Nature 460, 339-344 (16 July 2009) | doi:10.1038/nature08188

Primate archaeology

See associated Correspondence: Dempsey, Nature 461, 341 (September 2009)

Michael Haslam1, Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar1, Victoria Ling1, Susana Carvalho1, Ignacio de la Torre2, April DeStefano3, Andrew Du3, Bruce Hardy4, Jack Harris3, Linda Marchant5, Tetsuro Matsuzawa6, William McGrew1, Julio Mercader7, Rafael Mora8, Michael Petraglia1, Hélène Roche9, Elisabetta Visalberghi10 & Rebecca Warren4

All modern humans use tools to overcome limitations of our anatomy and to make difficult tasks easier. However, if tool use is such an advantage, we may ask why it is not evolved to the same degree in other species. To answer this question, we need to bring a long-term perspective to the material record of other members of our own order, the Primates.

  1. Leverhulme Centre for Human Evolutionary Studies, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QH, UK
  2. Institute of Archaeology, University College London, London WC1H 0PY, UK
  3. Department of Anthropology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08901, USA
  4. Department of Anthropology, Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio 43022, USA
  5. Department of Anthropology, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio 45056, USA
  6. Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Inuyama, Aichi 484-8506, Japan
  7. Department of Archaeology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada
  8. Division de Prehistoria, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona 08193, Spain
  9. Maison de l'Archéologie et de l'Ethnologie, CNRS, Paris 92023, France
  10. Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie della Cognizione, Rome 00197, Italy

Correspondence to: Michael Haslam1 Correspondence should be addressed to M.H. (Email:


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