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Editorials

Machine-makers matter p837

Nature is pleased to name Lyn Evans, the project manager of the Large Hadron Collider, as its 2008 newsmaker of the year.

doi:10.1038/456837a

See also: Editor's summary


Facilitating the future p837

Europe needs a better way to plan, prioritize and fund the next generation of research infrastructure.

doi:10.1038/456837b


Eyes west p838

Could the United States topple Europe as the driver of international climate-change regulations?

doi:10.1038/456838a


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Research Highlights

Economics: A healthier haul p840

doi:10.1038/456840a

See also: Editor's summary


Biophysics: Mob rule p840

doi:10.1038/456840b


Neuroscience: Glia on fire p840

doi:10.1038/456840c


Zoology: Queen Bee p840

doi:10.1038/456840d


Nanotechnology: Super speakers p840

doi:10.1038/456840e


Genetics: Many but rare p841

doi:10.1038/456841a


Astrophysics: Cosmic tiara p841

doi:10.1038/456841b


Evolution: Genetic bric-a-brac p841

doi:10.1038/456841c


Biochemistry: Catalytic creator p841

doi:10.1038/456841d


Organic chemistry: Tag-team catalysts p841

doi:10.1038/456841e


Neuroscience: MRI beebop p841

doi:10.1038/456841f


Human biology: Bird's eye view p841

doi:10.1038/456841g


Physics: Black holes on the strand p842

doi:10.1038/456842a


Cell biology: Bent out of shape p842

doi:10.1038/456842b


Evolution: Yeast rewired p842

doi:10.1038/456842c


Geology: Magma mix-up p842

doi:10.1038/456842d


Molecular biology: Shaping up p842

doi:10.1038/456842e


Medicine: A breath of fresh air p843

doi:10.1038/456843a


Immunology: Successful delivery p843

doi:10.1038/456843b


Photonics: Telescopic TV p843

doi:10.1038/456843c


Neurobiology: The motor-neuron driver p843

doi:10.1038/456843d


Geoscience: The speed of ice p843

doi:10.1038/456843e


The year in Nature p843

Nature's manuscript editors made a selection of 'favourites' from the papers we published in 2008.

doi:10.1038/456xiia


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News

News 2008 p844

The year in which...

Ashley Yeager

doi:10.1038/456844a


Climate talks defer major challenges p846

Minor progress in Poland on adaptation and deforestation sets the stage for Copenhagen in 2009.

Jeff Tollefson

doi:10.1038/456846a


Europe agrees emissions deal p847

Heavy industry wins key concessions in last-minute negotiations.

Quirin Schiermeier

doi:10.1038/456847a


Nobel physicist to run energy agency p849

Obama appointments likely to focus on renewable energy and implementing cap and trade.

Eric Hand

doi:10.1038/456849a


Imaging advances provide immune-cell breakthroughs p850

Microscopy tracks living cells as they move through the body.

Erika Check Hayden

doi:10.1038/456850a


Salary for CIRM head despite deficit p851

Outcry as stem-cell agency puts chairman on the payroll.

Erika Check Hayden

doi:10.1038/456851a


US bioindustry calls for government bailout p852

doi:10.1038/456852a


Vatican formalizes rules on human stem-cell research p852

doi:10.1038/456852b


Michigan State wins battle to host isotope accelerator p852

doi:10.1038/456852c


US nanotechnology plan lacks risk research p853

doi:10.1038/456853a


Rift-valley countries set for geothermal power p853

doi:10.1038/456853b


Lectures gain electronic life in Egyptian library p853

doi:10.1038/456853c


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News Features

2008 Gallery: Images of the year p854

This gallery showcases some of the year's most eye-catching science, from a close encounter with squid suckers that look like a carnivorous cartoon choir to mathematical forms given shape in purple yarn.
It also recalls some of the biggest science news stories: the staggering devastation wrought by Hurricane Ike; a Nobel prize for putting a glowing protein to work; and the ongoing robotic exploration of Mars.

Emma Marris

doi:10.1038/456854a


Prizewinners of the year p860

Medals, cash and fame rained down on the heads of prominent scientists in 2008. Ashley Yeager rounds up some of them.

Ashley Yeager

doi:10.1038/456860a


Newsmaker of the year: The machine maker p862

He did more than anyone to build the Large Hadron Collider. This year he saw it finished — and then break down. Geoff Brumfiel profiles the LHC's project leader, Nature's newsmaker of the year.

Geoff Brumfiel

doi:10.1038/456862a


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Correspondence

You're the best man for this job, son. What a coincidence! p870

Albert Ruggi

doi:10.1038/456870a


Online archives are revealing uncensored history of science p870

William Burns

doi:10.1038/456870b


Finding of unusual soil on Mars could stem from tools used p870

Alberto G. Fairén

doi:10.1038/456870c


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Commentaries

Three rules for technological fixes p871

Not all problems will yield to technology. Deciding which will and which won't should be central to setting innovation policy, say Daniel Sarewitz and Richard Nelson.

doi:10.1038/456871a

See also: Editor's summary


Correction p871

doi:10.1038/456872a


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Books and Arts

A wonderful life by leaps and bounds p873

Stephen Jay Gould's idea of evolution by bursts was controversial. But it gave the field of palaeontology a long-overdue boost, explains Steve Jones.

doi:10.1038/456873a


Does genius breed success? p874

Michael Bond reviews Outliers: The Story of Success by Malcolm Gladwell

doi:10.1038/456874a


The science communicator p875

Zaheer Baber reviews Science and Controversy: A Biography of Sir Norman Lockyer, Founder Editor of Nature by A. J. Meadows

doi:10.1038/456875a


Looking at the face of the Earth p876

A sixteenth-century Dutch master's carefully orchestrated winter landscape may have benefited from his knowledge of geographers' techniques of the time, explains Martin Kemp.

Martin Kemp

doi:10.1038/456876a

See also: Editor's summary


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Essay

Being human: Migration: An engine for social change p877

The movement of people into societies that offer a better way of life is a more powerful driver of cultural evolution than conflict and conquest, say Peter J. Richerson and Robert Boyd.

Peter J. Richerson & Robert Boyd

doi:10.1038/456877a

See also: Editor's summary


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News and Views

Molecular biology: Spliceosome meets telomerase p879

The spliceosome is best known for shepherding primary messenger RNA transcripts to maturity. This enzyme complex also contributes to the synthesis of an enzyme that maintains chromosome ends.

Sophie Bonnal & Juan Valcárcel

doi:10.1038/456879a

See also: Editor's summary


Quantum physics: Don't look now p880

Before picking up the phone and calling a technician to fix a faulty microwave oven, there are always a few simple things one should check. So far, "stop looking at it" has not been part of the checklist.

Alexei Ourjoumtsev

doi:10.1038/456880a


Circadian clocks: Tips from the tip of the iceberg p881

Daily remodelling of histone proteins underlies interactions between circadian clock genes and metabolic genes. This regulatory mechanism could be widespread, affecting other physiological processes.

Fred W. Turek

doi:10.1038/456881a

See also: Editor's summary


Organometallic chemistry: Catalyst takes control to heart p883

Some transition-metal catalysts control organic reactions so that, given a choice of two mirror-image products, only one forms. The metal atom in these catalysts has been ignored as a source of control — until now.

Steven T. Diver

doi:10.1038/456883a

See also: Editor's summary


Epigenetics: How to lose a tail p885

Everyone carries some baggage they would like to lose. For the histone protein H3, that baggage is a chunk of its tail, which when clipped off affects the expression of genes with which the histone is associated.

Mary Ann Osley

doi:10.1038/456885a


Condensed-matter physics: The eternal triangle p886

The frustration that atomic interactions can undergo is not unlike that occurring when human aims are thwarted. An elegant study offers a way of visualizing the hitherto mysterious dynamics of 'frustrated' systems.

Mark Harris

doi:10.1038/456886a

See also: Editor's summary


Neuroscience: Greasy proteins of the neuron p887

An analysis of neuronal proteins reveals that many are regulated through covalent attachment of the lipid palmitate. This reversible modification seems to affect the form and function of synaptic junctions.

Maurine E. Linder

doi:10.1038/456887a

See also: Editor's summary


Biogeochemistry: Nitrous oxide in flux p888

In drought conditions, forest soils can serve as a small but surprisingly persistent sink for the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide. The effect highlights a research avenue necessary for predicting Earth's climate.

Sharon A. Billings

doi:10.1038/456888a


Ralph Lewin (1921–2008) p889

doi:10.1038/456889a


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Brief Communications Arising

Snowball prevention questioned pE7

Paul F. Hoffman, John W. Crowley, David T. Johnston, David S. Jones & Daniel P. Schrag

doi:10.1038/nature07655


Carbon cycling and snowball Earth pE8

Yves Goddéris & Yannick Donnadieu

doi:10.1038/nature07653


Peltier & Liu reply pE9

W. R. Peltier & Yonggang Liu

doi:10.1038/nature07656


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Review

Sensing voltage across lipid membranes p891

Kenton J. Swartz

doi:10.1038/nature07620

See also: Editor's summary


Articles

Geometric frustration in buckled colloidal monolayers p898

Yilong Han, Yair Shokef, Ahmed M. Alsayed, Peter Yunker, Tom C. Lubensky & Arjun G. Yodh

doi:10.1038/nature07595

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Harris


Neural palmitoyl-proteomics reveals dynamic synaptic palmitoylation p904

Rujun Kang, Junmei Wan, Pamela Arstikaitis, Hideto Takahashi, Kun Huang, Aaron O. Bailey, James X. Thompson, Amy F. Roth, Renaldo C. Drisdel, Ryan Mastro, William N. Green, John R. Yates III, Nicholas G. Davis & Alaa El-Husseini

doi:10.1038/nature07605

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Linder


Spliceosomal cleavage generates the 3' end of telomerase RNA p910

Jessica A. Box, Jeremy T. Bunch, Wen Tang & Peter Baumann

doi:10.1038/nature07584

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Bonnal & Valcárcel


SUMOylation regulates Rad18-mediated template switch p915

Dana Branzei, Fabio Vanoli & Marco Foiani

doi:10.1038/nature07587

See also: Editor's summary


Structure of an argonaute silencing complex with a seed-containing guide DNA and target RNA duplex p921

Yanli Wang, Stefan Juranek, Haitao Li, Gang Sheng, Thomas Tuschl & Dinshaw J. Patel

doi:10.1038/nature07666

See also: Editor's summary


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Letters

A gravitationally lensed water maser in the early Universe p927

C. M. Violette Impellizzeri, John P. McKean, Paola Castangia, Alan L. Roy, Christian Henkel, Andreas Brunthaler & Olaf Wucknitz

doi:10.1038/nature07544

See also: Editor's summary


Unconventional superconductivity in Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2 from inelastic neutron scattering p930

A. D. Christianson, E. A. Goremychkin, R. Osborn, S. Rosenkranz, M. D. Lumsden, C. D. Malliakas, I. S. Todorov, H. Claus, D. Y. Chung, M. G. Kanatzidis, R. I. Bewley & T. Guidi

doi:10.1038/nature07625

See also: Editor's summary


Highly efficient molybdenum-based catalysts for enantioselective alkene metathesis p933

Steven J. Malcolmson, Simon J. Meek, Elizabeth S. Sattely, Richard R. Schrock & Amir H. Hoveyda

doi:10.1038/nature07594

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Diver


How supercontinents and superoceans affect seafloor roughness p938

Joanne M. Whittaker, R. Dietmar Müller, Walter R. Roest, Paul Wessel & Walter H. F. Smith

doi:10.1038/nature07573

See also: Editor's summary


Parallel adaptations to high temperatures in the Archaean eon p942

Bastien Boussau, Samuel Blanquart, Anamaria Necsulea, Nicolas Lartillot & Manolo Gouy

doi:10.1038/nature07393

See also: Editor's summary


Successful range-expanding plants experience less above-ground and below-ground enemy impact p946

Tim Engelkes, Elly Morriën, Koen J. F. Verhoeven, T. Martijn Bezemer, Arjen Biere, Jeffrey A. Harvey, Lauren M. McIntyre, Wil L. M. Tamis & Wim H. van der Putten

doi:10.1038/nature07474

See also: Editor's summary


Low conservation of gene content in the Drosophila Y chromosome p949

Leonardo B. Koerich, Xiaoyun Wang, Andrew G. Clark & Antonio Bernardo Carvalho

doi:10.1038/nature07463

See also: Editor's summary


Experience with moving visual stimuli drives the early development of cortical direction selectivity p952

Ye Li, Stephen D. Van Hooser, Mark Mazurek, Leonard E. White & David Fitzpatrick

doi:10.1038/nature07417

See also: Editor's summary


Contact inhibition of locomotion in vivo controls neural crest directional migration p957

Carlos Carmona-Fontaine, Helen K. Matthews, Sei Kuriyama, Mauricio Moreno, Graham A. Dunn, Maddy Parsons, Claudio D. Stern & Roberto Mayor

doi:10.1038/nature07441

See also: Editor's summary


Generation of cell polarity in plants links endocytosis, auxin distribution and cell fate decisions p962

Pankaj Dhonukshe, Hirokazu Tanaka, Tatsuaki Goh, Kazuo Ebine, Ari Pekka Mähönen, Kalika Prasad, Ikram Blilou, Niko Geldner, Jian Xu, Tomohiro Uemura, Joanne Chory, Takashi Ueda, Akihiko Nakano, Ben Scheres & Jir caroní Friml

doi:10.1038/nature07409

See also: Editor's summary


G protein Galphai functions immediately downstream of Smoothened in Hedgehog signalling p967

Stacey K. Ogden, Dennis Liang Fei, Neal S. Schilling, Yashi F. Ahmed, John Hwa & David J. Robbins

doi:10.1038/nature07459

See also: Editor's summary


Suppression of Myc oncogenic activity by ribosomal protein haploinsufficiency p971

Maria Barna, Aya Pusic, Ornella Zollo, Maria Costa, Nadya Kondrashov, Eduardo Rego, Pulivarthi H. Rao & Davide Ruggero

doi:10.1038/nature07449

See also: Editor's summary


A structural explanation for the binding of endocytic dileucine motifs by the AP2 complex p976

Bernard T. Kelly, Airlie J. McCoy, Kira Späte, Sharon E. Miller, Philip R. Evans, Stefan Höning & David J. Owen

doi:10.1038/nature07422

See also: Editor's summary


MicroRNA-21 contributes to myocardial disease by stimulating MAP kinase signalling in fibroblasts p980

Thomas Thum, Carina Gross, Jan Fiedler, Thomas Fischer, Stephan Kissler, Markus Bussen, Paolo Galuppo, Steffen Just, Wolfgang Rottbauer, Stefan Frantz, Mirco Castoldi, Jürgen Soutschek, Victor Koteliansky, Andreas Rosenwald, M. Albert Basson, Jonathan D. Licht, John T. R. Pena, Sara H. Rouhanifard, Martina U. Muckenthaler, Thomas Tuschl, Gail R. Martin, Johann Bauersachs & Stefan Engelhardt

doi:10.1038/nature07511

See also: Editor's summary


X-ray structure of NS1 from a highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus p985

Zachary A. Bornholdt & B. V. Venkataram Prasad

doi:10.1038/nature07444

See also: Editor's summary


Structural recognition and functional activation of Fcbold gammaR by innate pentraxins p989

Jinghua Lu, Lorraine L. Marnell, Kristopher D. Marjon, Carolyn Mold, Terry W. Du Clos & Peter D. Sun

doi:10.1038/nature07468

See also: Editor's summary


Endonucleolytic RNA cleavage by a eukaryotic exosome p993

Alice Lebreton, Rafal Tomecki, Andrzej Dziembowski & Bertrand Séraphin

doi:10.1038/nature07480

See also: Editor's summary


Nuclear receptor corepressor and histone deacetylase 3 govern circadian metabolic physiology p997

Theresa Alenghat, Katherine Meyers, Shannon E. Mullican, Kirstin Leitner, Adetoun Adeniji-Adele, Jacqueline Avila, Maja Buc acutean, Rexford S. Ahima, Klaus H. Kaestner & Mitchell A. Lazar

doi:10.1038/nature07541

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Turek


Conformational changes in an ultrafast light-driven enzyme determine catalytic activity p1001

Olga A. Sytina, Derren J. Heyes, C. Neil Hunter, Maxime T. Alexandre, Ivo H. M. van Stokkum, Rienk van Grondelle & Marie Louise Groot

doi:10.1038/nature07354

See also: Editor's summary


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Naturejobs

Prospects

Visa quotas could soon be relaxed in the United States and Europe. But will the economic downturn mitigate the potentially positive effects? p1005

Paul Smaglik

doi:10.1038/nj7224-1005a


Highlights

Opportunities: The National Institutes of Health

doi:10.1038/nj0241


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Futures

Harnessing the brane-deer p1007

It's a constant worry.

Robert Billing

doi:10.1038/4561007a


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