Table of Contents

Volume 495 Number 7442 pp409-544

28 March 2013

About the cover

This special issue of Nature looks at the transformation taking place in scientific publishing. A News Feature weighs claims that online, author-pays publishing can drastically cut costs, and several authors discuss how they make open-access publishing work for them. The special also looks at broader aspects of publishing, including the idea that the concepts of journal and article are being superseded by real-time filtering algorithms and what the future holds for libraries or their virtual successors. Cover image: Brendan Monroe

This Week


  • Under the gun

    A ban on advocacy and promotion of gun control is keeping US agencies from conducting research that is sorely needed to inform policy on firearms and prevent shootings.

  • Disciplinary action

    How scientists share and reuse information is driven by technology but shaped by discipline.

  • Push the boat out

    The latest private research vessel to be launched could open up the world of marine science.

World View


Seven Days

  • Seven days: 22–28 March 2013

    The week in science: US science agencies get funding boost; UK edges towards approving IVF techniques to avoid some genetic diseases; and Australia gets fourth science minister in less than 16 months.

News in Focus




  • Scholarship: Beyond the paper

    The journal and article are being superseded by algorithms that filter, rate and disseminate scholarship as it happens, argues Jason Priem.

  • Licence restrictions: A fool's errand

    Objections to the Creative Commons attribution licence are straw men raised by parties who want open access to be as closed as possible, warns John Wilbanks.

  • Advocacy: How to hasten open access

    Three advocates for a universally free scholarly literature give their prescriptions for the movement's next push, from findability to translations.

Books and Arts

  • Military history: Dinner at the Fission Chips

    Mark Peplow assesses a chronicle of the blighted US and Soviet communities that fuelled the nuclear arms race.

    • Review of Plutopia: Nuclear Families, Atomic Cities, and the Great Soviet and American Plutonium Disasters
      Kate Brown
  • Gastroenterology: Down the hatch

    David Katz savours a guided tour of the ins and outs of the gastrointestinal tract.

    • Review of Gulp: Adventures on the Alimentary Canal
      Mary Roach
  • Q&A: Knowledge liberator

    Robert Darnton heads the world's largest collection of academic publications, the Harvard University Library system. He is also a driver behind the new Digital Public Library of America. Ahead of its launch in April, he talks about Google, science journals and the open-access debate.

    • Review of Digital Public Library of America launch








naturejobs job listings and advertising features


  • Sticky

    Go with the flow.

    • George Zebrowski


Brief Communications Arising



  • X-ray analysis on the nanogram to microgram scale using porous complexes

    • Yasuhide Inokuma
    • Shota Yoshioka
    • Junko Ariyoshi
    • Tatsuhiko Arai
    • Yuki Hitora
    • Kentaro Takada
    • Shigeki Matsunaga
    • Kari Rissanen
    • Makoto Fujita

    Absorption of target molecules into a porous matrix permits single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of the ‘guest’ molecules, avoiding the need to obtain them in single-crystal form and making analysis possible using as little as 80nanograms of sample.

    See also
  • Mutations in prion-like domains in hnRNPA2B1 and hnRNPA1 cause multisystem proteinopathy and ALS

    • Hong Joo Kim
    • Nam Chul Kim
    • Yong-Dong Wang
    • Emily A. Scarborough
    • Jennifer Moore
    • Zamia Diaz
    • Kyle S. MacLea
    • Brian Freibaum
    • Songqing Li
    • Amandine Molliex
    • Anderson P. Kanagaraj
    • Robert Carter
    • Kevin B. Boylan
    • Aleksandra M. Wojtas
    • Rosa Rademakers
    • Jack L. Pinkus
    • Steven A. Greenberg
    • John Q. Trojanowski
    • Bryan J. Traynor
    • Bradley N. Smith
    • Simon Topp
    • Athina-Soragia Gkazi
    • Jack Miller
    • Christopher E. Shaw
    • Michael Kottlors
    • Janbernd Kirschner
    • Alan Pestronk
    • Yun R. Li
    • Alice Flynn Ford
    • Aaron D. Gitler
    • Michael Benatar
    • Oliver D. King
    • Virginia E. Kimonis
    • Eric D. Ross
    • Conrad C. Weihl
    • James Shorter
    • J. Paul Taylor

    The identification of pathogenic mutations within prion-like domains (PrLDs) of the RNA-binding proteins hnRNPA2B1 and hnRNPA1 add to our understanding of how mutations in these proteins lead to degenerative disease, and highlight the potential importance of PrLDs in degenerative diseases of the nervous system, muscle and bone.

  • CLP1 links tRNA metabolism to progressive motor-neuron loss

    • Toshikatsu Hanada
    • Stefan Weitzer
    • Barbara Mair
    • Christian Bernreuther
    • Brian J. Wainger
    • Justin Ichida
    • Reiko Hanada
    • Michael Orthofer
    • Shane J. Cronin
    • Vukoslav Komnenovic
    • Adi Minis
    • Fuminori Sato
    • Hiromitsu Mimata
    • Akihiko Yoshimura
    • Ido Tamir
    • Johannes Rainer
    • Reinhard Kofler
    • Avraham Yaron
    • Kevin C. Eggan
    • Clifford J. Woolf
    • Markus Glatzel
    • Ruth Herbst
    • Javier Martinez
    • Josef M. Penninger

    Inactivating the CLP1 RNA kinase in mice leads to a progressive loss of motor neurons, through a mechanism related to the accumulation of a novel set of small RNA fragments derived from aberrant processing of tyrosine pre-transfer RNA.


  • Carbon monoxide in clouds at low metallicity in the dwarf irregular galaxy WLM

    • Bruce G. Elmegreen
    • Monica Rubio
    • Deidre A. Hunter
    • Celia Verdugo
    • Elias Brinks
    • Andreas Schruba

    New and archival observations of the low-metallicity dwarf irregular galaxy WLM show that it contains carbon monoxide, the main tracer for interstellar clouds capable of forming stars, and suggest that in small galaxies both star-forming cores and carbon monoxide become increasingly rare as the metallicity decreases.

  • Evidence for sympathetic vibrational cooling of translationally cold molecules

    • Wade G. Rellergert
    • Scott T. Sullivan
    • Steven J. Schowalter
    • Svetlana Kotochigova
    • Kuang Chen
    • Eric R. Hudson

    The vibrational motion of trapped BaCl+ molecules can be quenched by collisions with ultracold calcium atoms at a rate comparable to the classical scattering rate; this method is over four orders of magnitude more efficient than traditional sympathetic cooling schemes and should be applicable to many different types of molecule.

  • Deglacial pulses of deep-ocean silicate into the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean

    • A. N. Meckler
    • D. M. Sigman
    • K. A. Gibson
    • R. François
    • A. Martínez-García
    • S. L. Jaccard
    • U. Röhl
    • L. C. Peterson
    • R. Tiedemann
    • G. H. Haug

    Records of biogenic opal export in the North Atlantic Ocean show pronounced maxima during each glacial termination over the past 550,000years, consistent with a strong deglacial reduction in the formation of silicate-poor glacial North Atlantic intermediate water and a consequent increase in upward silicate transport.

    See also
  • Tubicolous enteropneusts from the Cambrian period

    • Jean-Bernard Caron
    • Simon Conway Morris
    • Christopher B. Cameron

    Examination of a fossil enteropneust, Spartobranchus tenuis (Walcott, 1911), from the Cambrian-period Burgess Shale shows that they looked similar to modern enteropneusts but lived in tubes, like modern pterobranchs; the findings shed light on the common ancestor of enteropneusts and pterobranchs, and hence the origin of chordates.

    See also
  • Preservation of ovarian follicles reveals early evolution of avian reproductive behaviour

    • Xiaoting Zheng
    • Jingmai O’Connor
    • Fritz Huchzermeyer
    • Xiaoli Wang
    • Yan Wang
    • Min Wang
    • Zhonghe Zhou

    Newly discovered fossils of primitive birds from China, preserved with ovarian follicles intact, show that birds only had one functioning ovary at any given time from a very early date, but that other features, such as skeletal and sexual maturity, remained very dinosaur-like.

  • A central role for TFIID in the pluripotent transcription circuitry

    • W. W. M. Pim Pijnappel
    • Daniel Esch
    • Marijke P. A. Baltissen
    • Guangming Wu
    • Nikolai Mischerikow
    • Atze J. Bergsma
    • Erik van der Wal
    • Dong Wook Han
    • Hermann vom Bruch
    • Sören Moritz
    • Phillip Lijnzaad
    • A. F. Maarten Altelaar
    • Katrin Sameith
    • Holm Zaehres
    • Albert J. R. Heck
    • Frank C. P. Holstege
    • Hans R. Schöler
    • H. T. Marc Timmers

    High levels of TFIID, a basal transcription factor, are found to be essential to induce and maintain the transcriptional program of pluripotent cells.

  • A syringe-like injection mechanism in Photorhabdus luminescens toxins

    • Christos Gatsogiannis
    • Alexander E. Lang
    • Dominic Meusch
    • Vanda Pfaumann
    • Oliver Hofnagel
    • Roland Benz
    • Klaus Aktories
    • Stefan Raunser

    The TcA component of Photorhabdus luminescens ABC-type toxin complexes forms a transmembrane pore and injects TcC, the functional component of the toxin, into the target cell by means of a syringe-like mechanism.

  • Critical role of Trib1 in differentiation of tissue-resident M2-like macrophages

    • Takashi Satoh
    • Hiroyasu Kidoya
    • Hisamichi Naito
    • Masahiro Yamamoto
    • Naoki Takemura
    • Katsuhiro Nakagawa
    • Yoshichika Yoshioka
    • Eiichi Morii
    • Nobuyuki Takakura
    • Osamu Takeuchi
    • Shizuo Akira

    Haematopoietic expression of the adaptor protein Trib1 is shown to be required for the presence of adipose-tissue-resident macrophages with an M2-like phenotype; Trib1 deficiency leads to aberrant expression of C/EBPα and impaired adipose tissue function.

  • CLASP-mediated cortical microtubule organization guides PIN polarization axis

    • Klementina Kakar
    • Hongtao Zhang
    • Ben Scheres
    • Pankaj Dhonukshe

    The microtubule orientation regulators CLASP and MAP65 are shown to control the distribution of the polarity regulator PINOID kinase by controlling its retention at the plasma membrane, providing a mechanism for how polarity is established in plants.

  • Conformational biosensors reveal GPCR signalling from endosomes

    • Roshanak Irannejad
    • Jin C. Tomshine
    • Jon R. Tomshine
    • Michael Chevalier
    • Jacob P. Mahoney
    • Jan Steyaert
    • Søren G. F. Rasmussen
    • Roger K. Sunahara
    • Hana El-Samad
    • Bo Huang
    • Mark von Zastrow

    Conformation-specific antibodies capable of monitoring the activation state of a G-protein-coupled seven-transmembrane receptor, the β2-adrenoceptor, reveals receptor and G-protein activation not only in the plasma membrane, but also in the endosome.

    See also