We can improve the gender differences in science publishing and research (see 211–213; 2013) by making measurements of scientific output and impact fairer. et al. Nature 504,
For example, time spent on active research should be incorporated into assessments of research productivity. This would provide a fairer comparison for researchers who take parental leave or who have other caring duties or high teaching loads, and would reduce the pressure on those scientists.
It would also be useful to halt the inclusion of author self-citations in measures of research impact, because self-citation is a male-biased practice (7–8; 2013). After all, genuine impact hinges on independent citation. et al. Trends Ecol. Evol. 28,