Table of Contents

Volume 507 Number 7493 pp399-528

27 March 2014

About the cover

Can you keep secrets safe from eavesdroppers? Yes you can, say Artur Ekert and Renato Renner. They argue that recent developments in quantum cryptography, coupled with the fact that we still possess free will, suggest that truly private communication will always be possible, even in a world with access to as yet undiscovered code-breaking technologies. The answer lies in new insights into the nature of randomness and non-local correlations. Thus equipped it should be possible to outsmart even the most powerful surveillance procedures. Cover: Andy Potts

This Week


  • Be here now

    New views of quantum theory that can be tested and have practical applications bring welcome echoes of physics past.

  • Wheat lag

    Growth in yields of the cereal must double if the Green Revolution is to be put back on track.

  • A parlous state

    The decay at ancient Pompeii is symbolic of a deeper malaise in Italy’s heritage.

World View


Seven Days

  • Seven days: 21–27 March 2014

    The week in science: Ebola kills dozens in Guinea, the top quark become more precise, and Japan hands over nuclear material.

News in Focus




Books and Arts

  • Microbiology: Majority rule

    Mark O. Martin relishes a stimulating tour of 'little lives', from fungi to bacteria.

    • Review of The Amoeba in the Room: Lives of the Microbes
      Nicholas P. Money
  • Mathematics: Numbers game

    George Szpiro enjoys a history of the slow but irresistible rise of mathematical symbols.

    • Review of Enlightening Symbols: A Short History of Mathematical Notation and Its Hidden Powers
      Joseph Mazur




Career Briefs

  • Gender differences

    Success rate for UK government grants is lower for women, analysis reveals.

  • Swiss frozen out

    Erasmus Plus grants off-limits for student exchanges in and out of Switzerland.

  • Public boost

    US public universities give higher salary increases than do private universities, finds poll.

naturejobs job listings and advertising features


  • Lookback

    Time well spent.

    • George Zebrowski



  • The ultimate physical limits of privacy

    • Artur Ekert
    • Renato Renner

    Developments in quantum cryptography show that it is possible to protect secrets — from those with superior technology, those who profess to provide our security and even those who manipulate us without our knowledge — under surprisingly weak assumptions.


  • REST and stress resistance in ageing and Alzheimer’s disease

    • Tao Lu
    • Liviu Aron
    • Joseph Zullo
    • Ying Pan
    • Haeyoung Kim
    • Yiwen Chen
    • Tun-Hsiang Yang
    • Hyun-Min Kim
    • Derek Drake
    • X. Shirley Liu
    • David A. Bennett
    • Monica P. Colaiácovo
    • Bruce A. Yankner

    REST, a developmental regulator, is markedly induced in human neurons during ageing but is lost in Alzheimer’s disease; REST represses genes that promote neurodegeneration, is neuroprotective in animal models, and is associated with cognitive preservation and longevity in humans.

    See also
  • An atlas of active enhancers across human cell types and tissues

    • Robin Andersson
    • Claudia Gebhard
    • Irene Miguel-Escalada
    • Ilka Hoof
    • Jette Bornholdt
    • Mette Boyd
    • Yun Chen
    • Xiaobei Zhao
    • Christian Schmidl
    • Takahiro Suzuki
    • Evgenia Ntini
    • Erik Arner
    • Eivind Valen
    • Kang Li
    • Lucia Schwarzfischer
    • Dagmar Glatz
    • Johanna Raithel
    • Berit Lilje
    • Nicolas Rapin
    • Frederik Otzen Bagger
    • Mette Jørgensen
    • Peter Refsing Andersen
    • Nicolas Bertin
    • Owen Rackham
    • A. Maxwell Burroughs
    • J. Kenneth Baillie
    • Yuri Ishizu
    • Yuri Shimizu
    • Erina Furuhata
    • Shiori Maeda
    • Yutaka Negishi
    • Christopher J. Mungall
    • Terrence F. Meehan
    • Timo Lassmann
    • Masayoshi Itoh
    • Hideya Kawaji
    • Naoto Kondo
    • Jun Kawai
    • Andreas Lennartsson
    • Carsten O. Daub
    • Peter Heutink
    • David A. Hume
    • Torben Heick Jensen
    • Harukazu Suzuki
    • Yoshihide Hayashizaki
    • Ferenc Müller
    • The FANTOM Consortium
    • Alistair R. R. Forrest
    • Piero Carninci
    • Michael Rehli
    • Albin Sandelin

    Using the FANTOM5 CAGE expression atlas, the authors show that bidirectional capped RNAs are a signature feature of active enhancers and identify over 40,000 enhancer candidates from over 800 human cell and tissue samples across the whole human body.

  • A promoter-level mammalian expression atlas

    • The FANTOM Consortium and the RIKEN PMI and CLST (DGT)

    A study from the FANTOM consortium using single-molecule cDNA sequencing of transcription start sites and their usage in human and mouse primary cells, cell lines and tissues reveals insights into the specificity and diversity of transcription patterns across different mammalian cell types.


  • Reconciliation of the carbon budget in the ocean’s twilight zone

    • Sarah L. C. Giering
    • Richard Sanders
    • Richard S. Lampitt
    • Thomas R. Anderson
    • Christian Tamburini
    • Mehdi Boutrif
    • Mikhail V. Zubkov
    • Chris M. Marsay
    • Stephanie A. Henson
    • Kevin Saw
    • Kathryn Cook
    • Daniel J. Mayor

    The discrepancy between the components of the oceanic carbon budget — export of carbon from the surface and its conversion into carbon dioxide by water-column biota at depth — is reconciled using field data and a steady-state model which indicates that synergy between microbes and zooplankton is an important factor.

  • Methane fluxes show consistent temperature dependence across microbial to ecosystem scales

    • Gabriel Yvon-Durocher
    • Andrew P. Allen
    • David Bastviken
    • Ralf Conrad
    • Cristian Gudasz
    • Annick St-Pierre
    • Nguyen Thanh-Duc
    • Paul A. del Giorgio

    Meta-analyses show that the temperature dependence of methane fluxes scales consistently across populations of methanogens, microbial communities and whole ecosystems, and that this temperature dependence is higher than for respiration and photosynthesis; this indicates that global warming may impact the relative contributions of CO2 and CH4 to total greenhouse gas emissions.

    See also
  • Geographical limits to species-range shifts are suggested by climate velocity

    • Michael T. Burrows
    • David S. Schoeman
    • Anthony J. Richardson
    • Jorge García Molinos
    • Ary Hoffmann
    • Lauren B. Buckley
    • Pippa J. Moore
    • Christopher J. Brown
    • John F. Bruno
    • Carlos M. Duarte
    • Benjamin S. Halpern
    • Ove Hoegh-Guldberg
    • Carrie V. Kappel
    • Wolfgang Kiessling
    • Mary I. O’Connor
    • John M. Pandolfi
    • Camille Parmesan
    • William J. Sydeman
    • Simon Ferrier
    • Kristen J. Williams
    • Elvira S. Poloczanska

    Global maps constructed using climate-change velocities to derive spatial trajectories for climatic niches between 1960 and 2100 show past and future shifts in ecological climate niches; properties of these trajectories are used to infer changes in species distributions, and thus identify areas that will act as climate sources and sinks, and geographical barriers to species migrations.

  • A suspension-feeding anomalocarid from the Early Cambrian

    • Jakob Vinther
    • Martin Stein
    • Nicholas R. Longrich
    • David A. T. Harper

    Tamisiocaris borealis, an Early Cambrian member of the anomalocarids—giant, predatory marine stem arthropods—probably used its frontal appendage to trap microscopic, planktonic animals.

  • Visual space is compressed in prefrontal cortex before eye movements

    • Marc Zirnsak
    • Nicholas A. Steinmetz
    • Behrad Noudoost
    • Kitty Z. Xu
    • Tirin Moore

    Saccadic eye movements cause substantial shifts in the retinal image as we take in visual scenes, but our perception is stable and continuous; here, visual receptive fields are shown to shift dramatically towards the saccadic goal, running counter to the long-standing hypothesis of receptive field remapping as the basis of perceived stability.

    See also
  • The E3 ligase Cbl-b and TAM receptors regulate cancer metastasis via natural killer cells

    • Magdalena Paolino
    • Axel Choidas
    • Stephanie Wallner
    • Blanka Pranjic
    • Iris Uribesalgo
    • Stefanie Loeser
    • Amanda M. Jamieson
    • Wallace Y. Langdon
    • Fumiyo Ikeda
    • Juan Pablo Fededa
    • Shane J. Cronin
    • Roberto Nitsch
    • Carsten Schultz-Fademrecht
    • Jan Eickhoff
    • Sascha Menninger
    • Anke Unger
    • Robert Torka
    • Thomas Gruber
    • Reinhard Hinterleitner
    • Gottfried Baier
    • Dominik Wolf
    • Axel Ullrich
    • Bert M. Klebl
    • Josef M. Penninger

    The E3 ligase Cbl-b acts on TAM tyrosine kinase receptors and has a critical role in the regulation of natural killer (NK) cell rejection of metastatic tumours; a small molecule TAM kinase inhibitor is shown to enhance the anti-metastatic NK cell activity.

  • Transcription factor achaete-scute homologue 2 initiates follicular T-helper-cell development

    • Xindong Liu
    • Xin Chen
    • Bo Zhong
    • Aibo Wang
    • Xiaohu Wang
    • Fuliang Chu
    • Roza I. Nurieva
    • Xiaowei Yan
    • Ping Chen
    • Laurens G. van der Flier
    • Hiroko Nakatsukasa
    • Sattva S. Neelapu
    • Wanjun Chen
    • Hans Clevers
    • Qiang Tian
    • Hai Qi
    • Lai Wei
    • Chen Dong

    Here, the helix–loop–helix transcription factor Ascl2 is shown to be critically important for the initiation of follicular T-helper-cell development and the germinal centre response.

  • Structure-based programming of lymph-node targeting in molecular vaccines

    • Haipeng Liu
    • Kelly D. Moynihan
    • Yiran Zheng
    • Gregory L. Szeto
    • Adrienne V. Li
    • Bonnie Huang
    • Debra S. Van Egeren
    • Clara Park
    • Darrell J. Irvine

    An amphiphile vaccine consisting of a peptide antigen or adjuvant cargo linked to a lipophilic tail is shown to have improved potency and safety in mice by targeting the lymph nodes.