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Editorials

Beyond the origin p281

This issue of Nature anticipates next year's bicentenary of Charles Darwin's birth and the 150th anniversary of On The Origin of Species. We begin here with a look 50 years into the future.

doi:10.1038/456281a

See also: Editor's summary


Call to action p281

European scientists who support neuroscience research on primates should tell their politicians why.

doi:10.1038/456281b


Stem-cell futures p282

In the changed political climate, US agencies can provide a new kind of leadership.

doi:10.1038/456282a


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Research Highlights

Genetics: Quick change p284

doi:10.1038/456284a


Zoology: Whiff of danger p284

doi:10.1038/456284b


Physics: Flags and drag p284

doi:10.1038/456284c


Chemical biology: Honey trap p284

doi:10.1038/456284d


Molecular biology: Silent guide p284

doi:10.1038/456284e


Astronomy: Missing no more p284

doi:10.1038/456284f


Nanotechnology: Super speakers p285

doi:10.1038/456285a


Chemistry: Snip it with zinc p285

doi:10.1038/456285b


Microbiology: The one and only p285

doi:10.1038/456285c


Zoology: Sex with a twist p285

doi:10.1038/456285d


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Journal Club

Journal club p285

Jagadeesh Bayry

doi:10.1038/456285e


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News

Nuclear renaissance plans hit by financial crisis p286

Role of fission in fighting climate change looks likely to wane.

Geoff Brumfiel

doi:10.1038/456286a


Web data predict flu p287

Search engines provide information about epidemics.

Declan Butler

doi:10.1038/456287a


Gene testing of embryos needs guiding p288

Experts caution against use of tests for adult-onset disorders.

Erika Check Hayden

doi:10.1038/456288a


Forestry carbon dioxide projects to close down p289

Move releases funds for new experiments.

Heidi Ledford

doi:10.1038/456289a


Snapshot: Carbon stores p290

Alexandra Witze

doi:10.1038/456290a


Electron 'bump' may confirm dark matter p290

Finding from balloon experiment adds to satellite data.

Geoff Brumfiel

doi:10.1038/456290b


Middle East synchrotron on the lookout for funds p291

Jordan facility needs final donations to construct machine.

Declan Butler

doi:10.1038/456291a


Satellite risks losing sight of Earth p292

Agencies to decide if grounded mission should fly as solar probe instead.

Ashley Yeager

doi:10.1038/456292a


Coal-fired power plants face delay in United States p293

doi:10.1038/456293a


US court allows sonar exercises to continue p293

doi:10.1038/456293b


Drug giant shows its commitment to stem cells p293

doi:10.1038/456293c


Ecstasy could augment the benefits of psychotherapy p293

doi:10.1038/456293d


US drug agency opens outposts in China p293

doi:10.1038/456293e


Indian space mission stakes its claim on the Moon p293

doi:10.1038/456293f


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News Features

Beyond the origin p295

Celebrating the man and the book

doi:10.1038/456295a


Darwin 200: The needs of the many p296

The idea that natural selection acts on groups, as well as individuals, is a source of unending debate. Marek Kohn reports on what the two sides disagree about — and why it matters to them.

doi:10.1038/456296a


Darwin 200: Beneath the surface p300

You might think that once evolution has found one way to get something done, it will stick with it. But similar physical forms can hide radically different wiring, finds Tanguy Chouard.

doi:10.1038/456300a


Darwin 200: An eye for the eye p304

A celebration of one of evolution's crowning glories.

doi:10.1038/456304a


Darwin 200: Let's make a mammoth p310

Evolution assumes that extinction is forever. Maybe not. Henry Nicholls asks what it would take to bring the woolly mammoth back from the dead.

doi:10.1038/456310a


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Correspondence

Key discoveries often originate with lone researchers p315

Shawn J. Green & Jon Brendsel

doi:10.1038/456315a


Significant confusion in scientists' grasp of statistics p315

R. Allan Reese

doi:10.1038/456315b


Biocultural diversity should be a priority for conservation p315

Christopher P. Dunn

doi:10.1038/456315c

See also: Editor's summary


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Commentary

Darwin 200: Great expectations p317

A new path for evolution? A truce in the culture wars? Here's what a selection of readers told Nature they expect from Darwin 200.

doi:10.1038/456317a

See also: Editor's summary


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Books and Arts

Colonies that conquer p320

A landmark book documents how social insects form highly successful colonies that mimic a single organism, explains Manfred Milinski.

Manfred Milinski

doi:10.1038/456320a

See also: Editor's summary


Darwin: heading to a town near you p322

The theory of evolution challenges artists and philosophers as much as scientists. Joanne Baker rounds up the many forthcoming events worldwide that examine Darwin's life, his work and reactions to it.

Joanne Baker

doi:10.1038/456322a

See also: Editor's summary


Books in Brief: A Down House bookshelf p323

doi:10.1038/456323a

See also: Editor's summary


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Essays

Birthdays to remember p324

Anniversaries of Charles Darwin's life and work have been used to rewrite and re-energize his theory of natural selection. Janet Browne tracks a century of Darwinian celebrations.

Janet Browne

doi:10.1038/456324a

See also: Editor's summary


Being human: Conflict: Altruism's midwife p326

Generosity and solidarity towards one's own may have emerged only in combination with hostility towards outsiders, says Samuel Bowles.

Samuel Bowles

doi:10.1038/456326a

See also: Editor's summary


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News and Views

Astrophysics: A message from the dark side p329

Both astrophysicists and particle physicists are in on the hunt for the elusive dark matter that is thought to pervade the Universe. A high-altitude balloon-borne experiment offers the latest hints as to what it could be.

Yousaf M. Butt

doi:10.1038/456329a

See also: Editor's summary


DNA sequencing: Mammoth genomics p330

Reconstruction of most of the genome sequence of the woolly mammoth illustrates how such investigations will pave the way for a deeper understanding of the biology and evolution of extinct species.

Michael Hofreiter

doi:10.1038/456330a

See also: Editor's summary


Palaeoclimate: Greenhouse-gas fingerprints p331

Short episodes of warming and cooling occurred throughout the last glaciation. An innovative modelling study indicates that ocean-circulation changes produced much of the causative variation in greenhouse gases.

Thomas F. Stocker & Adrian Schilt

doi:10.1038/456331a

See also: Editor's summary


Cell biology: Nuclear order out of chaos p333

How cells build their internal structures remains one of the central mysteries in cell biology. If the cell nucleus is anything to go by, stochastic assembly and self-organization seem to be key.

Tom Misteli

doi:10.1038/456333a


Nanotechnology: Squaring up with polymers p334

Squares may be unfashionable, but for electronic circuitry no other shape will do. A method for making square arrays of polymeric nanoparticles could herald the next generation of miniature silicon chips.

Anthony J. Ryan

doi:10.1038/456334a


Cell biology: Why little swimmers take turns p334

Tim Lincoln

doi:10.1038/456334b


Physiology: Courier service for ammonia p336

Physiological studies in mice demonstrate a surprising role for a kidney protein related to the rhesus factor of red blood cells. Similar research would aid further annotation of mammalian genomes.

Mark A. Knepper

doi:10.1038/456336a

See also: Editor's summary


Structural biology: Enzyme knocked for a loop p337

Protein-digesting enzymes are kept on a tight leash to stop them from wantonly attacking targets. Two crystal structures show how an inhibitory protein domain gags one such enzyme without being chewed up itself.

Ronald L. Mellgren

doi:10.1038/456337a

See also: Editor's summary


50 & 100 years ago p337

doi:10.1038/456337b


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Articles

A role for Rhesus factor Rhcg in renal ammonium excretion and male fertility p339

Sophie Biver, Hendrica Belge, Soline Bourgeois, Pascale Van Vooren, Marta Nowik, Sophie Scohy, Pascal Houillier, Josiane Szpirer, Claude Szpirer, Carsten A. Wagner, Olivier Devuyst & Anna Maria Marini

doi:10.1038/nature07518

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Knepper


Generation of pluripotent stem cells from adult human testis p344

Sabine Conrad, Markus Renninger, Jörg Hennenlotter, Tina Wiesner, Lothar Just, Michael Bonin, Wilhelm Aicher, Hans-Jörg Bühring, Ulrich Mattheus, Andreas Mack, Hans-Joachim Wagner, Stephen Minger, Matthias Matzkies, Michael Reppel, Jürgen Hescheler, Karl-Dietrich Sievert, Arnulf Stenzl & Thomas Skutella

doi:10.1038/nature07404

See also: Editor's summary


Structure of the intact PPAR-bold gamma–RXR-alpha nuclear receptor complex on DNA p350

Vikas Chandra, Pengxiang Huang, Yoshitomo Hamuro, Srilatha Raghuram, Yongjun Wang, Thomas P. Burris & Fraydoon Rastinejad

doi:10.1038/nature07413

See also: Editor's summary


Identification of Holliday junction resolvases from humans and yeast p357

Stephen C. Y. Ip, Ulrich Rass, Miguel G. Blanco, Helen R. Flynn, J. Mark Skehel & Stephen C. West

doi:10.1038/nature07470

See also: Editor's summary


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Letters

An excess of cosmic ray electrons at energies of 300–800 GeV p362

J. Chang, J. H. Adams, H. S. Ahn, G. L. Bashindzhagyan, M. Christl, O. Ganel, T. G. Guzik, J. Isbert, K. C. Kim, E. N. Kuznetsov, M. I. Panasyuk, A. D. Panov, W. K. H. Schmidt, E. S. Seo, N. V. Sokolskaya, J. W. Watts, J. P. Wefel, J. Wu & V. I. Zatsepin

doi:10.1038/nature07477

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Butt


Isotropic quantum scattering and unconventional superconductivity p366

T. Park, V. A. Sidorov, F. Ronning, J.-X. Zhu, Y. Tokiwa, H. Lee, E. D. Bauer, R. Movshovich, J. L. Sarrao & J. D. Thompson

doi:10.1038/nature07431


Twinning superlattices in indium phosphide nanowires p369

Rienk E. Algra, Marcel A. Verheijen, Magnus T. Borgström, Lou-Fé Feiner, George Immink, Willem J. P. van Enckevort, Elias Vlieg & Erik P. A. M. Bakkers

doi:10.1038/nature07570

See also: Editor's summary


Glacial greenhouse-gas fluctuations controlled by ocean circulation changes p373

Andreas Schmittner & Eric D. Galbraith

doi:10.1038/nature07531

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Stocker & Schilt


Long-period earthquakes and co-eruptive dome inflation seen with particle image velocimetry p377

Jeffrey B. Johnson, Jonathan M. Lees, Alexander Gerst, Dork Sahagian & Nick Varley

doi:10.1038/nature07429

See also: Editor's summary


Acoel development indicates the independent evolution of the bilaterian mouth and anus p382

Andreas Hejnol & Mark Q. Martindale

doi:10.1038/nature07309

See also: Editor's summary


Sequencing the nuclear genome of the extinct woolly mammoth p387

Webb Miller, Daniela I. Drautz, Aakrosh Ratan, Barbara Pusey, Ji Qi, Arthur M. Lesk, Lynn P. Tomsho, Michael D. Packard, Fangqing Zhao, Andrei Sher, Alexei Tikhonov, Brian Raney, Nick Patterson, Kerstin Lindblad-Toh, Eric S. Lander, James R. Knight, Gerard P. Irzyk, Karin M. Fredrikson, Timothy T. Harkins, Sharon Sheridan, Tom Pringle & Stephan C. Schuster

doi:10.1038/nature07446

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Hofreiter


Guarding the gateway to cortex with attention in visual thalamus p391

Kerry McAlonan, James Cavanaugh & Robert H. Wurtz

doi:10.1038/nature07382

See also: Editor's summary


Mechanism of phototaxis in marine zooplankton p395

Gáspár Jékely, Julien Colombelli, Harald Hausen, Keren Guy, Ernst Stelzer, François Nédélec & Detlev Arendt

doi:10.1038/nature07590

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Lincoln


The zinc-finger protein Zelda is a key activator of the early zygotic genome in Drosophila p400

Hsiao-Lan Liang, Chung-Yi Nien, Hsiao-Yun Liu, Mark M. Metzstein, Nikolai Kirov & Christine Rushlow

doi:10.1038/nature07388

See also: Editor's summary


Concerted multi-pronged attack by calpastatin to occlude the catalytic cleft of heterodimeric calpains p404

Tudor Moldoveanu, Kalle Gehring & Douglas R. Green

doi:10.1038/nature07353

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Mellgren


Calcium-bound structure of calpain and its mechanism of inhibition by calpastatin p409

Rachel A. Hanna, Robert L. Campbell & Peter L. Davies

doi:10.1038/nature07451

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Mellgren


The ion pathway through the opened Na+,K+-ATPase pump p413

Ayako Takeuchi, Nicolás Reyes, Pablo Artigas & David C. Gadsby

doi:10.1038/nature07350

See also: Editor's summary


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Naturejobs

Prospect

Prospects p417

NIH tries to improve the odds for new investigators. But at what price?

Gene Russo

doi:10.1038/nj7220-417a


Career View

William Brody, president, Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, California p418

Head of nation's biggest university research enterprise moves to the Salk Institute.

Eric Hand

doi:10.1038/nj7220-418a


Building up to an HIV vaccines p418

New centre intends to nurture vaccine expertise

Virginia Gewin

doi:10.1038/nj7220-418b


Imposter syndrome p418

As I spoke I thought 'Who's giving this presentation?'

Zachary Lippman

doi:10.1038/nj7220-418c


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Futures

Birthday surprises p420

Now you are 16.

Erika Cule

doi:10.1038/456420a


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