Table of Contents

Volume 491 Number 7423 pp159-294

8 November 2012

About the cover

Imaging through opaque, light-scattering layers is an important capability in many fields, including nanotechnology and the biosciences. Several promising methods are being developed, but typically involve invasive procedures such a placing a detector or nonlinear material behind the scattering layer. Jacopo Bertolotti et al. now demonstrate a non-invasive imaging procedure that makes use of correlations in the speckled intensity pattern that is produced when laser light passes through a scattering medium. Fluorescent micrometre-sized objects obscured by scattering layers can be imaged by measuring total fluorescence at several different angles of laser incidence and by using an iterative algorithm that disentangles the spatial information of the object and the speckle pattern. The authors successfully construct detailed images of cell-sized fluorescent objects hidden six millimetres behind scattering layers, and a complex biological sample sandwiched between two opaque screens. Cover graphic by Cameron Slayden/Cosmocyte.

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World View


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  • An Earth-mass planet orbiting α Centauri B

    • Xavier Dumusque
    • Francesco Pepe
    • Christophe Lovis
    • Damien Ségransan
    • Johannes Sahlmann
    • Willy Benz
    • François Bouchy
    • Michel Mayor
    • Didier Queloz
    • Nuno Santos
    • Stéphane Udry

    The detection of an Earth-mass planet orbiting our neighbour star α Centauri B is reported; the planet has an orbital period of 3.236 days and is about 0.04 astronomical units from the star.

    See also
  • Input-specific control of reward and aversion in the ventral tegmental area

    • Stephan Lammel
    • Byung Kook Lim
    • Chen Ran
    • Kee Wui Huang
    • Michael J. Betley
    • Kay M. Tye
    • Karl Deisseroth
    • Robert C. Malenka

    Through the use of a combination of state-of-the-art techniques, different populations of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons in the mouse are shown to form separate circuits with distinct connectivity: neurons receiving input from the laterodorsal tegmentum and lateral habenula are found to mediate reward and aversion, respectively.

  • Filamentous bacteria transport electrons over centimetre distances

    • Christian Pfeffer
    • Steffen Larsen
    • Jie Song
    • Mingdong Dong
    • Flemming Besenbacher
    • Rikke Louise Meyer
    • Kasper Urup Kjeldsen
    • Lars Schreiber
    • Yuri A. Gorby
    • Mohamed Y. El-Naggar
    • Kar Man Leung
    • Andreas Schramm
    • Nils Risgaard-Petersen
    • Lars Peter Nielsen

    Oxygen reduction occurring in the surface layer of marine sediments can be coupled to sulphide oxidation in deeper anoxic layers; it is now shown that the electron transfer is mediated by filamentous bacteria acting like living electrical cables.

    See also
  • Principles for designing ideal protein structures

    • Nobuyasu Koga
    • Rie Tatsumi-Koga
    • Gaohua Liu
    • Rong Xiao
    • Thomas B. Acton
    • Gaetano T. Montelione
    • David Baker

    Rules that allow the design of strongly funnelled protein folding energy landscapes by relating secondary structure patterns to protein tertiary motifs are used to produce ideal protein structures stabilized by completely consistent local and non-local interactions.

    See also


  • Superluminous supernovae at redshifts of 2.05 and 3.90

    • Jeff Cooke
    • Mark Sullivan
    • Avishay Gal-Yam
    • Elizabeth J. Barton
    • Raymond G. Carlberg
    • Emma V. Ryan-Weber
    • Chuck Horst
    • Yuuki Omori
    • C. Gonzalo Díaz

    The identification of two superluminous supernovae at redshifts of 2.05 and 3.90 extends the present technological redshift limit on supernova detection and presents the possibility of studying the deaths of the first stars to form after the Big Bang.

    See also
  • Integration of chemical catalysis with extractive fermentation to produce fuels

    • Pazhamalai Anbarasan
    • Zachary C. Baer
    • Sanil Sreekumar
    • Elad Gross
    • Joseph B. Binder
    • Harvey W. Blanch
    • Douglas S. Clark
    • F. Dean Toste

    The integration of biological and chemocatalytic routes can be used to convert acetone–butanol–ethanol fermentation products efficiently into ketones by palladium-catalysed alkylation, leading to a renewable method for the alternative production of petrol, jet and diesel blend stocks in high yield.

  • Greenland ice-sheet contribution to sea-level rise buffered by meltwater storage in firn

    • J. Harper
    • N. Humphrey
    • W. T. Pfeffer
    • J. Brown
    • X. Fettweis

    Observations of firn structure and meltwater retention on the Greenland ice sheet's percolation zone, a region of the ice sheet that is perennially covered by snow and firn, quantify the capacity of the firn to store future surface meltwater and to delay expansion of the area contributing to sea-level rise.

  • Mechanisms for oscillatory true polar wander

    • J. R. Creveling
    • J. X. Mitrovica
    • N.-H. Chan
    • K. Latychev
    • I. Matsuyama

    Stabilization of the Earth’s rotation axis by a combination of long-term excess ellipticity and elastic stresses in the broken lithosphere provides an explanation for oscillatory true polar wander events spanning the past few billion years of Earth history.

  • Adenoma-linked barrier defects and microbial products drive IL-23/IL-17-mediated tumour growth

    • Sergei I. Grivennikov
    • Kepeng Wang
    • Daniel Mucida
    • C. Andrew Stewart
    • Bernd Schnabl
    • Dominik Jauch
    • Koji Taniguchi
    • Guann-Yi Yu
    • Christoph H. Österreicher
    • Kenneth E. Hung
    • Christian Datz
    • Ying Feng
    • Eric R. Fearon
    • Mohamed Oukka
    • Lino Tessarollo
    • Vincenzo Coppola
    • Felix Yarovinsky
    • Hilde Cheroutre
    • Lars Eckmann
    • Giorgio Trinchieri
    • Michael Karin

    In a mouse model of colorectal cancer, barrier deterioration results in adenoma invasion by microbial products that trigger tumour-elicited inflammation, which in turn drives IL-23-dependent tumour growth.

  • IL-22BP is regulated by the inflammasome and modulates tumorigenesis in the intestine

    • Samuel Huber
    • Nicola Gagliani
    • Lauren A. Zenewicz
    • Francis J. Huber
    • Lidia Bosurgi
    • Bo Hu
    • Matija Hedl
    • Wei Zhang
    • William O’Connor
    • Andrew J. Murphy
    • David M. Valenzuela
    • George D. Yancopoulos
    • Carmen J. Booth
    • Judy H. Cho
    • Wenjun Ouyang
    • Clara Abraham
    • Richard A. Flavell

    IL-22 is one of the factors that, although important for wound healing, also promote tumorigenesis; the regulation of IL-22BP, the IL-22 binding protein, via the NLRP3 and NLRP6 inflammasomes provides an unanticipated mechanism, controlling IL-22 and thereby the development of colon cancer.

  • CaMKII determines mitochondrial stress responses in heart

    • Mei-ling A. Joiner
    • Olha M. Koval
    • Jingdong Li
    • B. Julie He
    • Chantal Allamargot
    • Zhan Gao
    • Elizabeth D. Luczak
    • Duane D. Hall
    • Brian D. Fink
    • Biyi Chen
    • Jinying Yang
    • Steven A. Moore
    • Thomas D. Scholz
    • Stefan Strack
    • Peter J. Mohler
    • William I. Sivitz
    • Long-Sheng Song
    • Mark E. Anderson
  • Direct imaging of RecA nucleation and growth on single molecules of SSB-coated ssDNA

    • Jason C. Bell
    • Jody L. Plank
    • Christopher C. Dombrowski
    • Stephen C. Kowalczykowski

    Single-molecule analysis of RecA filament assembly on its in vivo substrate, SSB-coated single-stranded DNA, reveals that a dimer of RecA is required for nucleation, and is followed by bidirectional growth of the filament through monomer addition; the recombination mediator RecOR accelerates nucleation and growth, and the addition of RecF further stimulates nucleation.

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  • Structure and function of Zucchini endoribonuclease in piRNA biogenesis

    • Hiroshi Nishimasu
    • Hirotsugu Ishizu
    • Kuniaki Saito
    • Satoshi Fukuhara
    • Miharu K. Kamatani
    • Luc Bonnefond
    • Naoki Matsumoto
    • Tomohiro Nishizawa
    • Keita Nakanaga
    • Junken Aoki
    • Ryuichiro Ishitani
    • Haruhiko Siomi
    • Mikiko C. Siomi
    • Osamu Nureki

    Zucchini has been identified as an endoribonuclease responsible for the maturation of small RNA molecules that protect the genome from the damaging effects of unrestrained expression of mobile elements.


  • Corrigendum: Reconstructing Native American population history

    • David Reich
    • Nick Patterson
    • Desmond Campbell
    • Arti Tandon
    • Stéphane Mazieres
    • Nicolas Ray
    • Maria V. Parra
    • Winston Rojas
    • Constanza Duque
    • Natalia Mesa
    • Luis F. García
    • Omar Triana
    • Silvia Blair
    • Amanda Maestre
    • Juan C. Dib
    • Claudio M. Bravi
    • Graciela Bailliet
    • Daniel Corach
    • Tábita Hünemeier
    • Maria Cátira Bortolini
    • Francisco M. Salzano
    • María Luiza Petzl-Erler
    • Victor Acuña-Alonzo
    • Carlos Aguilar-Salinas
    • Samuel Canizales-Quinteros
    • Teresa Tusié-Luna
    • Laura Riba
    • Maricela Rodríguez-Cruz
    • Mardia Lopez-Alarcón
    • Ramón Coral-Vazquez
    • Thelma Canto-Cetina
    • Irma Silva-Zolezzi
    • Juan Carlos Fernandez-Lopez
    • Alejandra V. Contreras
    • Gerardo Jimenez-Sanchez
    • Maria José Gómez-Vázquez
    • Julio Molina
    • Ángel Carracedo
    • Antonio Salas
    • Carla Gallo
    • Giovanni Poletti
    • David B.Witonsky
    • Gorka Alkorta-Aranburu
    • Rem I. Sukernik
    • Ludmila Osipova
    • Sardana A. Fedorova
    • René Vasquez
    • Mercedes Villena
    • Claudia Moreau
    • Ramiro Barrantes
    • David Pauls
    • Laurent Excoffier
    • Gabriel Bedoya
    • Francisco Rothhammer
    • Jean-Michel Dugoujon
    • Georges Larrouy
    • William Klitz
    • Damian Labuda
    • Judith Kidd
    • Kenneth Kidd
    • Anna Di Rienzo
    • Nelson B. Freimer
    • Alkes L. Price
    • Andrés Ruiz-Linares