It has been argued that the evolution of plant genome size is principally unidirectional and increasing owing to the varied action of whole-genome duplications (WGDs) and mobile element proliferation1. However, extreme genome size reductions have been reported in the angiosperm family tree. Here we report the sequence of the 82-megabase genome of the carnivorous bladderwort plant Utricularia gibba. Despite its tiny size, the U. gibba genome accommodates a typical number of genes for a plant, with the main difference from other plant genomes arising from a drastic reduction in non-genic DNA. Unexpectedly, we identified at least three rounds of WGD in U. gibba since common ancestry with tomato (Solanum) and grape (Vitis). The compressed architecture of the U. gibba genome indicates that a small fraction of intergenic DNA, with few or no active retrotransposons, is sufficient to regulate and integrate all the processes required for the development and reproduction of a complex organism.
At a glance
- Do plants have a one-way ticket to genomic obesity? Plant Cell 9, 1509–1514 (1997) &
- 1989) The Genus Utricularia: a Taxonomic Monograph (Kew Publishing,
- The carnivorous bladderwort (Utricularia, Lentibulariaceae): a system inflates. J. Exp. Bot. 61, 5–9 (2010) , , &
- Unusual embryo structure in viviparous Utricularia nelumbifolia, with remarks on embryo evolution in genus Utricularia. Protoplasma 239, 69–80 (2010) &
- Identification of shared single copy nuclear genes in Arabidopsis, Populus, Vitis and Oryza and their phylogenetic utility across various taxonomic levels. BMC Evol. Biol. 10, 61 (2010) et al.
- The grapevine genome sequence suggests ancestral hexaploidization in major angiosperm phyla. Nature 449, 463–467 (2007) et al.
- The Arabidopsis Genome Initiative. Analysis of the genome sequence of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Nature 408, 796–815 (2000)
- The Tomato Genome Consortium. The tomato genome sequence provides insights into fleshy fruit evolution. Nature 485, 635–641 (2012)
- The Arabidopsis lyrata genome sequence and the basis of rapid genome size change. Nature Genet. 43, 476–481 (2011) et al.
- Following tetraploidy in maize, a short deletion mechanism removed genes preferentially from one of the two homeologs. PLoS Biol. 8, e1000409 (2010) et al.
- Genome size reduction through illegitimate recombination counteracts genome expansion in Arabidopsis. Genome Res. 12, 1075–1079 (2002) , &
- OrthoMCL: identification of ortholog groups for eukaryotic genomes. Genome Res. 13, 2178–2189 (2003) , &
- Nutrient availability and the carnivorous habit in Utricularia vulgaris. Freshw. Biol. 52, 500–509 (2007) &
- Mutation pressure and the evolution of organelle genomic architecture. Science 311, 1727–1730 (2006) , &
- Transcriptomics and molecular evolutionary rate analysis of the bladderwort (Utricularia), a carnivorous plant with a minimal genome. BMC Plant Biol. 11, 101 (2011) et al.
- The pattern of polymorphism in Arabidopsis thaliana. PLoS Biol. 3, e196 (2005) et al.
- The ups and downs of genome size evolution in polyploid species of Nicotiana (Solanaceae). Ann. Bot. 101, 805–814 (2008) et al.
- Species-specific double-strand break repair and genome evolution in plants. EMBO J. 19, 5562–5566 (2000) , &
- Is GC bias in the nuclear genome of the carnivorous plant Utricularia driven by ROS-based mutation and biased gene conversion? Plant Signal. Behav. 6, 1631–1634 (2011) , , &
- A strong deletion bias in nonallelic gene conversion. PLoS Genet. 8, e1002508 (2012) &
- Recombination drives vertebrate genome contraction. PLoS Genet. 8, e1002680 (2012) &
- Smallest angiosperm genomes found in Lentibulariaceae, with chromosomes of bacterial size. Plant Biol. 8, 770–777 (2006) et al.
- The age and diversification of the angiosperms re-revisited. Am. J. Bot. 97, 1296–1303 (2010) , &
- The ENCODE Project Consortium. An integrated encyclopedia of DNA elements in the human genome. Nature 489, 57–74 (2012)
- Duplication of floral regulatory genes in the Lamiales. Am. J. Bot. 92, 1284–1293 (2005) , , &
- Supplementary Information (26.7 MB)
This fie contains Supplementary Text and Data 1-10, Supplementary references and Supplementary Figures 1-25 (see Contents for more details).
- Supplementary Tables (26.7 MB)
This file contains Supplementary Tables 1-14.
- Supplementary Tables (11.6 MB)
This file contains Supplementary Tables 15-46.
- Supplementary Data (130 KB)
This file contains Supplementary Data 1.
- Supplementary Data (164 KB)
This file contains Supplementary Data 2.
- Supplementary Data (25.8 MB)
This file contains Supplementary Data 3.
- Supplementary Data (40 KB)
This file contains Supplementary Data 4.
- Supplementary Data (44 KB)
This file contains Supplementary Data 5.
- Supplementary Data (299 KB)
This file contains Supplementary Data 6.
- Supplementary Data (410 KB)
This file contains Supplementary Data 7.
- Supplementary Data (66 KB)
This file contains Supplementary Data 8.