Supplementary information

From the following article:

Cortical control of a prosthetic arm for self-feeding

Meel Velliste, Sagi Perel, M. Chance Spalding, Andrew S. Whitford & Andrew B. Schwartz

Nature 453, 1098-1101(19 June 2008)

doi:10.1038/nature06996

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Supplementary information

The file contains Supplementary Methods, Supplementary Data, Supplementary Tables 1-4, Supplementary Figures 1-13 with Legends, and Legends to Supplementary Movies 1-5.

Supplementary information

The file contains Supplementary Movie 1 showing continuous self-feeding by monkey A Continuous self-feeding by monkey A showing 7 consecutive successful trials. The monkey's cortical control is 4-dimensional, including 3 dimensions of endpoint control plus gripper control.

Supplementary information

The file contains Supplementary Movie 2 showing continuous self-feeding by monkey P Continuous self-feeding by monkey P showing 6 consecutive trials (5 successful). Monkey's cortical control is 3-dimensional, i.e. endpoint control. The gripper is controlled as a dimension dependent on endpoint movement: it opens when the arm moves forward and closes when the arm is held stable or moved backward.

Supplementary information

The file contains Supplementary Movie 3 showing target tracking As the monkey makes a reach toward an initial target with the prosthetic arm, the target is displaced so that a direct move to target would knock the food off the presentation device. The monkey then moves the arm endpoint in a curved path to avoid the collision, and successfully obtains the food.

Supplementary information

The file contains Supplementary Movie 4 showing an emergent behaviour: finger licking When a target is presented, the monkey ignores the target and instead moves the arm so as to be able to lick the gripper fingers. This emergent behaviour is outside the task requirements and is a result of embodied control.

Supplementary information

The file contains Supplementary Movie 5 showing an emergent behaviour: using the arm to push food into the mouth. When a marshmallow ends up barely between the monkey's lips at the end of a successful reaching and retrieval, the animal is unable to get the food into its mouth without a helping "hand", so it uses the robotic arm to push the food into its mouth.

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