FIGURE 1. Centres of plant domestication.

From the following article:

The nature of selection during plant domestication

Michael D. Purugganan & Dorian Q. Fuller

Nature 457, 843-848(12 February 2009)



Solid-shaded areas and hatched areas indicate regions of important seed-crop domestication and vegecultural crops, respectively. Accepted primary domestication centres are shown in black, and potentially important secondary domestication centres are shown in grey. Arrows indicate major trajectories of spread of agriculture and crops out of some centres. Areas are numbered, and examples of crop species and the year by which they were domesticated in each area are as follows: 1, eastern North America (Chenopodium berlandieri, Iva annua and Helianthus annuus, 4,500–4,000 years before present (yr bp)); 2, Mesoamerica (Cucurbita pepo, 10,000 yr bp; Zea mays, 9,000–7,000 yr bp); 2a, northern lowland neotropics (Cucurbita moschata, Ipomoea batatas, Phaseolus vulgaris, tree crops, 9,000–8,000 yr bp); 3, central mid-altitude Andes (Chenopodium quinoa, Amaranthus caudatus, 5,000 yr bp); 3a, north and central Andes, mid-altitude and high altitude (Solanum tuberosum, Oxalis tuberosa, Chenopodium pallidicaule, 8,000 yr bp); 3b, lowland southern Amazonia (Manihot esculenta, Arachis hypogaea, 8,000 yr bp); 3c, Ecuador and northwest Peru (Phaseolus lunatus, Canavalia plagiosperma, Cucurbita ecuadorensis, 10,000 yr bp; the question mark indicates that there is some question of the independence of crop origins of this centre from 3, 3a and 3b); 4, West African sub-Sahara (Pennisetum glaucum, 4,500 yr bp); 4a, West African savanna and woodlands (Vigna unguiculata, 3,700 yr bp; Digitaria exilis, Oryza glaberrima, <3,000 yr bp); 4b, West African rainforests (Dioscorea rotundata, Elaeis guineensis, poorly documented); 5, east Sudanic Africa (Sorghum bicolor, >4,000 yr bp?); 6, East African uplands (Eragrostis tef, Eleusine coracana, 4,000 yr bp?) and lowland vegeculture (Dioscorea cayenensis, Ensete ventricosum, poorly documented); 7, Near East (Hordeum vulgare, Triticum spp., Lens culinaris, Pisum sativum, Cicer arietinum, Vicia faba, 13,000–10,000 yr bp); 7a, eastern fertile crescent (additional Hordeum vulgare and, 9,000 yr bp, also goats); 8a, Gujarat, India (Panicum sumatrense, Vigna mungo, 5,000 yr bp?); 8b, Upper Indus (Panicum sumatrense, Vigna radiata, Vigna aconitifolia, 5,000 yr bp); 8c, Ganges (Oryza sativa subsp. indica, 8,500–4,500 yr bp); 8d, southern India (Brachiaria ramosa, Vigna radiata, Macrotyloma uniflorum, 5,000–4,000 yr bp); 9, eastern Himalayas and Yunnan uplands (Fagopyrum esculentum, 5,000 yr bp?); 10, northern China (Setaria italica, Panicum miliaceum, 8,000 yr bp; Glycine max, 4,500 yr bp?); 11, southern Hokkaido, Japan (Echinochloa crusgalli, 4,500 yr bp); 12, Yangtze, China (Oryza sativa subsp. japonica, 9,000–6,000 yr bp); 12a, southern China (Colocasia, Coix lachryma-jobi, poorly documented, 4,500 yr bp?); 13, New Guinea and Wallacea (Colocasia esculenta, Dioscorea esculenta, Musa acuminata, 7,000 yr bp).