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Editorials

Starry messages p7

The first scientific observations with telescopes displaced Earth from the centre of the Universe. Modern technology continues to humble us but should not distance us from the cosmos itself.

doi:10.1038/457007a

See also: Editor's summary


Experts still needed p7

There are good reasons to be suspicious of metric-based research assessment.

doi:10.1038/457007b


A public service p8

The Christmas bird count is a model to be emulated in distributed, volunteer science.

doi:10.1038/457008a


Announcement: Evolutionary gems p8

doi:10.1038/457008b

See also: Editor's summary


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News

Obama's picks underline climate focus p10

Strong roles for biologists as the president-elect chooses his science and technology team.

Eric Hand & Alexandra Witze

doi:10.1038/457010a


Universities struggle as value of endowments falls p11

Tough decisions need to be made about how to cut costs.

Eric Hand

doi:10.1038/457011a


Good grades, but who gets the cash? p13

Britain's Research Assessment Exercise finds excellence more widespread than a focus on elite institutions would suggest.

Natasha Gilbert

doi:10.1038/457013a


Single fund for African science aid p14

Cash pool could break power struggles between competing agencies on the continent.

Linda Nordling

doi:10.1038/457014a


Medical charity folds after investment losses p16

doi:10.1038/457016a


Spanish solar companies slammed over subsidy fraud p16

doi:10.1038/457016b


US firms power up to build advanced batteries p16

doi:10.1038/457016c


Health organization lays plans for major biobank p16

doi:10.1038/457016d


NASA awards contracts to supply space station p16

doi:10.1038/457016e


First antenna switches on in the Atacama p16

doi:10.1038/457016f


Correction p16

doi:10.1038/457016g


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Column

The new boss in town p17

Barack Obama's transition team is hitting the ground running, and its speed and openness are winning praise, as David Goldston reports.

David Goldston

doi:10.1038/457017a


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News Feature

Year of astronomy: New eyes, new skies p18

The next 40 years will see telescopes that far outstrip any ever seen before. Jeff Kanipe profiles four of them; illustrations by Lynette Cook.

doi:10.1038/457018a


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Correspondence

Obama must match science rhetoric with action p26

Lisa Borghesi

doi:10.1038/457026a


Problems with anti-plagiarism database p26

Mauno Vihinen

doi:10.1038/457026b


Honeybee and the Phoenix analysing instrument p26

William V. Boynton

doi:10.1038/457026c


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Commentary

Year of astronomy: Time to turn off the lights p27

Cities needlessly shine billions of dollars directly into the sky each year and, as a result, a fifth of the world's population cannot see the Milky Way. Malcolm Smith explains why a dark sky has much to offer everyone.

Malcolm Smith

doi:10.1038/457027a

See also: Editor's summary


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Essay

Year of astronomy: Mankind's place in the Universe p28

Technological developments in astronomy have long helped to answer some of the greatest questions tackled by humanity, recounts Owen Gingerich.

Owen Gingerich

doi:10.1038/457028a

See also: Editor's summary


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Books and Arts

Year of astronomy: Visions of ourselves p30

The view of our planet from space is beautiful and humbling, yet this shift in human perspective has not altered how we care for our environment, argues Charles Cockell.

Charles Cockell reviews Earthrise: How Man First Saw the Earth by Robert Poole

doi:10.1038/457030a

See also: Editor's summary


Year of astronomy: Q&A: One giant leap for art p31

Astronaut Alan Bean stepped down onto the lunar surface during the 1969 Apollo 12 mission, but left NASA in 1981 to devote himself to painting. With exhibitions of his work taking place this year to celebrate the 40th anniversary of the first Moon landing, he tells Nature how he attempts to convey his lunar experience.

Daniel Cressey

doi:10.1038/457031a

See also: Editor's summary


Year of astronomy: Voyaging to discovery, alone p31

David Bodanis reviews The Age of Wonder: How the Romantic Generation Discovered the Beauty and Terror of Science by Richard Holmes

doi:10.1038/457031b


Year of astronomy: Star poetry p32

doi:10.1038/457032a


Year of astronomy: Hidden treasures: the Paris Observatory p33

Giovanni Domenico Cassini helped to create an institution that pinpointed Neptune, showed that light had a finite speed — and even mapped France, explains Alison Abbott.

Alison Abbott

doi:10.1038/457033a

See also: Editor's summary


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News and Views

Quantum physics: Squeeze until it hurts p35

Quantum systems are uncertain by nature. By 'squeezing' this uncertainty, physicists can make better measurements of quantities such as distance. But overdoing it makes things burst out all over the place.

Geoff J. Pryde

doi:10.1038/457035a

See also: Editor's summary


50 & 100 years ago p36

doi:10.1038/457036a

See also: Editor's summary


Cancer: Inflaming metastasis p36

Cancer can be defined by six hallmarks, including uncontrollable growth, immortality and the ability to invade other tissues. Increasing evidence suggests that a seventh feature should make this list — inflammation.

Alberto Mantovani

doi:10.1038/457036b

See also: Editor's summary


Astrophysics: Star formation branches out p37

Deciphering how stars form within turbulent, dense clouds of molecular gas has been a challenge. An innovative technique that uses a tree diagram provides insight into the process.

Ralph E. Pudritz

doi:10.1038/457037a

See also: Editor's summary


Game theory: How to treat those of ill repute p39

A much-needed theoretical analysis deals with whether the principle known as 'costly punishment' helps to maintain cooperation in human society. It will prompt a fresh wave of experiments and theory.

Bettina Rockenbach & Manfred Milinski

doi:10.1038/457039a

See also: Editor's summary


Darwin 200: A natural selection p40

doi:10.1038/457040a

See also: Editor's summary


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Review

18 years of science with the Hubble Space Telescope p41

Julianne J. Dalcanton

doi:10.1038/nature07621

See also: Editor's summary


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Articles

Cell-cycle restriction limits DNA damage and maintains self-renewal of leukaemia stem cells p51

Andrea Viale, Francesca De Franco, Annette Orleth, Valeria Cambiaghi, Virginia Giuliani, Daniela Bossi, Chiara Ronchini, Simona Ronzoni, Ivan Muradore, Silvia Monestiroli, Alberto Gobbi, Myriam Alcalay, Saverio Minucci & Pier Giuseppe Pelicci

doi:10.1038/nature07618

See also: Editor's summary


WSTF regulates the H2A.X DNA damage response via a novel tyrosine kinase activity p57

Andrew Xiao, Haitao Li, David Shechter, Sung Hee Ahn, Laura A. Fabrizio, Hediye Erdjument-Bromage, Satoko Ishibe-Murakami, Bin Wang, Paul Tempst, Kay Hofmann, Dinshaw J. Patel, Stephen J. Elledge & C. David Allis

doi:10.1038/nature07668

See also: Editor's summary


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Letters

A role for self-gravity at multiple length scales in the process of star formation p63

Alyssa A. Goodman, Erik W. Rosolowsky, Michelle A. Borkin, Jonathan B. Foster, Michael Halle, Jens Kauffmann & Jaime E. Pineda

doi:10.1038/nature07609

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Pudritz

*requires Adobe Acrobat version 8 or higher


Squeezing and over-squeezing of triphotons p67

L. K. Shalm, R. B. A. Adamson & A. M. Steinberg

doi:10.1038/nature07624

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Pryde


Optical manipulation of nanoparticles and biomolecules in sub-wavelength slot waveguides p71

Allen H. J. Yang, Sean D. Moore, Bradley S. Schmidt, Matthew Klug, Michal Lipson & David Erickson

doi:10.1038/nature07593

See also: Editor's summary


Seismic evidence for overpressured subducted oceanic crust and megathrust fault sealing p76

Pascal Audet, Michael G. Bostock, Nikolas I. Christensen & Simon M. Peacock

doi:10.1038/nature07650

See also: Editor's summary


Indirect reciprocity provides only a narrow margin of efficiency for costly punishment p79

Hisashi Ohtsuki, Yoh Iwasa & Martin A. Nowak

doi:10.1038/nature07601

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Rockenbach & Milinski


Emergence of complex cell properties by learning to generalize in natural scenes p83

Yan Karklin & Michael S. Lewicki

doi:10.1038/nature07481

See also: Editor's summary


Immune control of an SIV challenge by a T-cell-based vaccine in rhesus monkeys p87

Jinyan Liu, Kara L. O'Brien, Diana M. Lynch, Nathaniel L. Simmons, Annalena La Porte, Ambryice M. Riggs, Peter Abbink, Rory T. Coffey, Lauren E. Grandpre, Michael S. Seaman, Gary Landucci, Donald N. Forthal, David C. Montefiori, Angela Carville, Keith G. Mansfield, Menzo J. Havenga, Maria G. Pau, Jaap Goudsmit & Dan H. Barouch

doi:10.1038/nature07469

See also: Editor's summary


Live-animal tracking of individual haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in their niche p92

Cristina Lo Celso, Heather E. Fleming, Juwell W. Wu, Cher X. Zhao, Sam Miake-Lye, Joji Fujisaki, Daniel Côté, David W. Rowe, Charles P. Lin & David T. Scadden

doi:10.1038/nature07434

See also: Editor's summary


Detection of functional haematopoietic stem cell niche using real-time imaging p97

Yucai Xie, Tong Yin, Winfried Wiegraebe, Xi C. He, Diana Miller, Danny Stark, Katherine Perko, Richard Alexander, Joel Schwartz, Justin C. Grindley, Jungeun Park, Jeff S. Haug, Joshua P. Wunderlich, Hua Li, Simon Zhang, Teri Johnson, Ricardo A. Feldman & Linheng Li

doi:10.1038/nature07639

See also: Editor's summary


Carcinoma-produced factors activate myeloid cells through TLR2 to stimulate metastasis p102

Sunhwa Kim, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Wan-Wan Lin, Pascal Descargues, Sergei Grivennikov, Youngjun Kim, Jun-Li Luo & Michael Karin

doi:10.1038/nature07623

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Mantovani


Chaperonin complex with a newly folded protein encapsulated in the folding chamber p107

D. K. Clare, P. J. Bakkes, H. van Heerikhuizen, S. M. van der Vies & H. R. Saibil

doi:10.1038/nature07479

See also: Editor's summary


X-ray structure of a pentameric ligand-gated ion channel in an apparently open conformation p111

Nicolas Bocquet, Hugues Nury, Marc Baaden, Chantal Le Poupon, Jean-Pierre Changeux, Marc Delarue & Pierre-Jean Corringer

doi:10.1038/nature07462

See also: Editor's summary


Structure of a potentially open state of a proton-activated pentameric ligand-gated ion channel p115

Ricarda J. C. Hilf & Raimund Dutzler

doi:10.1038/nature07461

See also: Editor's summary


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Naturejobs

Career View

Down but not out, and still fighting p1

Amanda Goh

doi:10.1038/nj7225-1


Postdoc Resolutions p1

Jon Yearsley

doi:10.1038/nj7225-2


Lofty ambitions p1

Aliza le Roux

doi:10.1038/nj7225-3


Suffering from nostalgia p1

Zachary Lippman

doi:10.1038/nj7225-4


Prospects

Journey's end p119

The Postdoc Journal keepers of 2008 offer parting thoughts on a year of personal and professional milestones.

Gene Russo

doi:10.1038/nj7225-119a


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Futures

Gravitational astronomy 101 p122

It's a bit of a shock.

David Blair

doi:10.1038/457122a

See also: Editor's summary


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