Table of Contents

Japanese Table of Contents

Volume 482 Number 7384 pp131-268

9 February 2012

About the cover

Hundreds of extrasolar planets have been found since the first confirmed discoveries in the mid-1990s. Many of them are large 'hot Jupiters', but steady improvements in observational capabilities have brought physicists closer to detecting smaller Earth-sized bodies, and now, the planet-hunting space observatory Kepler has discovered two in orbit around the Sun-like star Kepler-20. Planet Kepler-20 f has a radius almost identical to that of Earth, and Kepler-20 e is slightly smaller, at 0.87 times Earth's radius. The radii of the planets and the architecture of the system — at least three larger planets orbit the host star — suggest that the Earth-sized planets are rocky, and that the outer planet (Kepler-20 f) may have developed a thick atmosphere of water vapour.

This Week


  • Facing up to flu

    The potential for mutant-flu research to improve public health any time soon has been exaggerated. Timely production of sufficient vaccine remains the biggest challenge.

  • Gas and air

    Natural-gas operations could leak enough methane to tarnish their clean image.

  • Hypocritical oaths

    History judges some research as unethical, despite approval at the time.

World View


Seven Days

  • Seven days: 3–9 February 2012

    The week in science: hope for drilling breakthrough to Antarctic lake; AstraZeneca’s neuroscience cuts; and how land-grabs threaten Africa’s sustainable development.

News in Focus


  • Human experiments: First, do harm

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    In the 1940s, US doctors deliberately infected thousands of Guatemalans with venereal diseases. The wound is still raw.

    • Matthew Walter


Books and Arts

  • Primate cognition: Copy that

    The past decade has seen a revolution in our perception of primates' social brains, says Christian Keysers.

    • Review of The Primate Mind: Built to Connect With Other Minds
      Frans B. M. De Waal & Pier Francesco Ferrari
  • History: Impractical magic

    A biography of alchemist John Dee sidesteps his impact on science, suggests Philip Ball.

    • Review of The Arch Conjuror of England: John Dee
      Glyn Parry





  • Friend or foe?

    It is difficult to balance the benefits of collaboration and competition, argues Lydia Murray.

    • Lydia Murray

naturejobs job listings and advertising features



Technology Feature




  • The Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel

    • Trudy F. C. Mackay
    • Stephen Richards
    • Eric A. Stone
    • Antonio Barbadilla
    • Julien F. Ayroles
    • Dianhui Zhu
    • Sònia Casillas
    • Yi Han
    • Michael M. Magwire
    • Julie M. Cridland
    • Mark F. Richardson
    • Robert R. H. Anholt
    • Maite Barrón
    • Crystal Bess
    • Kerstin Petra Blankenburg
    • Mary Anna Carbone
    • David Castellano
    • Lesley Chaboub
    • Laura Duncan
    • Zeke Harris
    • Mehwish Javaid
    • Joy Christina Jayaseelan
    • Shalini N. Jhangiani
    • Katherine W. Jordan
    • Fremiet Lara
    • Faye Lawrence
    • Sandra L. Lee
    • Pablo Librado
    • Raquel S. Linheiro
    • Richard F. Lyman
    • Aaron J. Mackey
    • Mala Munidasa
    • Donna Marie Muzny
    • Lynne Nazareth
    • Irene Newsham
    • Lora Perales
    • Ling-Ling Pu
    • Carson Qu
    • Miquel Ràmia
    • Jeffrey G. Reid
    • Stephanie M. Rollmann
    • Julio Rozas
    • Nehad Saada
    • Lavanya Turlapati
    • Kim C. Worley
    • Yuan-Qing Wu
    • Akihiko Yamamoto
    • Yiming Zhu
    • Casey M. Bergman
    • Kevin R. Thornton
    • David Mittelman
    • Richard A. Gibbs

    A new resource for the analysis of population genomics and quantitative traits, the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel is presented.

  • Inflammasome-mediated dysbiosis regulates progression of NAFLD and obesity

    • Jorge Henao-Mejia
    • Eran Elinav
    • Chengcheng Jin
    • Liming Hao
    • Wajahat Z. Mehal
    • Till Strowig
    • Christoph A. Thaiss
    • Andrew L. Kau
    • Stephanie C. Eisenbarth
    • Michael J. Jurczak
    • Joao-Paulo Camporez
    • Gerald I. Shulman
    • Jeffrey I. Gordon
    • Hal M. Hoffman
    • Richard A. Flavell

    An expansion of Porphyromonadaceae in the gut is linked to the pathogenesis and progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in the mouse.


  • A tidally distorted dwarf galaxy near NGC 4449

    • R. M. Rich
    • M. L. M. Collins
    • C. M. Black
    • F. A. Longstaff
    • A. Koch
    • A. Benson
    • D. B. Reitzel

    A dwarf galaxy companion to NGC 4449 is reported, and is found to be in a transient stage of tidal disruption.

  • Two Earth-sized planets orbiting Kepler-20

    • Francois Fressin
    • Guillermo Torres
    • Jason F. Rowe
    • David Charbonneau
    • Leslie A. Rogers
    • Sarah Ballard
    • Natalie M. Batalha
    • William J. Borucki
    • Stephen T. Bryson
    • Lars A. Buchhave
    • David R. Ciardi
    • Jean-Michel Désert
    • Courtney D. Dressing
    • Daniel C. Fabrycky
    • Eric B. Ford
    • Thomas N. Gautier III
    • Christopher E. Henze
    • Matthew J. Holman
    • Andrew Howard
    • Steve B. Howell
    • Jon M. Jenkins
    • David G. Koch
    • David W. Latham
    • Jack J. Lissauer
    • Geoffrey W. Marcy
    • Samuel N. Quinn
    • Darin Ragozzine
    • Dimitar D. Sasselov
    • Sara Seager
    • Thomas Barclay
    • Fergal Mullally
    • Shawn E. Seader
    • Martin Still
    • Joseph D. Twicken
    • Susan E. Thompson
    • Kamal Uddin

    Two exoplanets of Earth’s size have been discovered in orbit around the star Kepler-20.

    See also
  • Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers

    • M. Khajavikhan
    • A. Simic
    • M. Katz
    • J. H. Lee
    • B. Slutsky
    • A. Mizrahi
    • V. Lomakin
    • Y. Fainman

    A new family of resonators for nanoscale lasers is described that allows the size of the laser cavity to be scaled down without increasing the threshold power required to drive lasing.

  • Supercontinent cycles and the calculation of absolute palaeolongitude in deep time

    • Ross N. Mitchell
    • Taylor M. Kilian
    • David A. D. Evans

    To determine the geometric pattern of the supercontinent cycle, a new ‘orthoversion’ model is suggested that matches the geologic evidence better than the traditional ‘introversion’ and ‘extroversion’ models, enabling the calculation of absolute palaeolongitude for the early Earth.

  • Genetic contributions to stability and change in intelligence from childhood to old age

    • Ian J. Deary
    • Jian Yang
    • Gail Davies
    • Sarah E. Harris
    • Albert Tenesa
    • David Liewald
    • Michelle Luciano
    • Lorna M. Lopez
    • Alan J. Gow
    • Janie Corley
    • Paul Redmond
    • Helen C. Fox
    • Suzanne J. Rowe
    • Paul Haggarty
    • Geraldine McNeill
    • Michael E. Goddard
    • David J. Porteous
    • Lawrence J. Whalley
    • John M. Starr
    • Peter M. Visscher

    Using a unique and rich data set of lifetime cognitive measures, the contribution of genetics to differences in cognitive ageing is explored.

    See also
  • Probing sporadic and familial Alzheimer’s disease using induced pluripotent stem cells

    • Mason A. Israel
    • Shauna H. Yuan
    • Cedric Bardy
    • Sol M. Reyna
    • Yangling Mu
    • Cheryl Herrera
    • Michael P. Hefferan
    • Sebastiaan Van Gorp
    • Kristopher L. Nazor
    • Francesca S. Boscolo
    • Christian T. Carson
    • Louise C. Laurent
    • Martin Marsala
    • Fred H. Gage
    • Anne M. Remes
    • Edward H. Koo
    • Lawrence S. B. Goldstein

    Induced pluripotent stem cells are shown to be useful for studying phenotypes relevant to familial and sporadic Alzheimer’s disease, even though it can take decades for the disease to manifest in patients.

  • Enhancer decommissioning by LSD1 during embryonic stem cell differentiation

    • Warren A. Whyte
    • Steve Bilodeau
    • David A. Orlando
    • Heather A. Hoke
    • Garrett M. Frampton
    • Charles T. Foster
    • Shaun M. Cowley
    • Richard A. Young

    In embryonic stem cells, the histone demethylase LSD1 occupies the enhancers of active genes and, together with the NuRD complex, decommissions the enhancers during differentiation.

  • Driver mutations in histone H3.3 and chromatin remodelling genes in paediatric glioblastoma

    • Jeremy Schwartzentruber
    • Andrey Korshunov
    • Xiao-Yang Liu
    • David T. W. Jones
    • Elke Pfaff
    • Karine Jacob
    • Dominik Sturm
    • Adam M. Fontebasso
    • Dong-Anh Khuong Quang
    • Martje Tönjes
    • Volker Hovestadt
    • Steffen Albrecht
    • Marcel Kool
    • Andre Nantel
    • Carolin Konermann
    • Anders Lindroth
    • Natalie Jäger
    • Tobias Rausch
    • Marina Ryzhova
    • Jan O. Korbel
    • Thomas Hielscher
    • Peter Hauser
    • Miklos Garami
    • Almos Klekner
    • Laszlo Bognar
    • Martin Ebinger
    • Martin U. Schuhmann
    • Wolfram Scheurlen
    • Arnulf Pekrun
    • Michael C. Frühwald
    • Wolfgang Roggendorf
    • Christoph Kramm
    • Matthias Dürken
    • Jeffrey Atkinson
    • Pierre Lepage
    • Alexandre Montpetit
    • Magdalena Zakrzewska
    • Krzystof Zakrzewski
    • Pawel P. Liberski
    • Zhifeng Dong
    • Peter Siegel
    • Andreas E. Kulozik
    • Marc Zapatka
    • Abhijit Guha
    • David Malkin
    • Jörg Felsberg
    • Guido Reifenberger
    • Andreas von Deimling
    • Koichi Ichimura
    • V. Peter Collins
    • Hendrik Witt
    • Till Milde
    • Olaf Witt
    • Cindy Zhang
    • Pedro Castelo-Branco
    • Peter Lichter
    • Damien Faury
    • Uri Tabori
    • Christoph Plass
    • Jacek Majewski
    • Stefan M. Pfister
    • Nada Jabado

    Recurrent histone mutations are linked to paediatric glioblastoma multiforme, an aggressive type of brain tumour.

  • High-throughput decoding of antitrypanosomal drug efficacy and resistance

    • Sam Alsford
    • Sabine Eckert
    • Nicola Baker
    • Lucy Glover
    • Alejandro Sanchez-Flores
    • Ka Fai Leung
    • Daniel J. Turner
    • Mark C. Field
    • Matthew Berriman
    • David Horn

    Five current human African trypanosomiasis drugs are used for genome-scale RNA interference target sequencing screens in Trypanosoma brucei, and reveal the transporters, organelles, enzymes and metabolic pathways that function to facilitate antitrypanosomal drug action.

    See also
  • G-protein-coupled receptor inactivation by an allosteric inverse-agonist antibody

    • Tomoya Hino
    • Takatoshi Arakawa
    • Hiroko Iwanari
    • Takami Yurugi-Kobayashi
    • Chiyo Ikeda-Suno
    • Yoshiko Nakada-Nakura
    • Osamu Kusano-Arai
    • Simone Weyand
    • Tatsuro Shimamura
    • Norimichi Nomura
    • Alexander D. Cameron
    • Takuya Kobayashi
    • Takao Hamakubo
    • So Iwata
    • Takeshi Murata

    Determination of the crystal structure of the human A2A adenosine receptor in complex with an inverse-agonist antibody shows that the allosteric site of the receptor inhibits agonist binding and that the antibody locks the receptor in an inactive conformation.

  • Gated regulation of CRAC channel ion selectivity by STIM1

    • Beth A. McNally
    • Agila Somasundaram
    • Megumi Yamashita
    • Murali Prakriya

    STIM1-mediated gating of CRAC channels occurs through a mechanism in which ion selectivity and gating are closely coupled, and the residue V102 is identified as a candidate for the channel gate.

  • Functional dissection of lysine deacetylases reveals that HDAC1 and p300 regulate AMPK

    • Yu-yi Lin
    • Samara Kiihl
    • Yasir Suhail
    • Shang-Yun Liu
    • Yi-hsuan Chou
    • Zheng Kuang
    • Jin-ying Lu
    • Chin Ni Khor
    • Chi-Long Lin
    • Joel S. Bader
    • Rafael Irizarry
    • Jef D. Boeke

    Genetic interaction profiles of human lysine deacetylases are generated by RNA interference knockdown to reveal the involvement of deacetylases in many critical biological processes, including metabolism, the cell cycle and development.