Table of Contents

Volume 490 Number 7419 pp143-304

11 October 2012

About the cover

Some individuals can cope with stress — from the extremes of battle to the pressures of modern life — with no apparent ill effects. Others in similar situations will develop serious mental illness. The efforts of neuroscientists to track down the elusive links between life experience and mental illness are the focus of a series of articles in this week’s Nature. Cover: Paddy Mills

This Week


  • Life stresses

    It is time for sociologists and biologists to bury the hatchet and cooperate to study the effects of environmental stress on how people behave.

  • Share alike

    To make progress in clinical genomics, institutions must work out how to pass on data.

  • Fighting chance

    Collaboration between geneticists and economists has the potential to bear fruit.

World View


Seven Days

  • Seven days: 5–11 October 2012

    The week in science: Drug hope for Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Europe’s nuclear plants need safety upgrade and a well-preserved mammoth is revealed in Siberia.

News in Focus




Books and Arts

  • Sleep science: Broken dreams

    Meredith Wadman lifts the blanket on the creeping medicalization of sleep in the United States.

    • Review of The Slumbering Masses: Sleep, Medicine and Modern American Life
      Matthew J. Wolf-Meyer
  • Psychiatry: The dispossessed

    Amy Maxmen views a prizewinning film that shines a light into the dark corners of US psychiatric care.

    • Review of Kings Park: Stories From an American Mental Institution



  • Mental health: Under a cloud

    Depression is rife among graduate students and postdocs. Universities are working to get them the help they need.

    • Virginia Gewin


  • Advising on the edge

    Interdisciplinary mentorship must evolve to keep pace with innovative programmes, argues Katherine Mackey.

    • Katherine Mackey

naturejobs job listings and advertising features



Technology Feature


Outlook: Physics masterclass



  • A call for transparent reporting to optimize the predictive value of preclinical research

    • Story C. Landis
    • Susan G. Amara
    • Khusru Asadullah
    • Chris P. Austin
    • Robi Blumenstein
    • Eileen W. Bradley
    • Ronald G. Crystal
    • Robert B. Darnell
    • Robert J. Ferrante
    • Howard Fillit
    • Robert Finkelstein
    • Marc Fisher
    • Howard E. Gendelman
    • Robert M. Golub
    • John L. Goudreau
    • Robert A. Gross
    • Amelie K. Gubitz
    • Sharon E. Hesterlee
    • David W. Howells
    • John Huguenard
    • Katrina Kelner
    • Walter Koroshetz
    • Dimitri Krainc
    • Stanley E. Lazic
    • Michael S. Levine
    • Malcolm R. Macleod
    • John M. McCall
    • Richard T. Moxley III
    • Kalyani Narasimhan
    • Linda J. Noble
    • Steve Perrin
    • John D. Porter
    • Oswald Steward
    • Ellis Unger
    • Ursula Utz
    • Shai D. Silberberg

    Deficiencies in methods reporting in animal experimentation lead to difficulties in reproducing experiments; the authors propose a set of reporting standards to improve scientific communication and study design.


  • A roadmap for graphene

    • K. S. Novoselov
    • V. I. Fal′ko
    • L. Colombo
    • P. R. Gellert
    • M. G. Schwab
    • K. Kim

    Graphene’s numerous highly desirable properties mean that it has many possible applications in various technologies and devices; these are reviewed and analysed here.


  • The hexadehydro-Diels–Alder reaction

    • Thomas R. Hoye
    • Beeraiah Baire
    • Dawen Niu
    • Patrick H. Willoughby
    • Brian P. Woods

    The de novo generation of benzynes—through a hexadehydro-Diels–Alder reaction—followed by their in situ elaboration is reported; the reaction is metal-free and reagent-free, and reveals new modes of intrinsic benzyne reactivity.

    See also
  • Small heat-shock proteins protect from heat-stroke-associated neurodegeneration

    • Nikos Kourtis
    • Vassiliki Nikoletopoulou
    • Nektarios Tavernarakis

    Heat stroke triggers necrotic cell death and neurodegeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans, but hormetic preconditioning at a mildly elevated temperature strongly protects C. elegans from necrosis induced by several insults, including heat, and shields mammalian neurons from heat cytotoxicity, suggesting that this protective mechanism is conserved.

  • Retinal waves coordinate patterned activity throughout the developing visual system

    • James B. Ackman
    • Timothy J. Burbridge
    • Michael C. Crair

    In live neonatal mice, waves of spontaneous retinal activity are present and can propagate patterned information capable of guiding activity-dependent development of complex intra- and inter-hemispheric circuits throughout the visual system before the onset of vision (before eye opening).

  • A neural circuit for spatial summation in visual cortex

    • Hillel Adesnik
    • William Bruns
    • Hiroki Taniguchi
    • Z. Josh Huang
    • Massimo Scanziani

    The activity of somatostatin-expressing inhibitory neurons (SOMs) in the superficial layers of the mouse visual cortex increases with stimulation of the receptive-field surround, thereby contributing to the surround suppression of pyramidal cells.


  • Unexpectedly large mass loss during the thermal pulse cycle of the red giant star R Sculptoris

    • M. Maercker
    • S. Mohamed
    • W. H. T. Vlemmings
    • S. Ramstedt
    • M. A. T. Groenewegen
    • E. Humphreys
    • F. Kerschbaum
    • M. Lindqvist
    • H. Olofsson
    • C. Paladini
    • M. Wittkowski
    • I. de Gregorio-Monsalvo
    • L.-A. Nyman

    A thin, spherical shell with a clumpy structure around the red giant star RSculptoris is shown to contain a spiral structure, implying that the star is a binary system that underwent a thermal pulse 1,800 years ago, ejecting three times more mass than expected

  • Probing graphene grain boundaries with optical microscopy

    • Dinh Loc Duong
    • Gang Hee Han
    • Seung Mi Lee
    • Fethullah Gunes
    • Eun Sung Kim
    • Sung Tae Kim
    • Heetae Kim
    • Quang Huy Ta
    • Kang Pyo So
    • Seok Jun Yoon
    • Seung Jin Chae
    • Young Woo Jo
    • Min Ho Park
    • Sang Hoon Chae
    • Seong Chu Lim
    • Jae Young Choi
    • Young Hee Lee

    A simple method to observe grain boundaries in graphene is reported, using ultraviolet irradiation in humid conditions followed by optical microscopy.

  • April 2012 intra-oceanic seismicity off Sumatra boosted by the Banda-Aceh megathrust

    • Matthias Delescluse
    • Nicolas Chamot-Rooke
    • Rodolphe Cattin
    • Luce Fleitout
    • Olga Trubienko
    • Christophe Vigny

    The two earthquakes of respective magnitudes 8.6 and 8.2 that occurred off the coast of the Sumatra subduction zone on 11 April 2012 are shown to be part of a continuing boost of the intraplate deformation between India and Australia that followed the Aceh 2004 and Nias 2005 megathrust earthquakes.

    See also
  • Closing yield gaps through nutrient and water management

    • Nathaniel D. Mueller
    • James S. Gerber
    • Matt Johnston
    • Deepak K. Ray
    • Navin Ramankutty
    • Jonathan A. Foley

    Global yields of major crops are analysed using climate, irrigation and new nutrient data to show that large production increases are possible from closing yield gaps to 100% of attainable yields, and that changes in management practices needed to close yield gaps vary considerably by region and current intensity.

  • Complex brain and optic lobes in an early Cambrian arthropod

    • Xiaoya Ma
    • Xianguang Hou
    • Gregory D. Edgecombe
    • Nicholas J. Strausfeld

    An arthropod specimen from an early Cambrian deposit in China shows a nervous system very similar to that of modern insects and crustaceans, suggesting that insect and crustacean nervous systems evolved from a relatively complex ancestral one, and that simple animals, such as branchiopod shrimps, have evolved a marked reduction in the complexity of their nervous systems.

    See also
  • FTO genotype is associated with phenotypic variability of body mass index

    • Jian Yang
    • Ruth J. F. Loos
    • Joseph E. Powell
    • Sarah E. Medland
    • Elizabeth K. Speliotes
    • Daniel I. Chasman
    • Lynda M. Rose
    • Gudmar Thorleifsson
    • Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir
    • Reedik Mägi
    • Lindsay Waite
    • Albert Vernon Smith
    • Laura M. Yerges-Armstrong
    • Keri L. Monda
    • David Hadley
    • Anubha Mahajan
    • Guo Li
    • Karen Kapur
    • Veronique Vitart
    • Jennifer E. Huffman
    • Sophie R. Wang
    • Cameron Palmer
    • Tõnu Esko
    • Krista Fischer
    • Jing Hua Zhao
    • Ayşe Demirkan
    • Aaron Isaacs
    • Mary F. Feitosa
    • Jian’an Luan
    • Nancy L. Heard-Costa
    • Charles White
    • Anne U. Jackson
    • Michael Preuss
    • Andreas Ziegler
    • Joel Eriksson
    • Zoltán Kutalik
    • Francesca Frau
    • Ilja M. Nolte
    • Jana V. Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk
    • Jouke-Jan Hottenga
    • Kevin B. Jacobs
    • Niek Verweij
    • Anuj Goel
    • Carolina Medina-Gomez
    • Karol Estrada
    • Jennifer Lynn Bragg-Gresham
    • Serena Sanna
    • Carlo Sidore
    • Jonathan Tyrer
    • Alexander Teumer
    • Inga Prokopenko
    • Massimo Mangino
    • Cecilia M. Lindgren
    • Themistocles L. Assimes
    • Alan R. Shuldiner
    • Jennie Hui
    • John P. Beilby
    • Wendy L. McArdle
    • Per Hall
    • Talin Haritunians
    • Lina Zgaga
    • Ivana Kolcic
    • Ozren Polasek
    • Tatijana Zemunik
    • Ben A. Oostra
    • M. Juhani Junttila
    • Henrik Grönberg
    • Stefan Schreiber
    • Annette Peters
    • Andrew A. Hicks
    • Jonathan Stephens
    • Nicola S. Foad
    • Jaana Laitinen
    • Anneli Pouta
    • Marika Kaakinen
    • Gonneke Willemsen
    • Jacqueline M. Vink
    • Sarah H. Wild
    • Gerjan Navis
    • Folkert W. Asselbergs
    • Georg Homuth
    • Ulrich John
    • Carlos Iribarren
    • Tamara Harris
    • Lenore Launer
    • Vilmundur Gudnason
    • Jeffrey R. O’Connell
    • Eric Boerwinkle
    • Gemma Cadby
    • Lyle J. Palmer
    • Alan L. James
    • Arthur W. Musk
    • Erik Ingelsson
    • Bruce M. Psaty
    • Jacques S. Beckmann
    • Gerard Waeber
    • Peter Vollenweider
    • Caroline Hayward
    • Alan F. Wright
    • Igor Rudan
    • Leif C. Groop
    • Andres Metspalu
    • Kay Tee Khaw
    • Cornelia M. van Duijn
    • Ingrid B. Borecki
    • Michael A. Province
    • Nicholas J. Wareham
    • Jean-Claude Tardif
    • Heikki V. Huikuri
    • L. Adrienne Cupples
    • Larry D. Atwood
    • Caroline S. Fox
    • Michael Boehnke
    • Francis S. Collins
    • Karen L. Mohlke
    • Jeanette Erdmann
    • Heribert Schunkert
    • Christian Hengstenberg
    • Klaus Stark
    • Mattias Lorentzon
    • Claes Ohlsson
    • Daniele Cusi
    • Jan A. Staessen
    • Melanie M. Van der Klauw
    • Peter P. Pramstaller
    • Sekar Kathiresan
    • Jennifer D. Jolley
    • Samuli Ripatti
    • Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin
    • Eco J. C. de Geus
    • Dorret I. Boomsma
    • Brenda Penninx
    • James F. Wilson
    • Harry Campbell
    • Stephen J. Chanock
    • Pim van der Harst
    • Anders Hamsten
    • Hugh Watkins
    • Albert Hofman
    • Jacqueline C. Witteman
    • M. Carola Zillikens
    • André G. Uitterlinden
    • Fernando Rivadeneira
    • M. Carola Zillikens
    • Lambertus A. Kiemeney
    • Sita H. Vermeulen
    • Goncalo R. Abecasis
    • David Schlessinger
    • Sabine Schipf
    • Michael Stumvoll
    • Anke Tönjes
    • Tim D. Spector
    • Kari E. North
    • Guillaume Lettre
    • Mark I. McCarthy
    • Sonja I. Berndt
    • Andrew C. Heath
    • Pamela A. F. Madden
    • Dale R. Nyholt
    • Grant W. Montgomery
    • Nicholas G. Martin
    • Barbara McKnight
    • David P. Strachan
    • William G. Hill
    • Harold Snieder
    • Paul M. Ridker
    • Unnur Thorsteinsdottir
    • Kari Stefansson
    • Timothy M. Frayling
    • Joel N. Hirschhorn
    • Michael E. Goddard
    • Peter M. Visscher

    A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of phenotypic variation for height and body mass index in human populations using 170,000 samples shows that one single nucleotide polymorphism at the FTO locus, which is associated with obesity, is also associated with phenotypic variation.

  • Restoration of auditory evoked responses by human ES-cell-derived otic progenitors

    • Wei Chen
    • Nopporn Jongkamonwiwat
    • Leila Abbas
    • Sarah Jacob Eshtan
    • Stuart L. Johnson
    • Stephanie Kuhn
    • Marta Milo
    • Johanna K. Thurlow
    • Peter W. Andrews
    • Walter Marcotti
    • Harry D. Moore
    • Marcelo N. Rivolta

    Two types of human ES-cell-derived otic progenitors are shown to have the ability to differentiate in vitro into hair-cell-like cells and auditory neurons, and to engraft, differentiate and improve auditory-evoked response thresholds when transplanted into an auditory neuropathy model; this indicates that it may be possible to use cell-based therapeutic strategies to recover damaged sensory circuitry in deafness.

  • HIV-infected T cells are migratory vehicles for viral dissemination

    • Thomas T. Murooka
    • Maud Deruaz
    • Francesco Marangoni
    • Vladimir D. Vrbanac
    • Edward Seung
    • Ulrich H. von Andrian
    • Andrew M. Tager
    • Andrew D. Luster
    • Thorsten R. Mempel

    Using intravital microscopy, this study visualizes HIV-1-infected T cells within the lymph nodes of humanized mice, demonstrating that infected cells have reduced motility and long membrane processes; treating infected mice with a lymphocyte egress inhibitor prevents HIV-1 from spreading to the circulation during the course of treatment.