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Editorials

Broken promises p503

Intense public support for clinical research can be a mixed blessing — and the hunt for a vaccine against AIDS offers an important lesson for many biomedical initiatives on what can go wrong.

doi:10.1038/452503a


Double vision p503

The need to transform the world's energy technology is even greater than many perceive.

doi:10.1038/452503b


Mismanaged measures p504

Surrogate end points can be helpful in clinical trials — but only if they are used with care.

doi:10.1038/452504a


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Research Highlights

Research highlights p506

doi:10.1038/452506a


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Journal Club

Journal club p507

A. P. de Silva

doi:10.1038/452507a


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News

Are the IPCC scenarios 'unachievable'? p508

Claim that the challenge of cutting emissions has been underestimated is debated.

Quirin Schiermeier

doi:10.1038/452508a


Carbon-trading market has uncertain future p508

Clean development mechanism may be capped.

Jeff Tollefson

doi:10.1038/452508b


Drug markers questioned p510

A recent spate of worrying clinical-trial data has researchers questioning drugs approved on the basis of how they affect biomarkers rather than clinical endpoints. Heidi Ledford looks at surrogate markers.

Heidi Ledford

doi:10.1038/452510a


EPA feels heat over flame retardant p513

Dismissal of toxicologist raises concerns over delayed safety report.

Brian Vastag

doi:10.1038/452513a


Sidelines p514

Scribbles on the margins of science.

doi:10.1038/452514a


Easy ways to other Earths p514

Laser combs offer ground-based telescopes a chance to spot planetary homes from home.

Eric Hand

doi:10.1038/452514b


Snapshot: Flirty in pink p515

Dolphins turn on the charm.

Anna Petherick

doi:10.1038/452515a


Back to basics for HIV vaccine development p516

doi:10.1038/452516a


Tasting a geyser p516

doi:10.1038/452516b


US medical school to require master's degree p516

doi:10.1038/452516c


Too much haste in US drug approval? p516

doi:10.1038/452516d


Italy to help Kenya develop space programme p517

doi:10.1038/452517a


Muslim nations raise status of science p517

doi:10.1038/452517b


Correction p517

doi:10.1038/452517c


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Column

Hazy reasoning behind clean air p519

Science alone can't determine how regulations are written, argues David Goldston.

David Goldston

doi:10.1038/452519a


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News Features

Architecture: Architects of a low-energy future p520

Low- and zero-energy buildings could have a huge impact on energy use and carbon emissions. We have the technologies, but if they are to mitigate climate change, green-building design must hit the mass market, says Declan Butler.

doi:10.1038/452520a


Anatomy: Truly gross anatomy p525

Sometimes it is necessary to immerse yourself in a subject. Erik Vance meets a woman whose research takes her deep — waist-deep — into cetacean anatomy.

doi:10.1038/452525a


Portugal: Navigating new waters p528

Portugal's spending on research is near the lowest in western Europe. Can a single-minded lady with half a billion euros change things, asks Alison Abbott.

doi:10.1038/452528a


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Correspondence

Radical rethink is needed on climate-change policy p530

Gwyn Prins

doi:10.1038/452530a


Comparing the legacies of Gauss, Pasteur and Darwin p530

Jürgen Schmidhuber

doi:10.1038/452530b


Spanish funds will finance Bilbao's spallation bid p530

Juan Urrutia

doi:10.1038/452530c


Give south Indian authors their true names p530

Nalini Puniamoorthy, Jeevananthinee Jeevanandam & Sujatha Narayanan Kutty

doi:10.1038/452530d


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Commentary

Dangerous assumptions p531

How big is the energy challenge of climate change? The technological advances needed to stabilize carbon-dioxide emissions may be greater than we think, argue Roger Pielke Jr, Tom Wigley and Christopher Green.

doi:10.1038/452531a

See also: Editor's summary


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Books and Arts

From spies to servers p533

Fastidious history chronicles how a suburb of Washington DC became home to the Internet.

Joel Shurkin reviews Internet Alley: High Technology in Tysons Corner, 1945–2005 by Paul E. Ceruzzi

doi:10.1038/452533a


Theatre: Ten years of science off Broadway p534

Alan Packer reviews

doi:10.1038/452534a


History: An astrolabe for the people p534

Philip Ball reviews

doi:10.1038/452534b


Film: Celluloid explores life of graduate student killer p535

Emma Marris

doi:10.1038/452535a


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News and Views

Genomics: When the smoke clears ... p537

Three studies identify an association between genetic variation at a location on chromosome 15 and risk of lung cancer. But they disagree on whether the link is direct or mediated through nicotine dependence.

Stephen J. Chanock & David J. Hunter

doi:10.1038/452537a

See also: Editor's summary


Extrasolar planets: With a coarse-tooth comb p538

The search for Earth-like planets outside our Solar System is bedevilled by the lack of an adequate frequency standard for calibrating starlight. Tweaking existing laser 'frequency combs' could be a way forward.

Gordon Walker

doi:10.1038/452538a

See also: Editor's summary


Geophysics: Humming a different tune p539

Earth breathes in and out, murmuring gently to itself as it does so. The habit has been ascribed to the tickling effects of ocean waves — but a new-found twisting oscillation might reopen the search for the source.

Toshiro Tanimoto

doi:10.1038/452539a


Drug resistance: The fight against fungi p541

Although several drugs are available to combat often-deadly fungal infections, many of these pathogens have acquired multidrug resistance. Discerning how they have achieved this could help us hit back.

André Goffeau

doi:10.1038/452541a

See also: Editor's summary


Condensed-matter physics: Opposite of a superconductor p542

Magnetism and superconductivity are caused by spontaneous ordering on a macroscopic scale. Studies of a two-dimensional superconductor reveal another striking example of such behaviour — superinsulation.

Rosario Fazio

doi:10.1038/452542a

See also: Editor's summary


RNA interference: Generic block on angiogenesis p543

A virtue of using small interfering RNAs as therapeutics is their exquisite specificity. But when it comes to inhibiting blood-vessel growth, it seems that they can act generically without even entering a cell.

Raghu Kalluri & Keizo Kanasaki

doi:10.1038/452543a

See also: Editor's summary


Obituary: Arthur C. Clarke (1917–2008) p546

Visionary science-fiction author.

Gregory Benford

doi:10.1038/452546a


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Insight: Molecular cancer diagnostics

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Insight: Molecular cancer diagnostics

Molecular cancer diagnostics p547

Barbara Marte, Alex Eccleston & Deepa Nath

doi:10.1038/452547a


The cancer biomarker problem p548

Charles L. Sawyers

doi:10.1038/nature06913


Translating insights from the cancer genome into clinical practice p553

Lynda Chin & Joe W. Gray

doi:10.1038/nature06914


Enabling personalized cancer medicine through analysis of gene-expression patterns p564

Laura J. van 't Veer & René Bernards

doi:10.1038/nature06915


Mining the plasma proteome for cancer biomarkers p571

Samir M. Hanash, Sharon J. Pitteri & Vitor M. Faca

doi:10.1038/nature06916


Imaging in the era of molecular oncology p580

Ralph Weissleder & Mikael J. Pittet

doi:10.1038/nature06917



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Articles

Sequence- and target-independent angiogenesis suppression by siRNA via TLR3 p591

Mark E. Kleinman, Kiyoshi Yamada, Atsunobu Takeda, Vasu Chandrasekaran, Miho Nozaki, Judit Z. Baffi, Romulo J. C. Albuquerque, Satoshi Yamasaki, Masahiro Itaya, Yuzhen Pan, Binoy Appukuttan, Daniel Gibbs, Zhenglin Yang, Katalin Karikó, Balamurali K. Ambati, Traci A. Wilgus, Luisa A. DiPietro, Eiji Sakurai, Kang Zhang, Justine R. Smith, Ethan W. Taylor & Jayakrishna Ambati

doi:10.1038/nature06765

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Kalluri & Kanasaki


Following translation by single ribosomes one codon at a time p598

Jin-Der Wen, Laura Lancaster, Courtney Hodges, Ana-Carolina Zeri, Shige H. Yoshimura, Harry F. Noller, Carlos Bustamante & Ignacio Tinoco

doi:10.1038/nature06716

See also: Editor's summary


A nuclear receptor-like pathway regulating multidrug resistance in fungi p604

Jitendra K. Thakur, Haribabu Arthanari, Fajun Yang, Shih-Jung Pan, Xiaochun Fan, Julia Breger, Dominique P. Frueh, Kailash Gulshan, Darrick K. Li, Eleftherios Mylonakis, Kevin Struhl, W. Scott Moye-Rowley, Brendan P. Cormack, Gerhard Wagner & Anders M. Näär

doi:10.1038/nature06836

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Goffeau


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Letters

A laser frequency comb that enables radial velocity measurements with a precision of 1 cm s-1 p610

Chih-Hao Li, Andrew J. Benedick, Peter Fendel, Alexander G. Glenday, Franz X. Kärtner, David F. Phillips, Dimitar Sasselov, Andrew Szentgyorgyi & Ronald L. Walsworth

doi:10.1038/nature06854

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Walker


Superinsulator and quantum synchronization p613

Valerii M. Vinokur, Tatyana I. Baturina, Mikhail V. Fistul, Aleksey Yu. Mironov, Mikhail R. Baklanov & Christoph Strunk

doi:10.1038/nature06837

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Fazio


Dust-climate couplings over the past 800,000 years from the EPICA Dome C ice core p616

F. Lambert, B. Delmonte, J. R. Petit, M. Bigler, P. R. Kaufmann, M. A. Hutterli, T. F. Stocker, U. Ruth, J. P. Steffensen & V. Maggi

doi:10.1038/nature06763

See also: Editor's summary


Absolute plate motions and true polar wander in the absence of hotspot tracks p620

Bernhard Steinberger & Trond H. Torsvik

doi:10.1038/nature06824


Localization and functionality of microsporidian iron–sulphur cluster assembly proteins p624

Alina V. Goldberg, Sabine Molik, Anastasios D. Tsaousis, Karina Neumann, Grit Kuhnke, Frederic Delbac, Christian P. Vivares, Robert P. Hirt, Roland Lill & T. Martin Embley

doi:10.1038/nature06606

See also: Editor's summary


Functional metagenomic profiling of nine biomes p629

Elizabeth A. Dinsdale, Robert A. Edwards, Dana Hall, Florent Angly, Mya Breitbart, Jennifer M. Brulc, Mike Furlan, Christelle Desnues, Matthew Haynes, Linlin Li, Lauren McDaniel, Mary Ann Moran, Karen E. Nelson, Christina Nilsson, Robert Olson, John Paul, Beltran Rodriguez Brito, Yijun Ruan, Brandon K. Swan, Rick Stevens, David L. Valentine, Rebecca Vega Thurber, Linda Wegley, Bryan A. White & Forest Rohwer

doi:10.1038/nature06810

See also: Editor's summary


A susceptibility locus for lung cancer maps to nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit genes on 15q25 p633

Rayjean J. Hung, James D. McKay, Valerie Gaborieau, Paolo Boffetta, Mia Hashibe, David Zaridze, Anush Mukeria, Neonilia Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Jolanta Lissowska, Peter Rudnai, Eleonora Fabianova, Dana Mates, Vladimir Bencko, Lenka Foretova, Vladimir Janout, Chu Chen, Gary Goodman, John K. Field, Triantafillos Liloglou, George Xinarianos, Adrian Cassidy, John McLaughlin, Geoffrey Liu, Steven Narod, Hans E. Krokan, Frank Skorpen, Maiken Bratt Elvestad, Kristian Hveem, Lars Vatten, Jakob Linseisen, Françoise Clavel-Chapelon, Paolo Vineis, H. Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Eiliv Lund, Carmen Martinez, Sheila Bingham, Torgny Rasmuson, Pierre Hainaut, Elio Riboli, Wolfgang Ahrens, Simone Benhamou, Pagona Lagiou, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Ivana Holcátová, Franco Merletti, Kristina Kjaerheim, Antonio Agudo, Gary Macfarlane, Renato Talamini, Lorenzo Simonato, Ray Lowry, David I. Conway, Ariana Znaor, Claire Healy, Diana Zelenika, Anne Boland, Marc Delepine, Mario Foglio, Doris Lechner, Fumihiko Matsuda, Helene Blanche, Ivo Gut, Simon Heath, Mark Lathrop & Paul Brennan

doi:10.1038/nature06885

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Chanock & Hunter


A variant associated with nicotine dependence, lung cancer and peripheral arterial disease p638

Thorgeir E. Thorgeirsson, Frank Geller, Patrick Sulem, Thorunn Rafnar, Anna Wiste, Kristinn P. Magnusson, Andrei Manolescu, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Hreinn Stefansson, Andres Ingason, Simon N. Stacey, Jon T. Bergthorsson, Steinunn Thorlacius, Julius Gudmundsson, Thorlakur Jonsson, Margret Jakobsdottir, Jona Saemundsdottir, Olof Olafsdottir, Larus J. Gudmundsson, Gyda Bjornsdottir, Kristleifur Kristjansson, Halla Skuladottir, Helgi J. Isaksson, Tomas Gudbjartsson, Gregory T. Jones, Thomas Mueller, Anders Gottsäter, Andrea Flex, Katja K. H. Aben, Femmie de Vegt, Peter F. A. Mulders, Dolores Isla, Maria J. Vidal, Laura Asin, Berta Saez, Laura Murillo, Thorsteinn Blondal, Halldor Kolbeinsson, Jon G. Stefansson, Ingunn Hansdottir, Valgerdur Runarsdottir, Roberto Pola, Bengt Lindblad, Andre M. van Rij, Benjamin Dieplinger, Meinhard Haltmayer, Jose I. Mayordomo, Lambertus A. Kiemeney, Stefan E. Matthiasson, Hogni Oskarsson, Thorarinn Tyrfingsson, Daniel F. Gudbjartsson, Jeffrey R. Gulcher, Steinn Jonsson, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Augustine Kong & Kari Stefansson

doi:10.1038/nature06846

See also: Editor's summary | News and Views by Chanock & Hunter


A neural representation of depth from motion parallax in macaque visual cortex p642

Jacob W. Nadler, Dora E. Angelaki & Gregory C. DeAngelis

doi:10.1038/nature06814

See also: Editor's summary


Tumour maintenance is mediated by eNOS p646

Kian-Huat Lim, Brooke B. Ancrile, David F. Kashatus & Christopher M. Counter

doi:10.1038/nature06778


Cutaneous cancer stem cell maintenance is dependent on beta-catenin signalling p650

Ilaria Malanchi, Hector Peinado, Deepika Kassen, Thomas Hussenet, Daniel Metzger, Pierre Chambon, Marcel Huber, Daniel Hohl, Amparo Cano, Walter Birchmeier & Joerg Huelsken

doi:10.1038/nature06835

See also: Editor's summary


Dendritic cell PAR1–S1P3 signalling couples coagulation and inflammation p654

Frank Niessen, Florence Schaffner, Christian Furlan-Freguia, Rafal Pawlinski, Gourab Bhattacharjee, Jerold Chun, Claudia K. Derian, Patricia Andrade-Gordon, Hugh Rosen & Wolfram Ruf

doi:10.1038/nature06663


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Naturejobs

Prospect

Prospects p659

The startling contrasts of Bangalore

Gene Russo

doi:10.1038/nj7187-659a


Region

Biotech in Bangalore p660

Bangalore has a growing biotech sector, supported by a tradition of academic science. But there are still challenges in committing to discovery science and retaining top talent. Gene Russo reports.

Gene Russo

doi:10.1038/nj7187-660a


Career View

Dave Tapolczay, chief executive, MRC Technology, London p662

Tapolczay looking to bolster MRC tech transfer

Jill U. Adams

doi:10.1038/nj7187-662a


Göttingen bridges the gap p662

Max Planck gets complex with new degree programme.

Virginia Gewin

doi:10.1038/nj7187-662b


Getting that lucky break p662

My project isn't working. Is it OK to quit?

Amanda Goh

doi:10.1038/nj7187-662c


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Futures

Shoppers p664

No purchase necessary.

James Patrick Kelly

doi:10.1038/452664a


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