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Editorials

Time for a concerted nuclear approach p549

Nuclear non-proliferation's moment has come. Scientists must help governments to seize a historic opportunity to avoid future apocalypses.

doi:10.1038/458549a


Clicking on a new chapter p549

The e-textbook is only one part of a bigger revolution in online learning.

doi:10.1038/458549b


A bill against rights p550

Italy's Senate has approved a bill that ignores patients' wishes and the country's own constitution.

doi:10.1038/458550a


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Research Highlights

Behavioural science: School soundings p552

doi:10.1038/458552a


Mitochondrial genomics: Bloody anomaly p552

doi:10.1038/458552b


Mechanochemistry: Tug of war p552

doi:10.1038/458552c


Tribology: Brushing problems aside p552

doi:10.1038/458552d


Astronomy: Slow revolution p552

doi:10.1038/458552e


Marine biology: Deep-sea Methuselahs p553

doi:10.1038/458553a


Chemistry: Chemical scissors p553

doi:10.1038/458553b


Climate change: Much travelled dust p553

doi:10.1038/458553c


Ecology: Saving songbirds p553

doi:10.1038/458553d


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Journal Club

Journal club p553

Anthony J. Ryan

doi:10.1038/458553e


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News

Viral outbreak in China tests government efforts p554

Researchers call for greater focus on surveillance and genomics.

Jane Qiu

doi:10.1038/458554a


Australian cap-and-trade plan comes under fire p554

Plans to curb greenhouse-gas emissions face political opposition.

Roberta Kwok

doi:10.1038/458554b


Congress probes NIH stimulus funds p556

Scrutiny also aimed at National Children's Study

Meredith Wadman

doi:10.1038/458556a


Sonar mapping ventures into uncharted waters p557

Initiative aims to recruit range of vessels to locate seamounts.

Rex Dalton

doi:10.1038/458557a


Research review boards dogged by criticism p557

US oversight of clinical trials found wanting.

Heidi Ledford

doi:10.1038/458557b


Fungus farmers show way to new drugs p558

Ant colonies could be key to advances in biofuels and antibiotics.

Erika Check Hayden

doi:10.1038/458561a


Dismissed researcher wins court battle p558

German immunologist set to regain his job.

Alison Abbott

doi:10.1038/458558b


Quark statistics shed light on Universe's symmetry p559

CP violation comes into focus.

Philip Ball

doi:10.1038/458559a


Retracted paper rattles Korean science p561

Authors disagree over work aimed at gene therapy for diabetes.

David Cyranoski

doi:10.1038/458561b


Climate experts urge G20 to make stimulus green p562

doi:10.1038/458562a


Geometric work secures top maths prize p562

doi:10.1038/458562b


Drug patent pools start to take shape p562

doi:10.1038/458562c


Gates supports Chinese tuberculosis drive p562

doi:10.1038/458562d


Fossils protected in US land legislation p562

doi:10.1038/458562e


Grazing limits effects of ocean fertilization p562

doi:10.1038/458562f


Correction p562

doi:10.1038/458562g


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Column

Party of One

Mean what you say p563

Promises about job creation in the US stimulus bill may be coming home to roost, says David Goldston

David Goldston

doi:10.1038/458563a


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News Features

Neuroscience: One hundred years of Rita p564

From a home lab to the Italian Senate, by way of nerve growth factor — Rita Levi-Montalcini is a scientist like no other. Alison Abbott meets the first Nobel prizewinner set to reach her hundredth birthday.

doi:10.1038/458564a


Technology: The textbook of the future p568

Undergraduate textbooks are going digital. Declan Butler asks how this will shake up student reading habits and the multi-billion-dollar print textbook market.

doi:10.1038/458568a


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Correspondence

Austria should invest in brains, not in bricks, banks or airlines p571

Michael Freissmuth & Sigismund Huck

doi:10.1038/458571a


Evolution and intelligent design in Hong Kong p571

Jerome H. L. Hui

doi:10.1038/458571b


Scientists must stand up and be counted p571

Dave Bienus

doi:10.1038/458571c


Animal-health facility in Germany leads the way for Europe p571

Thomas C. Mettenleiter

doi:10.1038/458571d


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Essay

All the President's scholarly men p572

Barack Obama's choice of science advisers is cause for celebration. Yet history shows that an impressive academic record doesn't guarantee good, impartial advice, cautions Robert Dallek.

Robert Dallek

doi:10.1038/458572a


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Books and Arts

Keeping up with the nuclear neighbours p574

Since acquiring atomic weapons, India, Pakistan and North Korea have not engaged in major warfare. But nuclear deterrence alone does not buy peace — diplomacy must keep the balance, says George Perkovich.

George Perkovich

doi:10.1038/458574a


Pugwash, nukes and peace p575

Andrew Robinson reviews The Strangest Dream and Joseph Rotblat: A Man of Conscience in the Nuclear Age by Martin Underwood and Professor Pugwash, The Man Who Fought Nukes: The Life of Sir Joseph Rotblat by Kit Hill

doi:10.1038/458575a


Q&A: The art of transmutation p577

James Acord is the only sculptor licensed to work with radioactive materials. Formally trained in nuclear physics, he tells Nature why he thinks contaminated nuclear sites should be marked for future generations and explains his obsession with the nuclear age.

James Acord

doi:10.1038/458577a


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News and Views

Ecology: Gini in the bottle p579

An elaborate microcosm study has a message for the wider world: declining distributional equity among species, where the rare become rarer, and the dominant become more dominant, can put ecosystems at risk.

Shahid Naeem

doi:10.1038/458579a

See also: Editor's summary


Solid-state physics: Spin's lifetime extended p580

Electrons in semiconductors are subject to forces that make their spins flip. According to new evidence, if an ensemble of spins curls into a helix, the collective spin lifetime can be greatly enhanced.

Jaroslav Fabian

doi:10.1038/458580a

See also: Editor's summary


DNA repair: New tales of an old tail p581

Modifications of DNA-associated histone proteins maintain genome integrity. On damage to DNA, phosphorylation of histone H2A.X determines whether repair is justified or if the damaged cell must die.

Jiri Lukas & Jiri Bartek

doi:10.1038/458581a

See also: Editor's summary


Environmental science: Clean coal and sparkling water p583

Subsurface storage of carbon dioxide is a major option for mitigating climate change. On one account, much of the gas sequestered in this way would end up as carbonic acid in the pore waters of the host rock.

Werner Aeschbach-Hertig

doi:10.1038/458583a

See also: Editor's summary


50 & 100 years ago p583

doi:10.1038/458583b


HIV: Immune memory downloaded p584

An impressive system for retrieving large numbers of antibodies from memory B cells has been developed. It has been put into practice in an investigation of immune responses to the human immunodeficiency virus.

Dennis R. Burton & Pascal Poignard

doi:10.1038/458584a

See also: Editor's summary


Neuroscience: AMPA receptors get 'pickled' p585

In mediating fast synaptic communication in the brain, AMPA receptors require TARP auxiliary proteins. It seems that another distinct class of proteins also bind to AMPA receptors and regulate their function.

Alexander C. Jackson & Roger A. Nicoll

doi:10.1038/458585a


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News and Views Q&A

Cosmology: Dark matter and dark energy p587

Observations continue to indicate that the Universe is dominated by invisible components — dark matter and dark energy. Shedding light on this cosmic darkness is a priority for astronomers and physicists.

Robert Caldwell & Marc Kamionkowski

doi:10.1038/458587a


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Brief Communications Arising

Is there an association between NPY and neuroticism? pE6

Colleen H. Cotton, Jonathan Flint & Thomas G. Campbell

doi:10.1038/nature07927


Zhou et al. reply pE7

Zhifeng Zhou, Guanshan Zhu, Ahmad R. Hariri, Mary-Anne Enoch, David Scott, Rajita Sinha, Matti Virkkunen, Deborah C. Mash, Robert H. Lipsky, Xian-Zhang Hu, Colin A. Hodgkinson, Ke Xu, Beata Buzas, Qiaoping Yuan, Pei-Hong Shen, Robert E. Ferrell, Stephen B. Manuck, Sarah M. Brown, Richard L. Hauger, Christian S. Stohler, Jon-Kar Zubieta & David Goldman

doi:10.1038/nature07928


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Articles

Tyrosine dephosphorylation of H2AX modulates apoptosis and survival decisions p591

Peter J. Cook, Bong Gun Ju, Francesca Telese, Xiangting Wang, Christopher K. Glass & Michael G. Rosenfeld

doi:10.1038/nature07849

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Lukas & Bartek


Structure of the connexin 26 gap junction channel at 3.5 Å resolution p597

Shoji Maeda, So Nakagawa, Michihiro Suga, Eiki Yamashita, Atsunori Oshima, Yoshinori Fujiyoshi & Tomitake Tsukihara

doi:10.1038/nature07869

See also: Editor's summary


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Letters

Early assembly of the most massive galaxies p603

Chris A. Collins, John P. Stott, Matt Hilton, Scott T. Kay, S. Adam Stanford, Michael Davidson, Mark Hosmer, Ben Hoyle, Andrew Liddle, Ed Lloyd-Davies, Robert G. Mann, Nicola Mehrtens, Christopher J. Miller, Robert C. Nichol, A. Kathy Romer, Martin Sahlén, Pedro T. P. Viana & Michael J. West

doi:10.1038/nature07865

See also: Editor's summary


An anomalous positron abundance in cosmic rays with energies 1.5–100 GeV p607

O. Adriani, G. C. Barbarino, G. A. Bazilevskaya, R. Bellotti, M. Boezio, E. A. Bogomolov, L. Bonechi, M. Bongi, V. Bonvicini, S. Bottai, A. Bruno, F. Cafagna, D. Campana, P. Carlson, M. Casolino, G. Castellini, M. P. De Pascale, G. De Rosa, N. De Simone, V. Di Felice, A. M. Galper, L. Grishantseva, P. Hofverberg, S. V. Koldashov, S. Y. Krutkov, A. N. Kvashnin, A. Leonov, V. Malvezzi, L. Marcelli, W. Menn, V. V. Mikhailov, E. Mocchiutti, S. Orsi, G. Osteria, P. Papini, M. Pearce, P. Picozza, M. Ricci, S. B. Ricciarini, M. Simon, R. Sparvoli, P. Spillantini, Y. I. Stozhkov, A. Vacchi, E. Vannuccini, G. Vasilyev, S. A. Voronov, Y. T. Yurkin, G. Zampa, N. Zampa & V. G. Zverev

doi:10.1038/nature07942

See also: Editor's summary


Emergence of the persistent spin helix in semiconductor quantum wells p610

J. D. Koralek, C. P. Weber, J. Orenstein, B. A. Bernevig, Shou-Cheng Zhang, S. Mack & D. D. Awschalom

doi:10.1038/nature07871

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Fabian


Solubility trapping in formation water as dominant CO2 sink in natural gas fields p614

Stuart M. V. Gilfillan, Barbara Sherwood Lollar, Greg Holland, Dave Blagburn, Scott Stevens, Martin Schoell, Martin Cassidy, Zhenju Ding, Zheng Zhou, Georges Lacrampe-Couloume & Chris J. Ballentine

doi:10.1038/nature07852

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Aeschbach-Hertig


Petrological evidence for secular cooling in mantle plumes p619

Claude Herzberg & Esteban Gazel

doi:10.1038/nature07857

See also: Editor's summary


Initial community evenness favours functionality under selective stress p623

Lieven Wittebolle, Massimo Marzorati, Lieven Clement, Annalisa Balloi, Daniele Daffonchio, Kim Heylen, Paul De Vos, Willy Verstraete & Nico Boon

doi:10.1038/nature07840

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Naeem


A micro-architecture for binocular disparity and ocular dominance in visual cortex p627

Prakash Kara & Jamie D. Boyd

doi:10.1038/nature07721

See also: Editor's summary


Decoding reveals the contents of visual working memory in early visual areas p632

Stephenie A. Harrison & Frank Tong

doi:10.1038/nature07832

See also: Editor's summary


Broad diversity of neutralizing antibodies isolated from memory B cells in HIV-infected individuals p636

Johannes F. Scheid, Hugo Mouquet, Niklas Feldhahn, Michael S. Seaman, Klara Velinzon, John Pietzsch, Rene G. Ott, Robert M. Anthony, Henry Zebroski, Arlene Hurley, Adhuna Phogat, Bimal Chakrabarti, Yuxing Li, Mark Connors, Florencia Pereyra, Bruce D. Walker, Hedda Wardemann, David Ho, Richard T. Wyatt, John R. Mascola, Jeffrey V. Ravetch & Michel C. Nussenzweig

doi:10.1038/nature07930

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Burton & Poignard


Adaptation of HIV-1 to human leukocyte antigen class I p641

Yuka Kawashima, Katja Pfafferott, John Frater, Philippa Matthews, Rebecca Payne, Marylyn Addo, Hiroyuki Gatanaga, Mamoru Fujiwara, Atsuko Hachiya, Hirokazu Koizumi, Nozomi Kuse, Shinichi Oka, Anna Duda, Andrew Prendergast, Hayley Crawford, Alasdair Leslie, Zabrina Brumme, Chanson Brumme, Todd Allen, Christian Brander, Richard Kaslow, James Tang, Eric Hunter, Susan Allen, Joseph Mulenga, Songee Branch, Tim Roach, Mina John, Simon Mallal, Anthony Ogwu, Roger Shapiro, Julia G. Prado, Sarah Fidler, Jonathan Weber, Oliver G. Pybus, Paul Klenerman, Thumbi Ndung'u, Rodney Phillips, David Heckerman, P. Richard Harrigan, Bruce D. Walker, Masafumi Takiguchi & Philip Goulder

doi:10.1038/nature07746

See also: Editor's summary


An unexpected twist in viral capsid maturation p646

Ilya Gertsman, Lu Gan, Miklos Guttman, Kelly Lee, Jeffrey A. Speir, Robert L. Duda, Roger W. Hendrix, Elizabeth A. Komives & John E. Johnson

doi:10.1038/nature07686

See also: Editor's summary


FGF signalling during embryo development regulates cilia length in diverse epithelia p651

Judith M. Neugebauer, Jeffrey D. Amack, Annita G. Peterson, Brent W. Bisgrove & H. Joseph Yost

doi:10.1038/nature07753

See also: Editor's summary


Clustering of InsP3 receptors by InsP3 retunes their regulation by InsP3 and Ca2+ p655

Taufiq-Ur-Rahman, Alexander Skupin, Martin Falcke & Colin W. Taylor

doi:10.1038/nature07763

See also: Editor's summary


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Retraction

Remission in models of type 1 diabetes by gene therapy using a single-chain insulin analogue p660

Hyun Chul Lee, Su-Jin Kim, Kyung-Sup Kim, Hang-Cheol Shin & Ji-Won Yoon

doi:10.1038/nature07964


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Naturejobs

News

Forensic evidence p663

Report calls on forensic scientists to increase credibility

Virginia Gewin

doi:10.1038/nj7238-663a


Postdoc journal

Job juggling p663

When can I pursue my own research and leave part-time work behind?

Joanne Isaac

doi:10.1038/nj7238-663b


In Brief

Drug firms cut back p663

doi:10.1038/nj7238-663c


Syngene centre opens p663

doi:10.1038/nj7238-663d


Special Report

Lab hazard p664

Getting results from experiments can be difficult, especially if the materials you work with decide to fight back. Amber Dance investigates some of the unappreciated risks of being at the bench.

Amber Dance

doi:10.1038/nj7238-664a


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Futures

Caveat time traveller p668

Future-proof.

Gregory Benford

doi:10.1038/458668a


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