Table of contents

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Making the paper: Daniel Stark pxi

Tracking the swirl of gases in a far-off galaxy's rotation.

doi:10.1038/7214xia


Abstractions pxi

doi:10.1038/7214xib


From the blogosphere pxi

doi:10.1038/7214xic


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Editorials

Malaria's watershed p707

マラリアをうまく制御するためには、基礎研究に改めて力を注ぐ必要がある。

doi:10.1038/455707a


The Red List still matters p707

国際自然保護連合(IUCN)の絶滅危惧種リストには、人々の心を動かし生態系への関心を呼ぶ力がある。

doi:10.1038/455707b


Beta blockers? p708

無償公開の文献管理ソフトをめぐり訴訟になっているが、データ共有の促進などの利点があり、技術革新への刺激にもなる。

doi:10.1038/455708a


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Research Highlights

Human biology: Bird's eye view p710

doi:10.1038/455710a


Cosmology: Dark limit p710

doi:10.1038/455710b


Biomechanics: Fungal ballistics p710

doi:10.1038/455710c


Zoology: Boomerang bluefins p710

doi:10.1038/455710d


Physics: Light squeezing p710

doi:10.1038/455710e


Organic chemistry: State benefits p710

doi:10.1038/455710f


Geosciences: The melting ocean p711

doi:10.1038/455711a


Phylogeography: Viking mice p711

doi:10.1038/455711b


Microbiology: Half life p711

doi:10.1038/455711c


Zoology: Dik dik trick p711

doi:10.1038/455711d


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Journal Club

Journal club p711

Ben Scheres

doi:10.1038/455711e


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News

Nobel for AIDS virus discovery, finally p712

Medicine prize goes to virus researchers; physics prize given for symmetry-breaking work.

Alison Abbott & Geoff Brumfiel

doi:10.1038/455712a


Charitable bodies hit by credit crisis p712

But most organizations unaffected as yet.

Geoff Brumfiel

doi:10.1038/455712b


Kavli invests in institutes p713

Philanthropist instigates second round of funding.

Eric Hand

doi:10.1038/455713a


Vapour spies to reveal climate clues p714

Isotope analysis will provide new tools for weather modelling.

Jeff Tollefson

doi:10.1038/455714a


Slime and fleas feature in Ig Nobel awards p714

Tongue-in-cheek prizes recognize improbable research.

Steve Nadis

doi:10.1038/455714b


Entire-paper plagiarism caught by software p715

Thousands of 'similarities' found between papers.

Declan Butler

doi:10.1038/455715a


Change of guard for Australian science p716

Women in top two science posts.

Carina Dennis

doi:10.1038/455716a


A quarter of mammals face extinction p717

Red List

Natasha Gilbert

doi:10.1038/455717a


Q&A: The future for Howard Hughes p718

Robert Tjian speaks to Nature about his plans as the new president of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

Erika Check Hayden

doi:10.1038/455718a


Snapshot: The in silico show p718

doi:10.1038/455718b


In brief: UK launches department to focus on climate change p719

doi:10.1038/455719a


In brief: US academic fleet cuts operations as budget bites p719

doi:10.1038/455719b


In brief: Italy to create biomedical-research funding system p719

doi:10.1038/455719c


In brief: Eli Lilly wins race to take control of ImClone p719

doi:10.1038/455719d


In brief: United States agrees to sell nuclear fuel to India p719

doi:10.1038/455719e


In brief: Wall Street bill boosts renewable energies p719

doi:10.1038/455719f


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News Features

Collaboration: Group theory p720

What makes a successful team? John Whitfield looks at research that uses massive online databases and network analysis to come up with some rules of thumb for productive collaborations.

doi:10.1038/455720a


Soil ecology: What lies beneath p724

More creatures live in soil than any other environment on Earth. But what are they all doing there? Amber Dance reports on the world's widest biodiversity.

doi:10.1038/455724a


Profile: What is that smell? p726

Jacek Koziel is a master of odours. On a pig farm in Iowa, he shows Erik Vance some of the peaks and troughs of life as a human detector.

doi:10.1038/455726a


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Correspondence

Science lobbying in Canada needs stepping up p729

Mehrdad Hariri

doi:10.1038/455729a


Playing the system puts self-citation's impact under review p729

James Testa

doi:10.1038/455729b


Austria: investigation likely to have serious consequences p729

Guenther Bonn, Christiane Druml, Gabriele Fischer, Christoph Huber, Stephan Laske, Freyja Smolle-Juettner & Richard Soyer

doi:10.1038/455729c


As someone wise or funny and probably famous once said ... p729

Neville W. Goodman

doi:10.1038/455729d


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Commentary

A network solution p730

With the right plan, systems biology can empower drug discovery, say Adriano Henney and Giulio Superti-Furga. Field leaders have contributed and now the authors want to hear from you.

Adriano Henney & Giulio Superti-Furga

doi:10.1038/455730a


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Books and Arts

The many faces of carbon p732

An enticing new book ties together the vital roles this element has in life, the Universe and climate change, explains John Meurig Thomas.

doi:10.1038/455732a


Burning down the house p732

doi:10.1038/455732b


Crisis reading p733

Jenny Meyer

doi:10.1038/455733a


Painting by night p734

doi:10.1038/455734a


Science at the movies p734

doi:10.1038/455734b


Neutrinos: wonderful or crass? p735

John Updike's 1960 poem vents frustration at the detached and elusive quantum particles that have no consideration for our earthly perceptions, says Martin Kemp.

doi:10.1038/455735a


Hidden treasures: Turin's anatomy museum p736

Some controversial nineteenth-century theories about brain shape and human nature are revealed by an extensive collection of neuroscience memorabilia, reports Alison Abbott

Alison Abbott

doi:10.1038/455736a


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Essay

Meetings that changed the world: Madrid 1995: Diagnosing climate change p737

John Houghton chaired the tense IPCC meeting without which there would be no Kyoto Protocol. Here he recalls how science won the day.

John Houghton

doi:10.1038/455737a


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News and Views

老人学: 健康な老年時代

Gerontology: Healthy old age p739

Do longer lives mean that growing numbers of us will spend more time in a state of high-cost dependency? Evidence from one elderly cohort suggests that excessive levels of disability are far from inevitable.

Thomas B. L. Kirkwood

doi:10.1038/455739a


分子生物学: DNAのエンドゲーム

Molecular biology: DNA endgames p740

If it is not repaired efficiently, damage to DNA double strands can have dire consequences for both the cell and the organism. Given the gravity of this situation, cells use two pathways to start the process.

Hannah L. Klein

doi:10.1038/455740a


固体物理学: スピンの流れを作るためのレシピ

Solid-state physics: Recipe for spin currents p741

Generating currents that rely on the spins of electrons to make electronic devices requiring less power is both desirable and daunting. A neat way of creating such currents eases that task.

N. P. Ong

doi:10.1038/455741a


神経科学: コカインに対する脳の防御対策

Neuroscience: Brain's defence against cocaine p743

Long-term exposure to cocaine changes the organization of synaptic connections within the addiction circuitry of the brain. This process might protect against the development and persistence of addiction.

L. Judson Chandler & Peter W. Kalivas

doi:10.1038/455743a


材料科学: 曲げても平気な太陽電池

Materials science: Solar cells go round the bend p744

Andrew Mitchinson

doi:10.1038/455744a


免疫: くっつくT細胞は助けになるT細胞

Immunology: Helpful T cells are sticky p745

Prolonged physical interaction between helper T cells and antibody-producing B cells is crucial for efficient immune responses. Mutations in a protein that underlies this process cause human disease.

Elissa K. Deenick & Stuart G. Tangye

doi:10.1038/455745a


50 & 100 years ago p745

doi:10.1038/455745b


発生生物学: 歯の発生はひどく厄介

Developmental biology: Teeth in double trouble p747

Almost all vertebrates have teeth of some sort. But where, in developmental terms, do teeth come from? Results drawn from experimental embryology provide an illuminating perspective on this contentious question.

Georgy Koentges

doi:10.1038/455747a


地形学: チベットはどうやってその端を維持してきたのか

Geomorphology: How Tibet might keep its edge p748

The stability of the margins of the Himalayan–Tibetan mountain belt constitutes a puzzle. Repeated damming of major Tibetan rivers by glaciers, so controlling river erosion, is a possible explanation.

Lewis A. Owen

doi:10.1038/455748a


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Review

ポストゲノム時代のマラリア研究

Malaria research in the post-genomic era p751

Elizabeth Ann Winzeler

doi:10.1038/nature07361


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Articles

これまで軽んじられていたヒト三日熱マラリア原虫の比較ゲノミクス

Comparative genomics of the neglected human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax p757

Jane M. Carlton, John H. Adams, Joana C. Silva, Shelby L. Bidwell, Hernan Lorenzi, Elisabet Caler, Jonathan Crabtree, Samuel V. Angiuoli, Emilio F. Merino, Paolo Amedeo, Qin Cheng, Richard M. R. Coulson, Brendan S. Crabb, Hernando A. del Portillo, Kobby Essien, Tamara V. Feldblyum, Carmen Fernandez-Becerra, Paul R. Gilson, Amy H. Gueye, Xiang Guo, Simon Kang'a, Taco W. A. Kooij, Michael Korsinczky, Esmeralda V.-S. Meyer, Vish Nene, Ian Paulsen, Owen White, Stuart A. Ralph, Qinghu Ren, Tobias J. Sargeant, Steven L. Salzberg, Christian J. Stoeckert, Steven A. Sullivan, Marcio M. Yamamoto, Stephen L. Hoffman, Jennifer R. Wortman, Malcolm J. Gardner, Mary R. Galinski, John W. Barnwell & Claire M. Fraser-Liggett

doi:10.1038/nature07327


SAPで制御されるT-B細胞相互作用は胚中心形成を引き起こす

SAP-controlled T–B cell interactions underlie germinal centre formation p764

Hai Qi, Jennifer L. Cannons, Frederick Klauschen, Pamela L. Schwartzberg & Ronald N. Germain

doi:10.1038/nature07345


Sae2、Exo1およびSgs1は協調してDNA二本鎖切断プロセシングを行う

Sae2, Exo1 and Sgs1 collaborate in DNA double-strand break processing p770

Eleni P. Mimitou & Lorraine S. Symington

doi:10.1038/nature07312


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Letters

赤方偏移z ≈ 3に位置する典型的な星形成銀河の形成と集積

The formation and assembly of a typical star-forming galaxy at redshift z approximately 3 p775

Daniel P. Stark, A. Mark Swinbank, Richard S. Ellis, Simon Dye, Ian R. Smail & Johan Richard

doi:10.1038/nature07294


スピン・ゼーベック効果の観測

Observation of the spin Seebeck effect p778

K. Uchida, S. Takahashi, K. Harii, J. Ieda, W. Koshibae, K. Ando, S. Maekawa & E. Saitoh

doi:10.1038/nature07321


金属銅酸化物と絶縁性銅酸化物の間の高温界面超伝導

High-temperature interface superconductivity between metallic and insulating copper oxides p782

A. Gozar, G. Logvenov, L. Fitting Kourkoutis, A. T. Bollinger, L. A. Giannuzzi, D. A. Muller & I. Bozovic

doi:10.1038/nature07293


ツァンポ峡谷の氷河による安定化で妨げられたチベット高原の河川浸食

Tibetan plateau river incision inhibited by glacial stabilization of the Tsangpo gorge p786

Oliver Korup & David R. Montgomery

doi:10.1038/nature07322


低速で拡大する海洋リソスフェアの集積にデタッチメント断層が果たす中心的役割

Central role of detachment faults in accretion of slow-spreading oceanic lithosphere p790

J. Escartín, D. K. Smith, J. Cann, H. Schouten, C. H. Langmuir & S. Escrig

doi:10.1038/nature07333


脊椎動物の口歯の2つの上皮起源

Dual epithelial origin of vertebrate oral teeth p795

Vladimír Soukup, Hans-Henning Epperlein, Ivan Horácek & Robert Cerny

doi:10.1038/nature07304


サルとヒトに感染するサルマラリア原虫のゲノム

The genome of the simian and human malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi p799

A. Pain, U. Böhme, A. E. Berry, K. Mungall, R. D. Finn, A. P. Jackson, T. Mourier, J. Mistry, E. M. Pasini, M. A. Aslett, S. Balasubrammaniam, K. Borgwardt, K. Brooks, C. Carret, T. J. Carver, I. Cherevach, T. Chillingworth, T. G. Clark, M. R. Galinski, N. Hall, D. Harper, D. Harris, H. Hauser, A. Ivens, C. S. Janssen, T. Keane, N. Larke, S. Lapp, M. Marti, S. Moule, I. M. Meyer, D. Ormond, N. Peters, M. Sanders, S. Sanders, T. J. Sargeant, M. Simmonds, F. Smith, R. Squares, S. Thurston, A. R. Tivey, D. Walker, B. White, E. Zuiderwijk, C. Churcher, M. A. Quail, A. F. Cowman, C. M. R. Turner, M. A. Rajandream, C. H. M. Kocken, A. W. Thomas, C. I. Newbold, B. G. Barrell & M. Berriman

doi:10.1038/nature07306


バンコマイシン耐性腸球菌は抗生物質に誘発された自然免疫系の不全状態を利用する

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci exploit antibiotic-induced innate immune deficits p804

Katharina Brandl, George Plitas, Coralia N. Mihu, Carles Ubeda, Ting Jia, Martin Fleisher, Bernd Schnabl, Ronald P. DeMatteo & Eric G. Pamer

doi:10.1038/nature07250


ATPは粘膜固有層のTH17細胞の分化を誘導する

ATP drives lamina propria TH17 cell differentiation p808

Koji Atarashi, Junichi Nishimura, Tatsuichiro Shima, Yoshinori Umesaki, Masahiro Yamamoto, Masaharu Onoue, Hideo Yagita, Naoto Ishii, Richard Evans, Kenya Honda & Kiyoshi Takeda

doi:10.1038/nature07240


PTENの脱ユビキチン化と局在はHAUSP-PMLネットワークにより制御される

The deubiquitinylation and localization of PTEN are regulated by a HAUSP–PML network p813

Min Sup Song, Leonardo Salmena, Arkaitz Carracedo, Ainara Egia, Francesco Lo-Coco, Julie Teruya-Feldstein & Pier Paolo Pandolfi

doi:10.1038/nature07290


塩基フリップアウト(base-flipping)機構を利用したSRAタンパク質UHRF1による片鎖メチル化DNAの認識

Recognition of hemi-methylated DNA by the SRA protein UHRF1 by a base-flipping mechanism p818

Kyohei Arita, Mariko Ariyoshi, Hidehito Tochio, Yusuke Nakamura & Masahiro Shirakawa

doi:10.1038/nature07249


ヒトUHRF1のSRAドメインによる片鎖メチル化DNAの認識の構造的基盤

Structural basis for recognition of hemi-methylated DNA by the SRA domain of human UHRF1 p822

George V. Avvakumov, John R. Walker, Sheng Xue, Yanjun Li, Shili Duan, Christian Bronner, Cheryl H. Arrowsmith & Sirano Dhe-Paganon

doi:10.1038/nature07273


UHRF1のSRAドメインによるDNAへリックスからの5-メチルシトシンのフリップアウト

The SRA domain of UHRF1 flips 5-methylcytosine out of the DNA helix p826

Hideharu Hashimoto, John R. Horton, Xing Zhang, Magnolia Bostick, Steven E. Jacobsen & Xiaodong Cheng

doi:10.1038/nature07280


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Corrigendum

Functional metagenomic profiling of nine biomes p830

Elizabeth A. Dinsdale, Robert A. Edwards, Dana Hall, Florent Angly, Mya Breitbart, Jennifer M. Brulc, Mike Furlan, Christelle Desnues, Matthew Haynes, Linlin Li, Lauren McDaniel, Mary Ann Moran, Karen E. Nelson, Christina Nilsson, Robert Olson, John Paul, Beltran Rodriguez Brito, Yijun Ruan, Brandon K. Swan, Rick Stevens, David L. Valentine, Rebecca Vega Thurber, Linda Wegley, Bryan A. White & Forest Rohwer

doi:10.1038/nature07346


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Naturejobs

Prospect

Prospects p831

The art of setting up a lab for the first time.

Gene Russo

doi:10.1038/nj7214-831a


Career View

James Pendlebury, chief executive, Forest Research, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, UK. p832

A career in forestry, informed by materials science.

Virginia Gewin

doi:10.1038/nj7214-832a


Developing generic skills p832

Generic-skills course offers key insights.

Paul Smaglik

doi:10.1038/nj7214-832b


Research growing pains p832

A new position brings hope and anxiety.

Zachary Lippman

doi:10.1038/nj7214-832c


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Futures

The picture of Oscar X p834

An image of the future.

Anna Batistatou & Konstantinos Charalabopoulos

doi:10.1038/455834a