship between synaptic dysfunction and psychiatric disorders was investigated using a mouse model system; presynaptically localized Cntnap4 is required for the output of two disease-relevant neuronal subpopulations (cortical parvalbumin-positive GABAergic cells and midbrain dopaminergic neurons) and Cntnap4 mutants show behavioural abnormalities which can be pharmacologically reversed.

  • Novel somatic and germline mutations in intracranial germ cell tumours

    • Linghua Wang
    • Shigeru Yamaguchi
    • Matthew D. Burstein
    • Keita Terashima
    • Kyle Chang
    • Ho-Keung Ng
    • Hideo Nakamura
    • Zongxiao He
    • Harshavardhan Doddapaneni
    • Lora Lewis
    • Mark Wang
    • Tomonari Suzuki
    • Ryo Nishikawa
    • Atsushi Natsume
    • Shunsuke Terasaka
    • Robert Dauser
    • William Whitehead
    • Adesina Adekunle
    • Jiayi Sun
    • Yi Qiao
    • Gábor Marth
    • Donna M. Muzny
    • Richard A. Gibbs
    • Suzanne M. Leal
    • David A. Wheeler
    • Ching C. Lau

    Intracranial germ cell tumours are rare tumours affecting mainly male adolescents, mainly in Asia; here the authors identify frequent mutations in the KIT/RAS and AKT/mTOR signalling pathways as well as rare germline variants in JMJD1C, suggesting potential therapeutic strategies focusing on the inhibition of KIT/RAS activation and the AKT1/mTOR pathway.

  • SOX2 controls tumour initiation and cancer stem-cell functions in squamous-cell carcinoma

    • Soufiane Boumahdi
    • Gregory Driessens
    • Gaelle Lapouge
    • Sandrine Rorive
    • Dany Nassar
    • Marie Le Mercier
    • Benjamin Delatte
    • Amélie Caauwe
    • Sandrine Lenglez
    • Erwin Nkusi
    • Sylvain Brohée
    • Isabelle Salmon
    • Christine Dubois
    • Veronique del Marmol
    • Francois Fuks
    • Benjamin Beck
    • Cédric Blanpain

    Here, in a mouse model of skin squamous cell carcinoma, a key role is demonstrated for the transcription factor SOX2 in the initiation and progression of skin tumours.