Table of Contents

Japanese Table of Contents

Volume 489 Number 7416 pp335-466

20 September 2012

About the cover

High-resolution maps of genome-wide gene expression have been available for mice for a few years, but only relatively coarse equivalents have been published for the human brain because of the challenges presented by the 1,000-fold increase in size and the limited availability and quality of postmortem tissue. Now Michael Hawrylycz and colleagues at the Allen Institute for Brain Science in Seattle, Washington, have used laser microdissection and microarrays to assess 900 precise subdivisions in brains from two healthy men with 60,000 gene-expression probes. The resulting atlas, freely available at, allows comparisons between humans and other animals, and will facilitate studies of human neurological and psychiatric diseases. One early observation from the data is a human-specific pattern — compared with the mouse and rhesus monkey — for the calcium-binding protein CALB1 in the hippocampus. Cover image: Benjamin Facer & Josh Royall/Allen Institute for Brain Science.

This Week


  • Through the gaps

    A 20-year campaign of scientific fraud says as much about the research community as it does about the perpetrator. The system that allowed such deception to continue must be reformed.

  • Extreme weather

    Better models are needed before exceptional events can be reliably linked to global warming.

  • Return to sender

    The bid to halt air transport of lab animals poses an imminent threat to biomedical research.

World View


Seven Days

  • Seven days: 14–20 September 2012

    The week in science: Japan to phase out nuclear power by 2030s, BGI buys into Complete Genomics, and archaeologists claim to have found the skeleton of English king Richard III.

News in Focus


  • Forest fires: Burn out

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    Forests in the American west are under attack from giant fires, climate change and insect outbreaks. Some ecosystems will never be the same.

    • Michelle Nijhuis
  • Neuroscience: Idle minds

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    Neuroscientists are trying to work out why the brain does so much when it seems to be doing nothing at all.

    • Kerri Smith


Books and Arts

  • Military Science: The USSR's deadly secret

    Tim Trevan weighs up an authoritative take on the Soviet Union's vast, covert and costly bioweapons programme.

    • Review of The Soviet Biological Weapons Program: A History
      Milton Leitenberg and Raymond A Zilinskas
  • Q&A: Collision creator

    Julius von Bismarck is the first artist in residence at the particle-physics laboratory CERN, near Geneva in Switzerland. As he prepares to give the final lecture of his residency, he talks about whipping mountains, hacking photographs and digging into the history of invention.





  • Postdocs: A voice for the voiceless

    In its first ten years, the US National Postdoctoral Association has helped to raise the profile of postdocs. But championing their cause still presents challenges.

    • Karen Kaplan



naturejobs job listings and advertising features


  • Without

    A powerful letter.

    • Fran Wilde


Brief Communications Arising



  • Bose glass and Mott glass of quasiparticles in a doped quantum magnet

    • Rong Yu
    • Liang Yin
    • Neil S. Sullivan
    • J. S. Xia
    • Chao Huan
    • Armando Paduan-Filho
    • Nei F. Oliveira Jr
    • Stephan Haas
    • Alexander Steppke
    • Corneliu F. Miclea
    • Franziska Weickert
    • Roman Movshovich
    • Eun-Deok Mun
    • Brian L. Scott
    • Vivien S. Zapf
    • Tommaso Roscilde

    Magnetic quasiparticles in a doped quantum magnet are shown to be well suited for realizing and exploring the ‘glassy’ states that are predicted to emerge for interacting bosons in the presence of disorder.

  • Autistic-like behaviour in Scn1a+/− mice and rescue by enhanced GABA-mediated neurotransmission

    • Sung Han
    • Chao Tai
    • Ruth E. Westenbroek
    • Frank H. Yu
    • Christine S. Cheah
    • Gregory B. Potter
    • John L. Rubenstein
    • Todd Scheuer
    • Horacio O. de la Iglesia
    • William A. Catterall

    Haploinsufficiency of the gene SCN1A (SCN1A+/−) causes Dravet’s syndrome in humans, a form of epilepsy with autistic features; this paper shows that Scn1a+/− mice have the same symptoms, and that social behaviours can be improved by pharmacological treatment with clonazepam.

  • An anatomically comprehensive atlas of the adult human brain transcriptome

    • Michael J. Hawrylycz
    • Ed S. Lein
    • Angela L. Guillozet-Bongaarts
    • Elaine H. Shen
    • Lydia Ng
    • Jeremy A. Miller
    • Louie N. van de Lagemaat
    • Kimberly A. Smith
    • Amanda Ebbert
    • Zackery L. Riley
    • Chris Abajian
    • Christian F. Beckmann
    • Amy Bernard
    • Darren Bertagnolli
    • Andrew F. Boe
    • Preston M. Cartagena
    • M. Mallar Chakravarty
    • Mike Chapin
    • Jimmy Chong
    • Rachel A. Dalley
    • Barry David Daly
    • Chinh Dang
    • Suvro Datta
    • Nick Dee
    • Tim A. Dolbeare
    • Vance Faber
    • David Feng
    • David R. Fowler
    • Jeff Goldy
    • Benjamin W. Gregor
    • Zeb Haradon
    • David R. Haynor
    • John G. Hohmann
    • Steve Horvath
    • Robert E. Howard
    • Andreas Jeromin
    • Jayson M. Jochim
    • Marty Kinnunen
    • Christopher Lau
    • Evan T. Lazarz
    • Changkyu Lee
    • Tracy A. Lemon
    • Ling Li
    • Yang Li
    • John A. Morris
    • Caroline C. Overly
    • Patrick D. Parker
    • Sheana E. Parry
    • Melissa Reding
    • Joshua J. Royall
    • Jay Schulkin
    • Pedro Adolfo Sequeira
    • Clifford R. Slaughterbeck
    • Simon C. Smith
    • Andy J. Sodt
    • Susan M. Sunkin
    • Beryl E. Swanson
    • Marquis P. Vawter
    • Derric Williams
    • Paul Wohnoutka
    • H. Ronald Zielke
    • Daniel H. Geschwind
    • Patrick R. Hof
    • Stephen M. Smith
    • Christof Koch
    • Seth G. N. Grant
    • Allan R. Jones

    Laser microdissection and microarrays are used to assess 900 precise subdivisions of the brains from three healthy men with 60,000 gene expression probes; the resulting atlas allows comparisons between humans and other animals, and will facilitate studies of human neurological and psychiatric diseases.

  • Structural plasticity and dynamic selectivity of acid-sensing ion channel–spider toxin complexes

    • Isabelle Baconguis
    • Eric Gouaux

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are voltage-independent ion channels that participate in a broad range of biological processes, including nociception and mechanosensation; here X-ray crystal structures of the complexes of chicken ASIC1a with psalmotoxin, a peptide toxin from tarantula, indicate that toxin binding triggers an expansion of the extracellular vestibule and stabilization of the open channel pore.


  • A magnified young galaxy from about 500 million years after the Big Bang

    • Wei Zheng
    • Marc Postman
    • Adi Zitrin
    • John Moustakas
    • Xinwen Shu
    • Stephanie Jouvel
    • Ole Høst
    • Alberto Molino
    • Larry Bradley
    • Dan Coe
    • Leonidas A. Moustakas
    • Mauricio Carrasco
    • Holland Ford
    • Narciso Benítez
    • Tod R. Lauer
    • Stella Seitz
    • Rychard Bouwens
    • Anton Koekemoer
    • Elinor Medezinski
    • Matthias Bartelmann
    • Tom Broadhurst
    • Megan Donahue
    • Claudio Grillo
    • Leopoldo Infante
    • Saurabh W. Jha
    • Daniel D. Kelson
    • Ofer Lahav
    • Doron Lemze
    • Peter Melchior
    • Massimo Meneghetti
    • Julian Merten
    • Mario Nonino
    • Sara Ogaz
    • Piero Rosati
    • Keiichi Umetsu
    • Arjen van der Wel

    Gravitationally magnified images of a faint galaxy from only 500 million years after the Big Bang suggest that galaxies of that age may be the dominant source of the radiation responsible for the re-ionization of the intergalactic medium.

    See also
  • Pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy powered by a free-electron laser

    • S. Takahashi
    • L.-C. Brunel
    • D. T. Edwards
    • J. van Tol
    • G. Ramian
    • S. Han
    • M. S. Sherwin

    A free-electron laser is used to power a pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer at 240 GHz, demonstrating a range of experimental possibilities such as the manipulation of spin-1/2 systems with 6-ns pulses and the measurement of ultrashort decoherence times.

  • High-performance bulk thermoelectrics with all-scale hierarchical architectures

    • Kanishka Biswas
    • Jiaqing He
    • Ivan D. Blum
    • Chun-I Wu
    • Timothy P. Hogan
    • David N. Seidman
    • Vinayak P. Dravid
    • Mercouri G. Kanatzidis

    Controlling the structure of thermoelectric materials on all length scales (atomic, nanoscale and mesoscale) relevant for phonon scattering makes it possible to increase the dimensionless figure of merit to more than two, which could allow for the recovery of a significant fraction of waste heat with which to produce electricity.

    See also
  • Oceanic nitrogen reservoir regulated by plankton diversity and ocean circulation

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    • Curtis Deutsch

    Here, the feedback between marine nitrogen fixation and denitrification is shown to yield an oceanic nitrate deficit more than double its observed value in a model with realistic ocean circulation; this discrepancy can be resolved by accounting for diversity in the metabolic N:P requirements of plankton.

  • Afternoon rain more likely over drier soils

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    • Richard A. M. de Jeu
    • Françoise Guichard
    • Phil P. Harris
    • Wouter A. Dorigo

    Analysis of observations on six continents reveals a global preference for afternoon rain to fall on locally drier soils—contrary to the predictions of large-scale climate models, and suggesting that such models may exaggerate the occurrence of droughts.

  • Spontaneous giving and calculated greed

    • David G. Rand
    • Joshua D. Greene
    • Martin A. Nowak

    Economic games are used to investigate the cognitive mechanisms underlying cooperative behaviour, and show that intuition supports cooperation in social dilemmas, whereas reflection can undermine these cooperative impulses.

    See also
  • Sex-specific volatile compounds influence microarthropod-mediated fertilization of moss

    • Todd N. Rosenstiel
    • Erin E. Shortlidge
    • Andrea N. Melnychenko
    • James F. Pankow
    • Sarah M. Eppley

    Volatile scents of moss Ceratodon purpureus show sex-specific differences and are similar in chemical diversity to those of plant–insect pollination mutualisms; and moss-dwelling microarthropods, whose presence increases C. purpureus fertilization rates, prefer scents of reproductive female C. purpureus to reproductive males, indicating a scent-based ‘plant–pollinator-like’ relationship between mosses and microarthropods.

  • Attention deficits without cortical neuronal deficits

    • Alexandre Zénon
    • Richard J. Krauzlis

    Transient inactivation of the superior colliculus in primates during a motion-change-detection task is shown to lead to large deficits in visual attention while the enhanced response of neurons in the visual cortex to attended stimuli remains unchanged; this shows that processes independent of those occurring in the visual cortex have key roles in visual attention.

    See also
  • Genome-wide association study indicates two novel resistance loci for severe malaria

    • Christian Timmann
    • Thorsten Thye
    • Maren Vens
    • Jennifer Evans
    • Jürgen May
    • Christa Ehmen
    • Jürgen Sievertsen
    • Birgit Muntau
    • Gerd Ruge
    • Wibke Loag
    • Daniel Ansong
    • Sampson Antwi
    • Emanuel Asafo-Adjei
    • Samuel Blay Nguah
    • Kingsley Osei Kwakye
    • Alex Osei Yaw Akoto
    • Justice Sylverken
    • Michael Brendel
    • Kathrin Schuldt
    • Christina Loley
    • Andre Franke
    • Christian G. Meyer
    • Tsiri Agbenyega
    • Andreas Ziegler
    • Rolf D. Horstmann

    A genome-wide association study in Ghana, West Africa, to identify genetic variants associated with malaria pathogenesis reveals two previously unknown loci on chromosomes 1 and 16.

  • A nuclear Argonaute promotes multigenerational epigenetic inheritance and germline immortality

    • Bethany A. Buckley
    • Kirk B. Burkhart
    • Sam Guoping Gu
    • George Spracklin
    • Aaron Kershner
    • Heidi Fritz
    • Judith Kimble
    • Andrew Fire
    • Scott Kennedy

    Double-stranded RNA interference (RNAi) in Caenorhabditis elegans is heritable; here a genetic screen for factors required for RNAi inheritance identifies the nuclear-localized Argonaute gene hrde-1, which acts in the germ cells of progeny to promote multigenerational inheritance of silencing and, also, germline immortality.

  • Set2 methylation of histone H3 lysine 36 suppresses histone exchange on transcribed genes

    • Swaminathan Venkatesh
    • Michaela Smolle
    • Hua Li
    • Madelaine M. Gogol
    • Malika Saint
    • Shambhu Kumar
    • Krishnamurthy Natarajan
    • Jerry L. Workman

    In yeast, histone H3 lysine36 methylation can suppress the incorporation of acetylated histones by inhibiting histone exchange in transcribed genes, thus preventing spurious cryptic transcripts from initiating within open reading frames.

  • Structure of the haptoglobin–haemoglobin complex

    • Christian Brix Folsted Andersen
    • Morten Torvund-Jensen
    • Marianne Jensby Nielsen
    • Cristiano Luis Pinto de Oliveira
    • Hans-Petter Hersleth
    • Niels Højmark Andersen
    • Jan Skov Pedersen
    • Gregers Rom Andersen
    • Søren Kragh Moestrup

    This study reports the crystal structure of porcine haptoglobin in complex with haemoglobin at 2.9Åresolution; this provides a structural basis of haptoglobin-mediated recognition of haemoglobin, and insight into the protective role of haptoglobin at the atomic level.