Comprehensive genomic characterization of squamous cell lung cancers

Journal name:
Nature
Volume:
489,
Pages:
519–525
Date published:
DOI:
doi:10.1038/nature11404
Received
Accepted
Published online

Abstract

Lung squamous cell carcinoma is a common type of lung cancer, causing approximately 400,000 deaths per year worldwide. Genomic alterations in squamous cell lung cancers have not been comprehensively characterized, and no molecularly targeted agents have been specifically developed for its treatment. As part of The Cancer Genome Atlas, here we profile 178 lung squamous cell carcinomas to provide a comprehensive landscape of genomic and epigenomic alterations. We show that the tumour type is characterized by complex genomic alterations, with a mean of 360 exonic mutations, 165 genomic rearrangements, and 323 segments of copy number alteration per tumour. We find statistically recurrent mutations in 11 genes, including mutation of TP53 in nearly all specimens. Previously unreported loss-of-function mutations are seen in the HLA-A class I major histocompatibility gene. Significantly altered pathways included NFE2L2 and KEAP1 in 34%, squamous differentiation genes in 44%, phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase pathway genes in 47%, and CDKN2A and RB1 in 72% of tumours. We identified a potential therapeutic target in most tumours, offering new avenues of investigation for the treatment of squamous cell lung cancers.

At a glance

Figures

  1. Significantly mutated genes in lung SQCC.
    Figure 1: Significantly mutated genes in lung SQCC.

    Significantly mutated genes (Qvalue<0.1) identified by exome sequencing are listed vertically by Q value. The percentage of lung SQCC samples with a mutation detected by automated calling is noted at the left. Samples displayed as columns, with the overall number of mutations plotted at the top, and samples are arranged to emphasize mutual exclusivity among mutations. Syn., synonymous.

  2. Somatically altered pathways in squamous cell lung cancer.
    Figure 2: Somatically altered pathways in squamous cell lung cancer.

    Left, alterations in oxidative stress response pathway genes as defined by somatic mutation, copy number alteration or up- or downregulation. Frequencies of alteration are expressed as a percentage of all cases, with background in red for activated genes and blue for inactivated genes. Right, alterations in genes that regulate squamous differentiation, as defined in the left panel.

  3. Gene expression subtypes integrated with genomic alterations.
    Figure 3: Gene expression subtypes integrated with genomic alterations.

    Tumours are displayed as columns, grouped by gene expression subtype. Subtypes were compared by Kruskal–Wallis tests for continuous features and by Fisher’s exact tests for categorical features. Displayed features showed significant association with gene expression subtype (P<0.05), except for CDKN2A alterations. deltaN percentage represents transcript isoform usage between the TP63 isoforms, deltaN and tap63, as determined by RNA sequencing. Chromosomal instability (CIN) is defined by the mean of the absolute values of chromosome arm copy numbers (CN) from the GISTIC23, 24 output. Absolute values are used so that amplification and deletion alterations are counted equally. Hypermethylation scores and iCluster assignments are described in Supplementary Figs 6.1 and 7.A1, respectively. CIN, methylation, gene expression and deltaN values were standardized for display using z-score transformation. Expr., expression; mut., mutation; WT, wild type.

  4. Multi-faceted characterization of mechanisms of CDKN2A loss.
    Figure 4: Multi-faceted characterization of mechanisms of CDKN2A loss.

    a, Schematic view of the exon structure of CDKN2A demonstrating the types of alterations identified in the study. The locations of point mutation are denoted by black and green circles. b, CDKN2A expression (y axis) versus CDKN2A copy number (x axis). Samples are represented by circles and colour-coded by specific type of CDKN2A alteration. Del., deletion; het., heterozygous; homoz., homozygous. c, Diagram of the KIAA1797-p16INK4 fusion identified by WGS. ORF, open reading frame. d, CDKN2A alterations and expression levels (binary) in each sample.

  5. Alterations in targetable oncogenic pathways in lung SQCCs.
    Figure 5: Alterations in targetable oncogenic pathways in lung SQCCs.

    Pathway diagram showing the percentage of samples with alterations in the PI(3)K/RTK/RAS pathways. Alterations are defined by somatic mutations, homozygous deletions, high-level, focal amplifications, and, in some cases, by significant up- or downregulation of gene expression (AKT3, FGFR1, PTEN).

Introduction

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, leading to an estimated 1.4million deaths in 2010 (ref. 1). The discovery of recurrent mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase, as well as fusions involving anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), has led to a marked change in the treatment of patients with lung adenocarcinoma, the most common type of lung cancer2, 3, 4, 5. More recent data have suggested that targeting mutations in BRAF, AKT1, ERBB2 and PIK3CA and fusions that involve ROS1 and RET may also be successful6, 7. Unfortunately, activating mutations in EGFR and ALK fusions are typically not present in the second most common type of lung cancer, lung squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC)8, and targeted agents developed for lung adenocarcinoma are largely ineffective against lung SQCC.

Although no comprehensive genomic analysis of lung SQCCs has been reported, single-platform studies have identified regions of somatic copy number alterations in lung SQCCs, including amplification of SOX2, PDGFRA and FGFR1 and/or WHSC1L1 and deletion of CDKN2A9, 10. DNA sequencing studies of lung SQCCs have reported recurrent mutations in several genes, including TP53, NFE2L2, KEAP1, BAI3, FBXW7, GRM8, MUC16, RUNX1T1, STK11 and ERBB4 (refs 11, 12). DDR2 mutations and FGFR1 amplification have been nominated as therapeutic targets13, 14, 15.

We have conducted a comprehensive study of lung SQCCs from a large cohort of patients as part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. The twin aims are to characterize the genomic and epigenomic landscape of lung SQCC and to identify potential opportunities for therapy. We report an integrated analysis based on DNA copy number, somatic exonic mutations, messenger RNA sequencing, mRNA expression and promoter methylation for 178 histopathologically reviewed lung SQCCs, in addition to whole genome sequencing (WGS) of 19 samples and microRNA sequencing of 159 samples (Supplementary Table 1.1). Demographic and clinical data and results of the genomic analyses can be downloaded from the TCGA data portal (https://tcga-data.nci.nih.gov/docs/publications/lusc_2012/).

Samples and clinical data

Tumour samples were obtained from 178 patients with previously untreated stage I–IV lung SQCC. Germline DNA was obtained from adjacent, histologically normal tissues resected at the time of surgery (n = 137) or from peripheral blood (n = 41). All patients provided written informed consent to conduct genomic studies in accordance with local Institutional Review Boards. The demographic characteristics are described in Supplementary Table 1.2. The median follow-up for the cohort was 15.8months, and 60% of patients were alive at the time of the last follow-up (data updated in November 2011). Ninety-six per cent of the patients had a history of tobacco use, similar to previous reports for North American patients with lung SQCC16. DNA and RNA were extracted from patient specimens and measured by several genomic assays, which included standard quality-control assessments (Supplementary Methods, sections 2–8). A committee of experts in lung cancer pathology performed a further review of all samples to confirm the histological subtype (Supplementary Fig. 1.1 and Supplementary Methods, section 1).

Somatic DNA alterations

The lung SQCCs analysed in this study display a large number and variety of DNA alterations, with a mean of 360 exonic mutations, 323 altered copy number segments and 165 genomic rearrangements per tumour.

Copy number alterations were analysed using several platforms. Analysis of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 6.0 array data across the set of 178 lung SQCCs identified a high rate of copy number alteration (mean of 323 segments) when compared with other TCGA projects (as of 1 February 2012), including ovarian cancer (477 segments)17, glioblastoma multiforme (282 segments)18, colorectal carcinoma (213 segments), breast carcinoma (282 segments) and renal cell carcinoma (156 segments) (P<1×10−15 by Fisher’s exact test). These segments gave rise to regions of both focal and broad somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs), with a mean of 47 focal and 23 broad events per tumour (broad events defined as≥50% of the length of the chromosome arm). There was strong concordance between the three independent copy number assays for all regions of SCNA (Supplementary Figs 2.1–2.4).

At the level of whole chromosome arm SCNAs, lung SQCCs exhibit many similarities to 205 cases of lung adenocarcinoma analysed by TCGA (Supplementary Fig. 2.1a). The most notable difference between these cancers is selective amplification of chromosome 3q in lung SQCC, as has been reported9, 19. Using the SNP 6.0 array platform and GISTIC 2.0 (refs 20, 21), we identified regions of significant copy number alteration (Supplementary Methods, section 2). There were 50 peaks of significant amplification or deletion (Q<0.05), several of which included SCNAs previously seen in lung SQCCs including SOX2, PDGFRA and/or KIT, EGFR, FGFR1 and/or WHSC1L1, CCND1 and CDKN2A9, 10, 19 (Supplementary Fig. 2.1b and Supplementary Data 2.1 and 2.2). Other peaks defined regions of SCNA reported for the first time, including amplifications of chromosomal segments containing NFE2L2, MYC, CDK6, MDM2, BCL2L1 and EYS and deletions of FOXP1, PTEN and NF1 (Supplementary Fig. 2.1b).

Whole exome sequencing of 178 lung SQCCs and matched germline DNA targeted 193,094 exons from 18,863 genes. The mean sequencing coverage across targeted bases was 121×, with 83% of target bases above 30× coverage. We identified a total of 48,690 non-silent mutations with a mean of 228 non-silent and 360 total exonic mutations per tumour, corresponding to a mean somatic mutation rate of 8.1 mutations per megabase (Mb) and median of 8.4 per Mb. That rate is higher than rates observed in other TCGA projects including acute myelogenous leukaemia (0.56 per Mb), breast carcinoma (1.0 per Mb), ovarian cancer17 (2.1 per Mb), glioblastoma multiforme18 (2.3 per Mb) and colorectal carcinoma (3.2 per Mb) (data as of 1 February 2012, P<2.2×10−16 by t-test or Wilcoxon’s rank sum test for lung SQCC versus all others). In lung SQCC, CpG transitions and transversions were the most commonly observed mutation types, with mean rates of 9.9 and 10.7 per sequenced megabase of CpG context, respectively, for a total mutation rate of 20.6 per Mb. At non-CpG sites, transversions at C:G sites were more common than transitions (7.3 versus 2.9 per Mb; total = 10.2 per Mb) and more common than transversions or transitions at A:T sites (1.5 versus 1.3 per Mb; total = 2.8 per Mb).

Significantly mutated genes were identified using a modified version of the MutSig algorithm (Supplementary Methods, section 3)22, 23. We identified 10 genes with a false discovery rate (FDR) Q value <0.1 (Supplementary Table 3.1): TP53, CDKN2A, PTEN, PIK3CA, KEAP1, MLL2, HLA-A, NFE2L2, NOTCH1 and RB1, all of which demonstrated robust evidence of gene expression as defined by reads per kilobase of exon model per million mapped reads (RPKM) >1 (Fig. 1). TP53 mutation was observed in 81% of samples by automated analysis; visual review of sequencing reads identified a further 9% of samples with potential mutations in regions of sub-optimal coverage or in samples with low purity. Most observed mutations in NOTCH1 (8 out of 17) were truncating alterations, suggesting loss-of-function, as has recently been reported for head and neck SQCCs22, 24. Mutations in HLA-A were also almost exclusively nonsense or splice site events (7 out of 8).

Figure 1: Significantly mutated genes in lung SQCC.
Significantly mutated genes in lung SQCC.

Significantly mutated genes (Qvalue<0.1) identified by exome sequencing are listed vertically by Q value. The percentage of lung SQCC samples with a mutation detected by automated calling is noted at the left. Samples displayed as columns, with the overall number of mutations plotted at the top, and samples are arranged to emphasize mutual exclusivity among mutations. Syn., synonymous.

To increase our statistical power to detect mutated genes in the setting of the observed high background mutation rate, we performed a secondary MutSig analysis only considering genes previously observed to be mutated in cancer according to the COSMIC database. This yielded 12 other genes with FDR <0.1: FAM123B (also known as WTX), HRAS, FBXW7, SMARCA4, NF1, SMAD4, EGFR, APC, TSC1, BRAF, TNFAIP3 and CREBBP (Supplementary Table 3.1). Both the spectrum and the frequency of EGFR mutations differed from those seen in lung adenocarcinomas. The two most common alterations in lung adenocarcinoma, Leu858Arg and inframe deletions in exon 19, were absent, whereas two Leu861Gln mutations were detected in EGFR.

As described in Supplementary Fig. 3.1, we verified somatic mutations by performing an independent hybrid-recapture of 76 genes in all samples. A total of 1,289 mutations were assayed, and we achieved satisfactory coverage to have power to verify at 1,283 positions. We validated 1,235 mutations (96.2%) (Supplementary Fig. 3.1 and Supplementary Methods, section 3). We also verified mutation calls using WGS and RNA sequencing data with similar results (Supplementary Figs 3.1, 4.3 and Supplementary Methods, sections 3 and 4).

WGS was performed for 19 tumour/normal pairs with a mean computed coverage of 54×. A mean of 165 somatic rearrangements was found per lung SQCC tumour pair (Supplementary Fig. 3.2), a value in excess of that reported for WGS studies of other tumour types including colorectal carcinoma (75)25, prostate carcinoma (108)26, multiple myeloma (21)23 and breast cancer (90)27. Although most inframe coding fusions detected in WGS were validated by RNA sequencing, no recurrent rearrangements predicted to generate fusion proteins were identified (Supplementary Data 3.1 and 4.1).

Somatically altered pathways

Many of the somatic alterations we have identified in lung SQCCs seem to be drivers of pathways important to the initiation or progression of the cancer. Specifically, genes involved in the oxidative stress response and squamous differentiation were frequently altered by mutation or SCNA. We observed mutations and copy number alterations of NFE2L2 and KEAP1 and/or deletion or mutation of CUL3 in 34% of cases (Fig. 2). NFE2L2 and KEAP1 code for proteins that bind to each other, have been shown to regulate the cell response to oxidative damage, chemo- and radiotherapy, and are somatically altered in a variety of cancer types28, 29. We found mutations in NFE2L2 almost exclusively in one of two KEAP1 interaction motifs, DLG or ETGE. Mutations in KEAP1 and CUL3 showed a pattern consistent with loss-of-function and were mutually exclusive with mutations in NFE2L2 (Figs 1c and 2). PARADIGM SHIFT30 analysis predicts that mutations in NFE2L2 and KEAP1 exert a considerable functional effect (Supplementary Fig. 7.C.1, 7.C.2 and Supplementary Methods, section 7).

Figure 2: Somatically altered pathways in squamous cell lung cancer.
Somatically altered pathways in squamous cell lung cancer.

Left, alterations in oxidative stress response pathway genes as defined by somatic mutation, copy number alteration or up- or downregulation. Frequencies of alteration are expressed as a percentage of all cases, with background in red for activated genes and blue for inactivated genes. Right, alterations in genes that regulate squamous differentiation, as defined in the left panel.

We also found alterations in genes with known roles in squamous cell differentiation in 44% of samples, including overexpression and amplification of SOX2 and TP63, loss-of-function mutations in NOTCH1, NOTCH2 and ASCL4 and focal deletions in FOXP1 (Fig. 2). Although NOTCH1 has been well characterized as an oncogene in haematological cancers31, NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 truncating mutations have been reported in cutaneous SQCCs and lung SQCCs32. Truncating mutations in ASCL4 are the first to be reported in human cancer and may have a lineage role given the requirement for ASCL1 for survival of small-cell lung cancer cells33. Alterations in NOTCH1, NOTCH2 and ASCL4 were mutually exclusive and exhibited minimal overlap with amplification of TP63 and/or SOX2 (Fig. 2), suggesting that aberrations in those modulators of squamous cell differentiation have overlapping functional consequences.

mRNA expression profiling and subtype classification

Whole-transcriptome expression profiles were generated by RNA sequencing for the entire cohort and by microarrays for a 121-sample subset. Of 20,502 genes analysed, the mean RNA coverage indices were 19× and 6,420RPKM (Supplementary Fig. 4.1 and Supplementary Methods, section 4). Previously reported lung SQCC gene expression-subtype signatures34 were applied to both of the expression platforms, yielding four subtypes designated as classical (36%), basal (25%), secretory (24%) and primitive (15%). The concordance of subtypes between the two platforms was high (94% agreement) (Supplementary Fig. 4.2). Considerable correlations were found between the expression subtypes and genomic alterations in copy number, mutation and methylation (Fig. 3). The classical subtype was characterized by alterations in KEAP1, NFE2L2 and PTEN, as well as pronounced hypermethylation and chromosomal instability. The 3q26 amplicon was present in all of the subtypes, but it was most characteristic of the classical subtype, which also showed the greatest overexpression of three known oncogenes on 3q: SOX2, TP63 and PIK3CA. RNA sequencing data suggested that high expression levels of TP63, in samples with and without amplification of TP63, were associated with dominant expression of the deltaN isoform (also called p40), which lacks the amino-terminal transactivation domain, compared with the longer isoform, called tap63 (89% of tumours overexpressed deltaN compared with tap63; P<2.2×10−16). The short deltaN isoform is thought to function as an oncogene35, 36, and its expression was most enriched in the classical subtype. By contrast, the primitive expression subtype more commonly exhibited RB1 and PTEN alterations, and the basal expression subtype showed NF1 alterations (Fig. 3). Amplification of FGFR1 and WHSC1L1 was anticorrelated with the classical subtype and specifically with NFE2L2 or KEAP1 mutated samples. Although CDKN2A alterations are common in lung SQCCs, they are not associated with any particular expression subtype (Fig. 3).

Figure 3: Gene expression subtypes integrated with genomic alterations.
Gene expression subtypes integrated with genomic alterations.

Tumours are displayed as columns, grouped by gene expression subtype. Subtypes were compared by Kruskal–Wallis tests for continuous features and by Fisher’s exact tests for categorical features. Displayed features showed significant association with gene expression subtype (P<0.05), except for CDKN2A alterations. deltaN percentage represents transcript isoform usage between the TP63 isoforms, deltaN and tap63, as determined by RNA sequencing. Chromosomal instability (CIN) is defined by the mean of the absolute values of chromosome arm copy numbers (CN) from the GISTIC23, 24 output. Absolute values are used so that amplification and deletion alterations are counted equally. Hypermethylation scores and iCluster assignments are described in Supplementary Figs 6.1 and 7.A1, respectively. CIN, methylation, gene expression and deltaN values were standardized for display using z-score transformation. Expr., expression; mut., mutation; WT, wild type.

Independent clustering of miRNA and methylation data indicated association with expression subtypes. The highest overall methylation was seen in the classical subtype (Fig. 3, Supplementary Figs 5.1 and 6.1, Supplementary Methods, sections 5 and 6, Supplementary Data 6.1 and 6.2 and Supplementary Table 5.1). Integrative clustering (iCluster)37 of mRNA, miRNA, methylation, SCNA and mutation data demonstrated concordance with the mRNA expression subtypes and associated alterations (Fig. 3, Supplementary Fig. 7.A.1 and Supplementary Methods, section 7). Independent correlation of somatic mutations, copy number alterations and gene expression signatures revealed notable subtype associations with alterations in the TP53, PI3K, RB1 and NFE2L2/KEAP1 pathways (Supplementary Fig. 7.B.1 and Supplementary Methods, section 7).

Analysis of the CDKN2A locus

Integrated multiplatform analyses showed that CDKN2A, a known tumour suppressor gene in lung SQCC38 that encodes the p16INK4A and p14ARF proteins, is inactivated in 72% of cases of lung SQCC (Fig. 4a and Supplementary Data 7.1)—by epigenetic silencing by methylation (21%), inactivating mutation (18%), exon 1β skipping (4%) and homozygous deletion (29%).

Figure 4: Multi-faceted characterization of mechanisms of CDKN2A loss.
Multi-faceted characterization of mechanisms of CDKN2A loss.

a, Schematic view of the exon structure of CDKN2A demonstrating the types of alterations identified in the study. The locations of point mutation are denoted by black and green circles. b, CDKN2A expression (y axis) versus CDKN2A copy number (x axis). Samples are represented by circles and colour-coded by specific type of CDKN2A alteration. Del., deletion; het., heterozygous; homoz., homozygous. c, Diagram of the KIAA1797-p16INK4 fusion identified by WGS. ORF, open reading frame. d, CDKN2A alterations and expression levels (binary) in each sample.

Analysis of mRNA expression across the CDKN2A locus revealed four distinct patterns of expression: complete absence of both p16INK4 and ARF (33%); expression of high levels of both p16INK4 and ARF (31%); high expression of ARF and absence of p16INK4 (31%); or expression of a transcript that represents a splicing of exon 1β from ARF with the shared exon 3 of ARF and p16INK4, generating a premature stop codon (4%) (Supplementary Fig. 4.4). Almost all of the cases completely lacking p16INK4 and ARF expression showed homozygous deletion (Fig. 4b and Supplementary Data 7.1). In one case, p16INK4 expression was detected but analysis of WGS data demonstrated an intergenic fusion event that resulted in detectable transcription between exon 1α p16INK4 and exon 18 of KIAA1797 (Fig. 4b, c). Interestingly, combined analysis of WGS and RNA sequencing data identified tumour suppressor gene inactivation by intra- or interchromosomal rearrangement in PTEN, NOTCH1, ARID1A, CTNNA2, VHL and NF1, in eight further cases (Supplementary Data 3.1 and 4.1).

In addition to homozygous deletion, there are frequent mutational events in CDKN2A (Fig. 4b and Supplementary Data 7.1). These account for 45% of the 56 cases with high p16INK4 and ARF expression. Furthermore, methylation of the exon 1α promoter accounts for many other cases of CDKN2A inactivation (70% of lung SQCCs with ARF expression in the absence of detectable p16INK4). Seven other tumours in the high-ARF/low-INK4A group had documented mutations of INK4A, primarily nonsense mutations, suggesting nonsense-mediated decay as a mechanism. Of the 28% of tumours without CDKN2A alterations, RB1 mutations were identified in eight cases and CDK6 amplification in one case (Fig. 4d).

Therapeutic targets

Molecularly targeted agents are now commonly used in patients with adenocarcinoma of the lung, whereas no effective targeted agents have been developed specifically for lung SQCCs13. We analysed our genomic data for evidence of the two common genomic alterations in adenocarcinomas of the lung: EGFR and KRAS mutations. Only one sample had a KRAS codon 61 mutation, and there were no exon 19 deletions or Leu858Arg mutations in EGFR. However, amplifications of EGFR were found in 7% of cases, as were two instances of the Leu861Gln EGFR mutation, which confers sensitivity to erlotinib and gefitinib39.

The presence of new potential therapeutic targets in lung SQCC was suggested by the observation that 96% (171 out of 178) of tumours contain one or more mutations in tyrosine kinases, serine/threonine kinases, phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI(3)K) catalytic and regulatory subunits, nuclear hormone receptors, G-protein-coupled receptors, proteases and tyrosine phosphatases (Supplementary Fig. 7.D.1a and Supplementary Data 7.2 and 7.3). From 50 to 77% of the mutations were predicted to have a medium or high functional effect as determined by the mutation assessor score40 (Supplementary Fig. 7.D.1a), and 39% of tyrosine and 42% of serine/threonine kinase mutations were located in the kinase domain. Many of the alterations were in known oncogenes and tumour suppressors, as defined in the COSMIC database (Supplementary Data 7.3).

We selected potential therapeutic targets based on several features, including (1) availability of a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved targeted therapeutic agent or one under study in current clinical trials (Supplementary Data 7.2); (2) confirmation of the altered allele in RNA sequencing; and (3) the mutation assessor score40. Using those criteria, we identified 114 cases with somatic alteration of a potentially targetable gene (64%) (Supplementary Fig. 7.D.1b and Supplementary Data 7.4). Among these, we identified three families of tyrosine kinases, the erythroblastic leukaemia viral oncogene homologues (ERBBs), fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) and Janus kinases (JAKs), all of which were found to be mutated and/or amplified41. As discussed for EGFR, the mutational spectra in these potential therapeutic targets differed from those in lung adenocarcinoma (Supplementary Fig. 7.D.2)42.

To complement a gene-centred search for potential therapeutic targets, we analysed core cellular pathways known to represent potential therapeutic vulnerabilities: PI(3)K/AKT, receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and RAS. Analysis of the 178 lung SQCCs revealed alteration in at least one of those pathways in 69% of samples after restriction of the analysis to mutations confirmed by RNA sequencing and to amplifications associated with overexpression of the target gene (Fig. 5). Mutational events that have been curated in COSMIC are also shown in Supplementary Fig. 7D.2, as is the distribution of mutations, amplifications and overexpression of the genes depicted in Fig. 5. (A summary of all samples and their significant mutations and copy number alterations, including alterations in Fig. 5, is shown in Supplementary Data 7.5.) Specifically, one of the components of the PI(3)K/AKT pathway was altered in 47% of tumours and RTK signalling probably affected by events such as EGFR amplification, BRAF mutation or FGFR amplification or mutation in 26% of tumours (Fig. 5 and Supplementary Fig. 7.D.3). Alterations in the PI(3)K/AKT pathway genes were mutually exclusive with EGFR alterations as identified by MEMo43 (Supplementary Fig. 7.D.4.). Although the dependence of lung SQCC on many of these individual alterations remains to be defined functionally, this analysis suggests new areas for potential therapeutic development in this cancer.

Figure 5: Alterations in targetable oncogenic pathways in lung SQCCs.
Alterations in targetable oncogenic pathways in lung SQCCs.

Pathway diagram showing the percentage of samples with alterations in the PI(3)K/RTK/RAS pathways. Alterations are defined by somatic mutations, homozygous deletions, high-level, focal amplifications, and, in some cases, by significant up- or downregulation of gene expression (AKT3, FGFR1, PTEN).

Discussion

Lung SQCCs are characterized by a high overall mutation rate of 8.1 mutations per megabase and marked genomic complexity. Similar to high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma17, almost all lung SQCCs display somatic mutation of TP53. There were also frequent alterations in the following pathways: CDKN2A/RB1, NFE2L2/KEAP1/CUL3, PI3K/AKT and SOX2/TP63/NOTCH1 pathways, providing evidence of common dysfunction in cell cycle control, response to oxidative stress, apoptotic signalling and/or squamous cell differentiation. Pathway alterations clustered according to expression-subtype in many cases, suggesting that those subtypes have a biological basis.

A role for somatic mutation in the cancer hallmark of avoiding immune destruction44 is suggested by the presence of inactivating mutations in the HLA-A gene. Somatic loss-of-function alterations of HLA-A have not been reported previously in genomic studies of lung cancer. Given the recently reported efficacy of anti-programmed death 1 (PD1)45 and anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) antibodies in non-small-cell lung cancer46, these HLA-A mutations suggest a possible role for genotypic selection of patients for immunotherapies.

Targeted kinase inhibitors have been successfully used for the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma but minimally so in lung SQCC. The observations reported here suggest that a detailed understanding of the possible targets in lung SQCCs may identify targeted therapeutic approaches. Whereas EGFR and KRAS mutations, the two most common oncogenic aberrations in lung adenocarcinoma, are extremely rare in lung SQCC, alterations in the FGFR kinase family are common. Lung SQCCs also share many alterations in common with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas without evidence of human papilloma virus infection, including mutation in PIK3CA, PTEN, TP53, CDKN2A, NOTCH1 and HRAS22, 24, suggesting that the biology of these two diseases may be similar.

The current study has identified a potentially targetable gene or pathway alteration in most lung SQCC samples studied. The data presented here can help to organize efforts to analyse lung SQCC clinical tumour specimens for a panel of specific, actionable mutations to select patients for appropriately targeted clinical trials. These data could thereby help to facilitate effective personalized therapy for this deadly disease.

Methods

All specimens were obtained from patients with appropriate consent from the relevant Institutional Review Board. DNA and RNA were collected from samples using the Allprep kit (Qiagen). We used commercial technology for capture and sequencing of exomes from tumour DNA and normal DNA and whole-genome shotgun sequencing. Significantly mutated genes were identified by comparing them with expectation models based on the exact measured rates of specific sequence lesions. GISTIC23, 24 analysis of the circular-binary-segmented Affymetrix SNP 6.0 copy number data was used to identify recurrent amplification and deletion peaks. Consensus clustering approaches were used to analyse mRNA, miRNA and methylation subtypes using previous approaches20, 21, 34, 38, 41, 44.

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Acknowledgements

This study was supported by NIH grants U24 CA126561, U24 CA126551, U24 CA126554, U24 CA126543, U24 CA126546, U24 CA126563, U24 CA126544, U24 CA143845, U24 CA143858, U24 CA144025, U24 CA143882, U24 CA143866, U24 CA143867, U24 CA143848, U24 CA143840, U24 CA143835, U24 CA143799, U24 CA143883, U24 CA143843, U54 HG003067, U54 HG003079 and U54 HG003273.

Author information

Affiliations

  1. The Eli and Edythe L. Broad Institute of Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA.

    • Peter S. Hammerman,
    • Michael S. Lawrence,
    • Douglas Voet,
    • Rui Jing,
    • Kristian Cibulskis,
    • Andrey Sivachenko,
    • Petar Stojanov,
    • Aaron McKenna,
    • Eric S. Lander,
    • Gad Getz,
    • Marcin Imielinski,
    • Elena Helman,
    • Bryan Hernandez,
    • Nam H. Pho,
    • Matthew Meyerson,
    • Gordon Saksena,
    • Andrew D. Cherniack,
    • Stephen E. Schumacher,
    • Barbara Tabak,
    • Scott L. Carter,
    • Huy Nguyen,
    • Andrew Crenshaw,
    • Rameen Beroukhim,
    • Wendy Winckler,
    • Hailei Zhang,
    • Sachet Shukla,
    • Lynda Chin,
    • Michael Noble,
    • Doug Voet,
    • Nils Gehlenborg,
    • Daniel DiCara,
    • Spring Yingchun Liu,
    • Lihua Zou,
    • Pei Lin,
    • Juok Cho,
    • Marc-Danie Nazaire,
    • Jim Robinson,
    • Helga Thorvaldsdottir &
    • Jill Mesirov
  2. Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.

    • Peter S. Hammerman,
    • Matthew Meyerson,
    • Stephen E. Schumacher,
    • Barbara Tabak,
    • Rameen Beroukhim,
    • Lynda Chin,
    • Chang-Jiun Wu,
    • Bruce Johnson,
    • David Kwiatkowski &
    • Bruce E. Johnson
  3. Department of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA.

    • Eric S. Lander
  4. Department of Systems Biology, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    • Eric S. Lander &
    • Carrie Sougnez
  5. Genetic Analysis Platform, The Eli and Edythe L. Broad Institute of Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA.

    • Stacey Gabriel,
    • Gad Getz,
    • Carrie Sougnez,
    • Robert C. Onofrio,
    • Kristin Ardlie &
    • Wendy Winckler
  6. Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    • Marcin Imielinski &
    • Matthew Meyerson
  7. Canada’s Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z, Canada.

    • Andy Chu,
    • Hye-Jung E. Chun,
    • Andrew J. Mungall,
    • Erin Pleasance,
    • A. Gordon Robertson,
    • Payal Sipahimalani,
    • Dominik Stoll,
    • Miruna Balasundaram,
    • Inanc Birol,
    • Yaron S. N. Butterfield,
    • Eric Chuah,
    • Robin J. N. Coope,
    • Richard Corbett,
    • Noreen Dhalla,
    • Ranabir Guin,
    • An He,
    • Carrie Hirst,
    • Martin Hirst,
    • Robert A. Holt,
    • Darlene Lee,
    • Haiyan I. Li,
    • Michael Mayo,
    • Richard A. Moore,
    • Karen Mungall,
    • Ka Ming Nip,
    • Jacqueline E. Schein,
    • Jared R. Slobodan,
    • Angela Tam,
    • Nina Thiessen,
    • Richard Varhol,
    • Thomas Zeng,
    • Yongjun Zhao,
    • Steven J. M. Jones,
    • Marco A. Marra,
    • Elizabeth Chun,
    • Andy Mungall &
    • Gordon Robertson
  8. Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA.

    • Adam Olshen
  9. Belfer Institute for Applied Cancer Science, Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    • Alexei Protopopov,
    • Jianhua Zhang,
    • Xiaojia Ren,
    • Hailei Zhang,
    • Sachet Shukla,
    • Lynda Chin,
    • Jinhua Zhang &
    • Jianjua John Zhang
  10. Institute for Applied Cancer Science, Department of Genomic Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

    • Alexei Protopopov,
    • Jianhua Zhang,
    • Lynda Chin,
    • Jinhua Zhang,
    • Chang-Jiun Wu &
    • Jianjua John Zhang
  11. Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    • Angela Hadjipanayis,
    • Xiaojia Ren,
    • Peng-Chieh Chen &
    • Raju Kucherlapati
  12. Division of Genetics, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    • Angela Hadjipanayis,
    • Xiaojia Ren,
    • Peng-Chieh Chen,
    • Psalm Haseley,
    • Eunjung Lee,
    • Peter J. Park &
    • Raju Kucherlapati
  13. The Center for Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    • Semin Lee,
    • Ruibin Xi,
    • Lixing Yang,
    • Psalm Haseley,
    • Eunjung Lee,
    • Peter J. Park &
    • Nils Gehlenborg
  14. Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    • Lynda Chin
  15. Informatics Program, Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    • Peter J. Park
  16. Computational Biology Center, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA.

    • Nicholas D. Socci,
    • Yupu Liang,
    • Nikolaus Schultz,
    • Laetitia Borsu,
    • Alex E. Lash,
    • Agnes Viale,
    • Chris Sander,
    • Rileen Sinha,
    • Giovanni Ciriello,
    • Ethan Cerami,
    • Benjamin Gross,
    • Anders Jacobsen,
    • Jianjiong Gao,
    • B. Arman Aksoy,
    • Nils Weinhold,
    • Ricardo Ramirez,
    • Barry S. Taylor,
    • Yevgeniy Antipin,
    • Boris Reva &
    • Ronglai Shen
  17. Department of Molecular Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA.

    • Marc Ladanyi
  18. Department of Pathology and Human Oncology & Pathogenesis Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA.

    • Marc Ladanyi
  19. Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

    • J. Todd Auman
  20. Institute for Pharmacogenetics and Individualized Therapy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

    • J. Todd Auman
  21. Department of Genetics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

    • Katherine A. Hoadley,
    • Piotr A. Mieczkowski,
    • Derek Y. Chiang,
    • Charles M. Perou &
    • Derek Chiang
  22. Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

    • Katherine A. Hoadley,
    • Michael D. Topal,
    • Lisle E. Mose,
    • Stuart R. Jefferys &
    • Charles M. Perou
  23. Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

    • Katherine A. Hoadley,
    • Matthew D. Wilkerson,
    • Yan Shi,
    • Christina Liquori,
    • Shaowu Meng,
    • Ling Li,
    • Yidi J. Turman,
    • Michael D. Topal,
    • Scot Waring,
    • Elizabeth Buda,
    • Jesse Walsh,
    • Darshan Singh,
    • Junyuan Wu,
    • Anisha Gulabani,
    • Peter Dolina,
    • Tom Bodenheimer,
    • Alan P. Hoyle,
    • Janae V. Simons,
    • Matthew G. Soloway,
    • Saianand Balu,
    • Brian D. O’Connor,
    • Derek Y. Chiang,
    • D. Neil Hayes,
    • Charles M. Perou,
    • Ying Du,
    • Christopher Cabanski,
    • Vonn Walter,
    • Jan F. Prins,
    • Derek Chiang,
    • W. Kimryn Rathmell &
    • Ashley Hill
  24. Carolina Center for Genome Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

    • Donghui Tan &
    • Yufeng Liu
  25. Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

    • Corbin D. Jones
  26. Department of Computer Science, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

    • Jan F. Prins
  27. Department of Computer Science, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506, USA.

    • Jinze Liu &
    • Kai Wang
  28. Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

    • D. Neil Hayes
  29. Cancer Biology Division, The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21231, USA.

    • Leslie Cope,
    • Ludmila Danilova,
    • James G. Herman &
    • Stephen B. Baylin
  30. University of Southern California Epigenome Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90033, USA.

    • Daniel J. Weisenberger,
    • Dennis T. Maglinte,
    • Fei Pan,
    • David J. Van Den Berg,
    • Timothy Triche Jr,
    • Peter W. Laird,
    • Daniel Weisenberger &
    • Christopher Wilks
  31. Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA.

    • Ronglai Shen,
    • Qianxing Mo &
    • Venkatraman Seshan
  32. Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA.

    • Paul K. Paik
  33. Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

    • Rehan Akbani,
    • Nianxiang Zhang,
    • Bradley M. Broom,
    • Tod Casasent,
    • Anna Unruh,
    • Chris Wakefield,
    • Keith A. Baggerly &
    • John N. Weinstein
  34. Division of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

    • R. Craig Cason
  35. Department of Systems Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

    • John N. Weinstein
  36. Department of Biomolecular Engineering and Center for Biomolecular Science and Engineering, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California 95064, USA.

    • David Haussler,
    • Joshua M. Stuart,
    • Jingchun Zhu,
    • Christopher Szeto,
    • Sam Ng,
    • Ted Goldstein,
    • Peter Waltman,
    • Artem Sokolov,
    • Kyle Ellrott,
    • Daniel Zerbino,
    • Christopher Wilks,
    • Singer Ma,
    • Brian Craft,
    • Joshua Stuart &
    • Charles Vaske
  37. Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California 95064, USA.

    • David Haussler
  38. Buck Institute for Age Research, Novato, California 94945, USA.

    • Christopher C. Benz,
    • Gary K. Scott &
    • Christina Yau
  39. Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA

    • Eric A. Collisson &
    • Eric Collisson
  40. Department of Statistics and Operations Research, University of North Carolina Medical Center, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

    • J. S. Marron
  41. Human Genome Sequencing Center and Dan L. Duncan Cancer Center Division of Biostatistics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

    • Chad J. Creighton &
    • Yiqun Zhang
  42. Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 USA.

    • William D. Travis &
    • Natasha Rekhtman
  43. Department of Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.

    • Joanne Yi,
    • Marie C. Aubry &
    • Cristiane Ida
  44. Department of Pathology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York 14263, USA.

    • Richard Cheney,
    • Carl Morrison &
    • Carmelo Gaudioso
  45. Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA.

    • Sanja Dacic
  46. Department of Pathology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19111, USA.

    • Douglas Flieder,
    • Jeff Boyd &
    • JoEllen Weaver
  47. Department of Pathology, University of North Carolina Medical Center, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

    • William Funkhouser
  48. Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA.

    • Peter Illei
  49. Department of Pathology, Penrose-St. Francis Health System, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80907, USA.

    • Jerome Myers &
    • John Eckman
  50. Department of Pathology and Medical Biophysics, Ontario Cancer Institute and Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2MY, Canada.

    • Ming-Sound Tsao &
    • Bizhan Bandarchi-Chamkhaleh
  51. International Genomics Consortium, Phoenix, Arizona 85004, USA.

    • Robert Penny,
    • David Mallery,
    • Troy Shelton,
    • Martha Hatfield,
    • Scott Morris,
    • Peggy Yena,
    • Candace Shelton,
    • Mark Sherman,
    • Joseph Paulauskis &
    • Erin Curley
  52. Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine and The Genome Institute, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.

    • Ramaswamy Govindan,
    • Ron Bose,
    • Li-Wei Chang,
    • Li Ding &
    • Christopher A. Maher
  53. Center for Individualized Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.

    • Ijeoma Azodo,
    • Farhad Kosari,
    • Sandra Tomaszek,
    • Dennis A. Wigle,
    • Ping Yang,
    • Ijeoma A. Azodo &
    • Sandra C. Tomaszek
  54. Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.

    • David Beer
  55. The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

    • Lauren A. Byers &
    • John Heymach
  56. Departments of Hematology/Oncology and Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA.

    • David Carbone,
    • Jacob Kaufman &
    • William Pao
  57. Ontario Cancer Institute, IBM Life Sciences Discovery Centre, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada.

    • Igor Jurisica
  58. Department of Translational Genomics, University of Cologne, Cologne D-50931, Germany.

    • Martin Peifer &
    • Roman K. Thomas
  59. Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research, Cologne D-50866, Germany.

    • Martin Peifer &
    • Roman K. Thomas
  60. Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA.

    • Valerie Rusch
  61. Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15232, USA.

    • Jill Siegfried &
    • Jill M. Siegfried
  62. Department of Translational Cancer Genomics, Center of Integrated Oncology, University of Cologne, Cologne D-50924, Germany.

    • Roman K. Thomas
  63. Human Genome Sequencing Center, Baylor College of Medcine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

  64. SRA International, Fairfax, Virginia 22033, USA.

    • Mark A. Jensen,
    • Robert Sfeir,
    • Ari B. Kahn,
    • Anna L. Chu,
    • Prachi Kothiyal,
    • Zhining Wang,
    • Eric E. Snyder,
    • Joan Pontius,
    • Todd D. Pihl,
    • Brenda Ayala,
    • Mark Backus,
    • Jessica Walton,
    • Julien Baboud,
    • Dominique L. Berton,
    • Matthew C. Nicholls,
    • Deepak Srinivasan,
    • Rohini Raman,
    • Stanley Girshik,
    • Peter A. Kigonya,
    • Shelley Alonso,
    • Rashmi N. Sanbhadti,
    • Sean P. Barletta,
    • John M. Greene &
    • David A. Pot
  65. Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.

    • Marie Christine Aubry &
    • Christiane M. Ida
  66. Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905, USA.

    • Ping Yang
  67. Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 600 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA.

    • Malcolm V. Brock,
    • Kristen Rodgers &
    • Travis Brown
  68. Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 600 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA.

    • Marian Rutledge &
    • Beverly Lee
  69. Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 600 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA.

    • James Shin &
    • Dante Trusty
  70. Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA.

    • Rajiv Dhir
  71. Cureline, South San Francisco, California 94080, USA.

    • Olga Potapova &
    • Elena Nemirovich-Danchenko
  72. City Clinical Oncology Dispensary, St Petersburg 197022, Russia.

    • Konstantin V. Fedosenko
  73. Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065, USA.

    • Maureen Zakowski
  74. Helen F. Graham Cancer Center, Newark, Delaware 19713, USA.

    • Mary V. Iacocca,
    • Jennifer Brown,
    • Brenda Rabeno,
    • Christine Czerwinski &
    • Nicholas Petrelli
  75. St Joseph Medical Center, Towson, Maryland 21204, USA.

    • Zhen Fan &
    • Nicole Todaro
  76. UNC Tissue Procurement Facility, Department of Pathology, UNC Lineberger Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

    • Leigh B. Thorne,
    • Mei Huang &
    • Lori Boice
  77. Ontario Tumour Bank, Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Toronto, Ontario M5G 0A3, Canada.

    • John M. S. Bartlett,
    • Sugy Kodeeswaran &
    • Brent Zanke
  78. Ontario Tumour Bank – Ottawa site, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario K1H 8L6, Canada.

    • Harman Sekhon
  79. Indivumed GmbH, Hamburg, Falkenried 88, Haus D D-20251, Germany.

    • Kerstin David
  80. Indivumed Inc, Kensington, Maryland 20895, USA.

    • Hartmut Juhl
  81. ILSBio, LLC, Chestertown, Maryland 21620, USA.

    • Xuan Van Le,
    • Bernard Kohl &
    • Richard Thorp
  82. Ministry of Health, 138A Giang Vo Street, Hanoi, Vietnam.

    • Nguyen Viet Tien
  83. Hue Central Hospital, Hue City, 16 Le Loi, Hue, Vietnam.

    • Nguyen Van Bang &
    • Bui Duc Phu
  84. Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California 94305, USA.

    • Howard Sussman
  85. Center for Minority Health Research, University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

    • Richard Hajek
  86. National Cancer Institute, 43 Quan Su Street, Hanoi, Vietnam.

    • Nguyen Phi Hung
  87. ILSBio LLC, Chestertown, Maryland 21620, USA.

    • Khurram Z. Khan
  88. ThoraxKlinik, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg 69126, Germany.

    • Thomas Muley
  89. The Cancer Genome Atlas Program Office, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    • Kenna R. Mills Shaw,
    • Margi Sheth,
    • Liming Yang,
    • John A. Demchok &
    • Laura A. L. Dillon
  90. Center for Biomedical Informatics and Information Technology (CBIIT), National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland 20852, USA.

    • Ken Buetow,
    • Tanja Davidsen,
    • Greg Eley &
    • Carl Schaefer
  91. MLF Consulting, Arlington, Maryland 02474, USA.

    • Martin Ferguson
  92. National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

    • Mark S. Guyer,
    • Bradley A. Ozenberger,
    • Jacqueline D. Palchik,
    • Jane Peterson,
    • Heidi J. Sofia &
    • Elizabeth Thomson

Consortia

  1. The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network

  2. (Participants are arranged by area of contribution and then by institution.)

  3. Genome sequencing centres: Broad Institute

    • Peter S. Hammerman,
    • Michael S. Lawrence,
    • Douglas Voet,
    • Rui Jing,
    • Kristian Cibulskis,
    • Andrey Sivachenko,
    • Petar Stojanov,
    • Aaron McKenna,
    • Eric S. Lander,
    • Stacey Gabriel,
    • Gad Getz,
    • Carrie Sougnez,
    • Marcin Imielinski,
    • Elena Helman,
    • Bryan Hernandez,
    • Nam H. Pho &
    • Matthew Meyerson
  4. Genome characterization centres: BC Cancer Agency

    • Andy Chu,
    • Hye-Jung E. Chun,
    • Andrew J. Mungall,
    • Erin Pleasance,
    • A. Gordon Robertson,
    • Payal Sipahimalani,
    • Dominik Stoll,
    • Miruna Balasundaram,
    • Inanc Birol,
    • Yaron S. N. Butterfield,
    • Eric Chuah,
    • Robin J. N. Coope,
    • Richard Corbett,
    • Noreen Dhalla,
    • Ranabir Guin,
    • An He,
    • Carrie Hirst,
    • Martin Hirst,
    • Robert A. Holt,
    • Darlene Lee,
    • Haiyan I. Li,
    • Michael Mayo,
    • Richard A. Moore,
    • Karen Mungall,
    • Ka Ming Nip,
    • Adam Olshen,
    • Jacqueline E. Schein,
    • Jared R. Slobodan,
    • Angela Tam,
    • Nina Thiessen,
    • Richard Varhol,
    • Thomas Zeng,
    • Yongjun Zhao,
    • Steven J. M. Jones &
    • Marco A. Marra
  5. Broad Institute

    • Gordon Saksena,
    • Andrew D. Cherniack,
    • Stephen E. Schumacher,
    • Barbara Tabak,
    • Scott L. Carter,
    • Nam H. Pho,
    • Huy Nguyen,
    • Robert C. Onofrio,
    • Andrew Crenshaw,
    • Kristin Ardlie,
    • Rameen Beroukhim,
    • Wendy Winckler,
    • Peter S. Hammerman,
    • Gad Getz &
    • Matthew Meyerson
  6. Brigham & Women’s Hospital/Harvard Medical School

    • Alexei Protopopov,
    • Jianhua Zhang,
    • Angela Hadjipanayis,
    • Semin Lee,
    • Ruibin Xi,
    • Lixing Yang,
    • Xiaojia Ren,
    • Hailei Zhang,
    • Sachet Shukla,
    • Peng-Chieh Chen,
    • Psalm Haseley,
    • Eunjung Lee,
    • Lynda Chin,
    • Peter J. Park &
    • Raju Kucherlapati
  7. Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (TCGA pilot phase only)

    • Nicholas D. Socci,
    • Yupu Liang,
    • Nikolaus Schultz,
    • Laetitia Borsu,
    • Alex E. Lash,
    • Agnes Viale,
    • Chris Sander &
    • Marc Ladanyi
  8. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

    • J. Todd Auman,
    • Katherine A. Hoadley,
    • Matthew D. Wilkerson,
    • Yan Shi,
    • Christina Liquori,
    • Shaowu Meng,
    • Ling Li,
    • Yidi J. Turman,
    • Michael D. Topal,
    • Donghui Tan,
    • Scot Waring,
    • Elizabeth Buda,
    • Jesse Walsh,
    • Corbin D. Jones,
    • Piotr A. Mieczkowski,
    • Darshan Singh,
    • Junyuan Wu,
    • Anisha Gulabani,
    • Peter Dolina,
    • Tom Bodenheimer,
    • Alan P. Hoyle,
    • Janae V. Simons,
    • Matthew G. Soloway,
    • Lisle E. Mose,
    • Stuart R. Jefferys,
    • Saianand Balu,
    • Brian D. O’Connor,
    • Jan F. Prins,
    • Jinze Liu,
    • Derek Y. Chiang,
    • D. Neil Hayes &
    • Charles M. Perou
  9. University of Southern California/Johns Hopkins

    • Leslie Cope,
    • Ludmila Danilova,
    • Daniel J. Weisenberger,
    • Dennis T. Maglinte,
    • Fei Pan,
    • David J. Van Den Berg,
    • Timothy Triche Jr,
    • James G. Herman,
    • Stephen B. Baylin &
    • Peter W. Laird
  10. Genome data analysis centres: Broad Institute

    • Gad Getz,
    • Michael Noble,
    • Doug Voet,
    • Gordon Saksena,
    • Nils Gehlenborg,
    • Daniel DiCara,
    • Jinhua Zhang,
    • Hailei Zhang,
    • Chang-Jiun Wu,
    • Spring Yingchun Liu,
    • Michael S. Lawrence,
    • Lihua Zou,
    • Andrey Sivachenko,
    • Pei Lin,
    • Petar Stojanov,
    • Rui Jing,
    • Juok Cho,
    • Marc-Danie Nazaire,
    • Jim Robinson,
    • Helga Thorvaldsdottir,
    • Jill Mesirov,
    • Peter J. Park &
    • Lynda Chin
  11. Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center

    • Nikolaus Schultz,
    • Rileen Sinha,
    • Giovanni Ciriello,
    • Ethan Cerami,
    • Benjamin Gross,
    • Anders Jacobsen,
    • Jianjiong Gao,
    • B. Arman Aksoy,
    • Nils Weinhold,
    • Ricardo Ramirez,
    • Barry S. Taylor,
    • Yevgeniy Antipin,
    • Boris Reva,
    • Ronglai Shen,
    • Qianxing Mo,
    • Venkatraman Seshan,
    • Paul K. Paik,
    • Marc Ladanyi &
    • Chris Sander
  12. The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center

    • Rehan Akbani,
    • Nianxiang Zhang,
    • Bradley M. Broom,
    • Tod Casasent,
    • Anna Unruh,
    • Chris Wakefield,
    • R. Craig Cason,
    • Keith A. Baggerly &
    • John N. Weinstein
  13. University of California Santa Cruz/Buck Institute

    • David Haussler,
    • Christopher C. Benz,
    • Joshua M. Stuart,
    • Jingchun Zhu,
    • Christopher Szeto,
    • Gary K. Scott,
    • Christina Yau,
    • Sam Ng,
    • Ted Goldstein,
    • Peter Waltman,
    • Artem Sokolov,
    • Kyle Ellrott,
    • Eric A. Collisson,
    • Daniel Zerbino,
    • Christopher Wilks,
    • Singer Ma &
    • Brian Craft
  14. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

    • Matthew D. Wilkerson,
    • J. Todd Auman,
    • Katherine A. Hoadley,
    • Ying Du,
    • Christopher Cabanski,
    • Vonn Walter,
    • Darshan Singh,
    • Junyuan Wu,
    • Anisha Gulabani,
    • Tom Bodenheimer,
    • Alan P. Hoyle,
    • Janae V. Simons,
    • Matthew G. Soloway,
    • Lisle E. Mose,
    • Stuart R. Jefferys,
    • Saianand Balu,
    • J. S. Marron,
    • Yufeng Liu,
    • Kai Wang,
    • Jinze Liu,
    • Jan F. Prins,
    • D. Neil Hayes &
    • Charles M. Perou
  15. Baylor College of Medicine

    • Chad J. Creighton &
    • Yiqun Zhang
  16. Pathology committee

    • William D. Travis,
    • Natasha Rekhtman,
    • Joanne Yi,
    • Marie C. Aubry,
    • Richard Cheney,
    • Sanja Dacic,
    • Douglas Flieder,
    • William Funkhouser,
    • Peter Illei,
    • Jerome Myers &
    • Ming-Sound Tsao
  17. Biospecimen core resources: International Genomics Consortium

    • Robert Penny,
    • David Mallery,
    • Troy Shelton,
    • Martha Hatfield,
    • Scott Morris,
    • Peggy Yena,
    • Candace Shelton,
    • Mark Sherman &
    • Joseph Paulauskis
  18. Disease working group

    • Matthew Meyerson,
    • Stephen B. Baylin,
    • Ramaswamy Govindan,
    • Rehan Akbani,
    • Ijeoma Azodo,
    • David Beer,
    • Ron Bose,
    • Lauren A. Byers,
    • David Carbone,
    • Li-Wei Chang,
    • Derek Chiang,
    • Andy Chu,
    • Elizabeth Chun,
    • Eric Collisson,
    • Leslie Cope,
    • Chad J. Creighton,
    • Ludmila Danilova,
    • Li Ding,
    • Gad Getz,
    • Peter S. Hammerman,
    • D. Neil Hayes,
    • Bryan Hernandez,
    • James G. Herman,
    • John Heymach,
    • Cristiane Ida,
    • Marcin Imielinski,
    • Bruce Johnson,
    • Igor Jurisica,
    • Jacob Kaufman,
    • Farhad Kosari,
    • Raju Kucherlapati,
    • David Kwiatkowski,
    • Marc Ladanyi,
    • Michael S. Lawrence,
    • Christopher A. Maher,
    • Andy Mungall,
    • Sam Ng,
    • William Pao,
    • Martin Peifer,
    • Robert Penny,
    • Gordon Robertson,
    • Valerie Rusch,
    • Chris Sander,
    • Nikolaus Schultz,
    • Ronglai Shen,
    • Jill Siegfried,
    • Rileen Sinha,
    • Andrey Sivachenko,
    • Carrie Sougnez,
    • Dominik Stoll,
    • Joshua Stuart,
    • Roman K. Thomas,
    • Sandra Tomaszek,
    • Ming-Sound Tsao,
    • William D. Travis,
    • Charles Vaske,
    • John N. Weinstein,
    • Daniel Weisenberger,
    • Dennis A. Wigle,
    • Matthew D. Wilkerson,
    • Christopher Wilks,
    • Ping Yang &
    • Jianjua John Zhang
  19. Data coordination centre

    • Mark A. Jensen,
    • Robert Sfeir,
    • Ari B. Kahn,
    • Anna L. Chu,
    • Prachi Kothiyal,
    • Zhining Wang,
    • Eric E. Snyder,
    • Joan Pontius,
    • Todd D. Pihl,
    • Brenda Ayala,
    • Mark Backus,
    • Jessica Walton,
    • Julien Baboud,
    • Dominique L. Berton,
    • Matthew C. Nicholls,
    • Deepak Srinivasan,
    • Rohini Raman,
    • Stanley Girshik,
    • Peter A. Kigonya,
    • Shelley Alonso,
    • Rashmi N. Sanbhadti,
    • Sean P. Barletta,
    • John M. Greene &
    • David A. Pot
  20. Tissue source sites

    • Ming-Sound Tsao,
    • Bizhan Bandarchi-Chamkhaleh,
    • Jeff Boyd,
    • JoEllen Weaver,
    • Dennis A. Wigle,
    • Ijeoma A. Azodo,
    • Sandra C. Tomaszek,
    • Marie Christine Aubry,
    • Christiane M. Ida,
    • Ping Yang,
    • Farhad Kosari,
    • Malcolm V. Brock,
    • Kristen Rodgers,
    • Marian Rutledge,
    • Travis Brown,
    • Beverly Lee,
    • James Shin,
    • Dante Trusty,
    • Rajiv Dhir,
    • Jill M. Siegfried,
    • Olga Potapova,
    • Konstantin V. Fedosenko,
    • Elena Nemirovich-Danchenko,
    • Valerie Rusch,
    • Maureen Zakowski,
    • Mary V. Iacocca,
    • Jennifer Brown,
    • Brenda Rabeno,
    • Christine Czerwinski,
    • Nicholas Petrelli,
    • Zhen Fan,
    • Nicole Todaro,
    • John Eckman,
    • Jerome Myers,
    • W. Kimryn Rathmell,
    • Leigh B. Thorne,
    • Mei Huang,
    • Lori Boice,
    • Ashley Hill,
    • Robert Penny,
    • David Mallery,
    • Erin Curley,
    • Candace Shelton,
    • Peggy Yena,
    • Carl Morrison,
    • Carmelo Gaudioso,
    • John M. S. Bartlett,
    • Sugy Kodeeswaran,
    • Brent Zanke,
    • Harman Sekhon,
    • Kerstin David,
    • Hartmut Juhl,
    • Xuan Van Le,
    • Bernard Kohl,
    • Richard Thorp,
    • Nguyen Viet Tien,
    • Nguyen Van Bang,
    • Howard Sussman,
    • Bui Duc Phu,
    • Richard Hajek,
    • Nguyen Phi Hung,
    • Khurram Z. Khan &
    • Thomas Muley
  21. Project team: National Cancer Institute

    • Kenna R. Mills Shaw,
    • Margi Sheth,
    • Liming Yang,
    • Ken Buetow,
    • Tanja Davidsen,
    • John A. Demchok,
    • Greg Eley,
    • Martin Ferguson,
    • Laura A. L. Dillon &
    • Carl Schaefer
  22. National Human Genome Research Institute

    • Mark S. Guyer,
    • Bradley A. Ozenberger,
    • Jacqueline D. Palchik,
    • Jane Peterson,
    • Heidi J. Sofia &
    • Elizabeth Thomson
  23. Writing committee

    • Peter S. Hammerman,
    • D. Neil Hayes,
    • Matthew D. Wilkerson,
    • Nikolaus Schultz,
    • Ron Bose,
    • Andy Chu,
    • Eric A. Collisson,
    • Leslie Cope,
    • Chad J. Creighton,
    • Gad Getz,
    • James G. Herman,
    • Bruce E. Johnson,
    • Raju Kucherlapati,
    • Marc Ladanyi,
    • Christopher A. Maher,
    • Gordon Robertson,
    • Chris Sander,
    • Ronglai Shen,
    • Rileen Sinha,
    • Andrey Sivachenko,
    • Roman K. Thomas,
    • William D. Travis,
    • Ming-Sound Tsao,
    • John N. Weinstein,
    • Dennis A. Wigle,
    • Stephen B. Baylin,
    • Ramaswamy Govindan &
    • Matthew Meyerson

Contributions

The TCGA research network contributed collectively to this study. Biospecimens were provided by the tissue source sites and processed by the biospecimen core resource. Data generation and analyses were performed by the genome sequencing centres, cancer genome characterization centres and genome data analysis centres. All data were released through the data coordinating centre. Project activities were coordinated by the National Cancer Institute and National Human Genome Research Institute project teams. We also acknowledge the following TCGA investigators who made substantial contributions to the project: P.S.H. and D.N.H. (manuscript coordinators); M.D.W. (data coordinator); P.S.H. and N.S. (analysis coordinators); P.S.H., M.S.L., A. Sivachecnko, B.H. and G.G. (DNA sequence analysis); M.D.W., J.L. and D.N.H. (mRNA sequence analysis); L.Cope, J.G.H. and L.Danilova (DNA methylation analysis); A.C., G.S., N.H.P., R.K. and M.L. (copy number analysis); N.S., R. Bose, C.J.C., R. Sinha, C.M., S.N., E.A.C., R.Shen, J.N.W. and C.Sander (pathway analysis); A.C. and G.R. (miRNA sequence analysis); W.D.T., B.E.J., D.A.W. and M.-S.T. (pathology and clinical expertise); S.B.B., R.Govindan and M.Meyerson (project chairs).

Competing financial interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to:

The primary and processed data used to generate the analyses presented here can be downloaded by registered users fromThe Cancer Genome Atlas (https://tcga-data.nci.nih.gov/tcga/tcgaDownload.jsp, https://cghub.ucsc.edu/ and https://tcga-data.nci.nih.gov/docs/publications/lusc_2012/).

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    1. Supplementary Information (16.4M)

      This file contains Supplementary Methods 1-8, which includes Supplementary Figures and Tables and additional references (see Supplementary Information file pages 1-2 for details).

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    1. Supplementary Data (8.8M)

      This zipped file contains Supplementary Data files 2.1, 2.2, 3.1, 3.2, 4.1, 4.2 , 6.1, 6.2, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3 (Supplementary table to support figure 5A_Bose_02 23 2012), 7.4 and 7.5 (see Supplementary Information file for details).

    Comments

    1. Report this comment #52091

      rossi andrea said:

      Targeted agents against squamous cell carcinomas

      Andrea Cariati, MD
      Department of General Surgery, San Martino, IST, University Hospital, Genoa, Italy

      Correspondence to
      Andrea Cariati, MD
      Via Fratelli Coda 67/5 A
      CAP 16166- Genoa, Italy
      Tel -39-0103724909
      E mail: andrea.cariati@libero.it

      Dear Editor,
      we read with interest the article of The Cancer Genoma Atlas Research Network, on the genomic characterization of squamous-cell lung cancers published on Nature 2012; 489 (1).
      In fact, also among biliary tract cancers there are different histological subgroups as squamous-cell and adeno-squamous-cell carcinomas of the gallbladder, that represent almost the 15% of all gallbladder cancers, and adenocarcinomas (2). Adenocarcinomas have been treated with promising results with gemcitabine, cisplatinum (3) or with gemcitabine and capecitabine (4) or gemcitabine and erlotinib (5). On the contrary, squamous cell carcinomas of the gallbladder seems to be more aggressive and less sensible to these therapeutic agents (6, 7). Chemotherapeutics have different targets. Gemcitabine act at three levels: it is a nucleotide analogue that replace one of the building block of the nuclei acid during DNA replication; it inactivates the enzyme ribonucleotide reductase and it promotes EGFR fosforilation, internalization into endosomes and degradation by lysosome; moreover it down-regulates the PI3K-PTEN-Akt pathway and so it can restore the sensibility of the EGFR to Erlotinib. Erlotinib is a short-term EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Long-term EGFR suppression can be induced by monoclonal antibodies. These drugs could be tested with promising results among patients affected by gallbladder adenocarcinomas with EGFR overexpression and KRAS mutation on codon 12. Recently several studies on chemotherapy among biliary tract cancers patients reported discordant data probably because the same drugs have been administrated to adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma patients without a preventive histological and biological markers stratification (3, 4, 5, 6, 7). The review of these data suggest us that squamous-cell and adeno-squamous-cell carcinomas of the gallbladder necessitate a different and specific targeted therapy respect to gallbladder adenocarcinoma (6) as it happens for squamous-cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the lung. In conclusion, further studies on DNA and on mRNA of squamous-cell and adeno-squamous-cell-carcinomas of the gallbladder could be necessary in order to find potential therapeutic targets also for these aggressive tumors similarly to the genomic characterization of squamous-cell lung cancer that found five potential targets: PTEN, FGFR1, EGFR, PIDGFRA and KIT (1).

      References
      1)The Cancer Genome Atlas research Network. Comprehensive genomic characterization of squamous-cell lung cancers. Nature 2012; 489: 519-525.
      2) Cariati A, Cetta F. Squamous-cell and non-squamous-cell carcinomas of the gallbladder have different risk factors. Lancet Oncol 2003; 4: 393-394
      3) Valle J, Wasan H, Palmer DH, et al. Cisplatin plus gemcitabine versus gemcitabine for biliary tract cancer. N Engl J Med 2010; 362: 1273-1281
      4) Santini D, Virzi V, Vasile E, et al. A Phase II trial of fixed-dose rate gemcitabine plus capecitabine in metastatic/advanced biliary tract cancer patients. Oncology 2012; 82: 75-82
      5) Lee J, Park SH, Chang H-M, et al. Gemcitabine and oxaliplatin with or without erlotinib in advanced biliary-tract cancer: a multicenter, open-label, randomized, phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol 2012; 13: 181-188
      6) Cariati A, Piromalli E. Chemotherapy and histological stratification of biliary tract cancers. Oncology 2012, doi: 10.1159/000338660
      7) Cariati A. Cisplatinum plus gemcitabine for biliary tract cancer. N Engl J Med 2010; 363: 192

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